of these articles treats Punk as youth culture. For the associated music direction of the skirt music see to Punk (music)

Punk designates a youth culture, which developed for in the middle of the 1970er in New York, soon internationally, particularly in London, their „boom “experienced itself and throughrebellious attitude, subculture, clothes and behavior distinguished. A person, who as a member of this youth culture calls itself, is likewise called Punk (Plural: Punks, German foreign designation also: Punk).

Table of contents


the word Punk /pʌŋk/from the English is older than is often accepted.It dips already with Shakespeare on z. B. in measure for measure and a prostitute designates. From another meaning of Punk „“further result putrid wood from transmission: Punk designates generally something low, inferior, thus „nonsense “; to persons referred„Beginner, inexperienced person; Strolch, smallcriminal, vagrant “, or „Abschaum, dirt “.

The origin of the use of the term Punk around a certain form from music or youth culture to to describe is clarified not completely. According to Punk Urgestein Marthy Thau (producer of Suicide and new ones York Dolls) emerged the term first into the 1960er years in the surrounding field of volume from the area around Detroit such as MC5 or the Stooges. One of the first uses comes of to a disk criticism of the Iggy and the Stooges plate “Rawpower ".Lenny Kaye, the guitarist of the Patti Smith Group used the term Punk skirt 1972 in the explanations of one of it published Anthologie of the American garage skirt of the 1960er years.

Later based in New York Legs McNeil a Underground Fanzine named Punk of magazines. The Punk veteran Donny the Punk explained that the word Punk of a Slangausdruck for rapes comes in the prison („I punked that kid “). A Punk is in this connection the victim.

To Great Britain the term was brought Punk skirt by the music lady journalist Caroline Coon, (the friend at that time the Clash of the bassists Paul Simonon,) with it the English of volume such as Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned described. Before was in England for this kind of musicthe term “Working Class Rock´n´Roll” common.

Data and facts

the Herkunftsmillieus of the Punk trailers are very different. Many Punks originated and come from the working class or the lower layer, besides gave and gives it in addition, a great many Punks those to the central layercome of and also many with very good education. According to Johnny gangs the front man of the Punkband Sex Pistols, one of the principal reasons for the Punk phenomenon of the 1970er was the protest against the class system and the chance inequality, those the young people of the Punkszene in additionmotivated themselves to hold back layer unkonform and solidarize with one another.

In the Punk concert public the male portion dominates every now and then strongly. This tendency is also in the range that actively clearly visibly transacts to scene-associated. Volume and Fanzines surely consist to three quarters of men, althoughthe requirement on equal rights of the sexes scene-internally a high value has. In order to that, particularly toward end of the 1980er years in the Punk/Hardcore scene, Machismo like-those-strong-end actively somewhat to oppose, formed within the scene the Riot Grrrl movement in thatWomen and girls as organizer inside, author inside of labels, authoresses of Fanzines and particularly musicians arose very actively and engaged.


the origin of the modern Punk is appropriate in the late sixties 20. Century. Outriders of this time were thoseGroups of The Stooges, MC5, The Sonics and The Velvet Underground. Punk was particularly in its styles a reaction to the Hippie - movement. It turned both against the idealism and against the attitude of the Hippies.Instead Punk set on open refusal of the society.

Analysis of the emergence

Punks Punk festival HIT 2003 Morecambe UK

Greil Marcus 'according to view is inevitably linked with the situationism of the 1960er years Punk. Also Malcolm McLaren wanted this point of view asone the early Hauptprotagonisten, in the work with the Sex Pistols (when Mentor of this group) gladly as the starting point of this movement spend.

However the situationism is colored by political goals of socialism , communism and anarchy mash. That anarchy mash with thatearly Punks such as Steve Jones, Paul Cook and simmer Vicious resembles however rather Nihilismus or a diebischen Anomie by force (in the literal sense). The fact that between the situationism and the Punk hardly a connection exists goes also clearly out of the book „Sex Pistols - The Inside story “of Fred and Judy Vermorel out. This forms from today's viewpoint one of the most reliable sources of the events around the Sex Pistols and the early Punkbewegung of London, since it was provided time and protagonistennah. Throughthe autobiography Johnny of rotting NO Irish, NO Blacks, NO Dogs is supported the thesis that the Londoner is to be regarded Punk scene detached from the situationism to, additionally.


the Punkbewegung was always closely connected with the music direction of the same name. Punk placed itself approximatelyonce as progressively valid of volume, those according to opinion of the movement by purely commercial strategies into the hit parades gepuscht themselves and approximately volume such as Pink Floyd, genesis or LED Zeppelin, in ever more unbelievable Gigantomanie on LP andin the concert spread. Which the first Punkrock - volume was, about it can be argued. In the connection, or as forerunners, The Stooges, Iggy Pop, The New York Dolls, MC5, the Ramones are called or also Patti Smith.

Everything this volumecome from the USA. As American center of the Punks the club CBGB in New York town center is considered. As British forerunners are considered the Who, the early Kinks and volume such as The Troggs.

Great Britain

the emergence of the EnglishPunks - into the early 1970ern - is very special for many reasons and cannot on the whole not with the US-American development be compared.

Basis of the English Punks was a primarily apolitischer Groll on all institutionalOrganizations. Missing one or unsatisfactory stop by the institutions for education and after leaving these the prospects lacking (social and cultural poverty) - to find under the rigid English class system - at all a work, let alone a social ascent within thisSystem, formed the foundation for the punkimmanente basic adjustment.

In such a manner impossible from that circles of the money breadwinners, it was refused to the young person (those the principal part of the movement constituted), at the things - which its heart desired or it desire was made - howfashionable clothing to participate new and newest music in all forms and generally the consumption of beverages in restaurants.

So the juvenile Punkbewegung London can - where the center of the emergence was - as since at the beginning of the 1970erover several years developing spätpubertäre anti-attitude both in relation to political establishment and in relation to the culture industry (in particular the music industry) and the middle class to generally understand itself.

The alternative was called own production among other things the clothing, although from the old dress container, music (toExample of the Sex Pistols with geklautem equipment), and pertinent selling ways and - means. Thus slowly however reliably a new culture cleared the way to the surface.

Principles were: Ekstase, wastes you, believes nobody, DO it yourself, places Authority or star in question.

A recent, zynische , volatile and schnelllebige subculture, with own poetic, developed political and apolitischen styles: Safety pins in the face, celebrating ugliness, Fanzines copied, in which one against everything and each positionreferred, in addition, spontaneous dadaistische action art, excessive consumption of alcohol, drugs and Sex, everything organized and administers.

The music was a fast, very simple effective and reduced variant of Rock'n'Roll, if one three chords on the guitarcontrolled, could one her play.Virtuosität, guitar Soli and similar gestures of star were hated. The texts consisted of scarce accusations and insults, reflections over the own life or pure Dadaismus.

It was the time, in that the old skirt dinosaurs, thosesince years the hit parades controlled, itself with the arising Disco -, were world-wide mass unemployment and crises on the advance united culture. Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher and Helmut Kohl stood for that in the policy for a break with the social-democratic decade70's (Willy Brandt) with their appeals at public spirit and democracy and hope for change in consequence of the 68er - generation. Conservative values were now the advance, and achievement should be worthwhile itself again. Set for this official optimismthe Punks demonstratively against a radical pessimism, which in addition, the goals of the workers' movement or the new left one rejected. In the center the own subjectivity , own suffering from the condition of the world, that was located visibly made and so against itto be turned should. One was not the view, criticism to be also constructional must. Volume of this time the Slits, the X-Ray Spex, is the automatic data processing RTS or Wire.

Some the early Punkmusiker studied at academies of art and knew olderradical avant-garde - concepts, others were from small conditions coming unemployed persons or Arbeitsverweigerer, who rejected everything, which had given it before at culture and sense donation. Them together a constant latent aggressiveness was as attitude, also among themselves. Without itself decidedly politicallyto engage, ideas were common by emancipation under Punks nevertheless as naturally. The clothes and this occurrence, and the rejection of all positive values of the society as lies, which represented only one provocation for the Mainstream, often discovered completeLack of understanding, open hostilities and hate in the society. Punk among young people in addition, to a kind Popkultur became simultaneous.

Parallel to developing the Punks at the same time just as radical Industrial Culture with outriders developed as Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire and SPK.

The next generations

only the second, third and fourth generation politisierte the Punk increasingly.

Punk Girls Punk festival HIT 2003 Morecambe UK

is noticed by the public the slowly developing Punk culture 1976 in England,when the Sex Pistols with their Singles (Anarchy in the UK, and 1977 God save The Queen) causes sensation. Shoots contemporaneous however many other volume from the soil, and the Punk movement diversifies in nearly just as many directions, how Anarcho Punk, Oi Punk, Skapunk, Fun Punk, Skatepunk, and many more. Somewhat a more on the mass taste aligned follow-up movement was new Wave. An attempt to retain the spirit of the Punk formed those hard core - movement, the beginning thatEighties developed. As most important of volume here Agnostic are front, DEAD Kennedys, Black flag, Minor Threat and crimp OF It universe mentioned.

Punks on the UZ-Pressefest 2003

it gives common characteristics, those is typical forthe Punk culture: Punk brings its criticism by Punkmusik, the dress style, in addition, Fanzines and a certain diagram (collages, Xerographien and Comic - designs) to the expression. Punk stresses the ugly and wants to provoke. It places itself against the habits, thosedominant class, the Konsumgesellschaft, the middle class and against Snobismus. By its strict anti-attitude and a way of life of „anarchy and chaos”, he turns against him the before-lived hierarchical society system. Some Punks does not see for itselfFuture prospect (key word: „NO Future” to itself applied), thus is to be explained also the often body-damaging way of life of many Punks. In addition, there are completely contrary tendencies in the Punk scene, like the Veganer - and Straight Edge - movement.

End of the 1970erdifferent of volume arose such as Crass, Conflict or Zounds in England, which had used up themselves a radical Antikommerzialismus. Their protest was directed not only directly against institutions such as politics, capital and religiousness, but against the society and their fundamentalValues, in particular the Konsumgesellschaft. Thus the members the volumes Crass lived close London on a farm in the attempt of a self-sufficient and supplied, in municipality-like structure organized way of life. Clay/tone carriers this volume were sold usually at the cost price, concert admission fees were, if themat all were raised, only cost-hitting a corner. In the reference to alcohol and drugs, which were frequently consumed in the remaining Punkszene, this current went also on reciprocal heading: Over not on dealers and manufacturers of the Alkoholika and drugs financially and morally dependent tooits, these products were strictly rejected. Similarly it behaved with meat consumption. It was tried to be able to be taken in in no area of life by established structures and/or. to follow them.

1980er and 1990er

Punk was into the 1980ern the dominating culturein most autonomous centers. The Chaos Days in Hanover were from 1982 to 1984 a firm meeting place of the scene. These were repeated 1994/1995, led to country wide medium reports and provided for a small Revival of the scene.

That as much „anti” neverthelessof the mode to be taken in could, surprised into the early 1980ern some Punks. Malcolm McLaren and the Sex Pistols had persisted however always in the fact that it great itself with the whole affair around The Rock'n'Roll Swindle, thus thatlarge Rock'n'Roll swindle acted, a consciously caused Hype, and the commercial utilization and thus spreading of their absolutely anti-commercial, anti-civil values and songs were welcome in their eyes.

Certain volume like for example The Exploited accused conservative a styleto be commercially successful to retain over. In addition, Punk affected the Mainstream culture. The new German wave was originally carried of volume, which very close stood for the Punk scene, before the music industry discovered the trend and sent own of volume into running.

In the late 80ern and 90ern the Punk belonged then to the natural streetscape in Europe. In London particularly gestylte Punks as well as tourists could be photographed. Even in Kinderbüchern or the TV serial lime tree road Punks emerged. With measure-compatible volume how The dead trousers or a physician was Punk partially the Mainstreams is promoted and similarly was sold. From the initial, still apolitischen, naive Radikalität over a political Radikalität of parts of the next generations developed Punk to the majorityable, constructionallycritical voice, and came up finally in the Grunge - or alternative - motion. A reaction developed at the same time within the scene, from many the political and cultural adjustment was further continued, the Punk mode however as plate (Tracht (clothes))had felt, that the original attraction of the experimental one, never Dagewesenen had lost.

On the other hand the subculture of Punk in different speeds, from London and New York spread stepped it into Germany first into Hamburg and Berlin, later into othersLarge cities, and still later then in the rural areas up. Which one understood by Punk, thereby again and again again one invented.

Many people are the opinion that all Punks, which came to the first wave only fashionable imitations itswould know and the central thesis „of all this again” the initial Punkbewegung, or the political opinions often embodied in the Punk (z. B. Anarchy) no more to fulfill do not know.

Some these currents constituted the hard core later Punk movement or those Hamburg school,others turned also the new electronic music styles too (Atari dte-gnaws Riot), in which they rediscovered the element „again “. Again different came up in the political currents of the Antifa, the autonomous ones or the Hausbesetzer - culture. Goodsoriginally for the Punks plastics, artificialness and garbage interesting, one turned now sometimes also to the ecology .

At the same time a new wave from the USA sloshed to Europe into the 90ern in the consequence of Grunge. Everything in front the volume Nirvana (Seattle) which the Punk or Grunge for the first time successfully marketed and thus made salonable. After the suicide of the front singer briefly Cobain, followed volume such as Green Day and The off-jump. This volume expressed themselves partly also politically, placed howeveroften the aspect of fun into the foreground. Volume had videos on MTV and reached successes in Charts. For many the older Punks were too harmless and commercial they.

Scene-typical feature

although Punk as idea straight against standards and for individualityarises, since the 80ern a certain Dresscode developed, which prevails within the scene, even if it is not under any circumstances obligating. Because of the multiplicity of the currents, which brought own in each case codes out, it is difficult to describe „the “Punk. Alsosuch people, whose appearance is not very remarkable, often call themselves as Punks, since the “Punk” falls back as such far the more to the attitude than to a rebellious exterior. For Punks the Irokesen crop is also typical (briefly “Iro” mentioned),which does not have to be however. Generally combinations of the following elements arise with both sexes:

Body decoration

Piercingschmuck is more common in the Punkszene than in other youth movements. Already around 1980 Punks stung themselves safety pins by the skin, around them asTo carry decoration.Tätowierungen are likewise very frequent. Particularly extreme forms of Piercings and Tattoos particularly are during the scene current of the Fetischpunks.


some Punks gladly Turnschuhe carry, in particular for Chucks. Other Punks prefers so-called „Steels “(see similar to the Springer boots),often it concerns German Federal Armed Forces combat boots, which in Second hand Shops or in „the Army “- Versandhandel low-priced to acquire are. Carried for some years however prefers boat (Doc Martens). Also so-called „Modepunks “prefers this footwear.

Further clothe characteristics:

  • (Tightness) trousers, z. B.Jeans, often bleached with different samples. In the scene also so-called become. Bondagehosen in multicolored Karomuster carried, which is provided with numerous zippers and material volumes. In addition a kind Kilt often belongs.
  • Rivet belt and chains.
  • Jeans or leather jackets (oftenequipped with rivets, safety pins, sayings, Aufnähern, Scot skirt samples and skins with Zebra or leopard sample), casual jackets, also bomber jackets, Harrington's or parkas.
  • Rivet arm and collars, boot volumes and chains as accessories

Punkkleidung in particular with the Street Punks often tore up, painted, markedor otherwise of its carrier changes.

  • Ornaments such as Buttons, Aufnäher or e.g. Safety pins


  • Martin Büsser: If the Kids of acres united… - from Punk to hard core and back. Valve publishing house, 2000. ISBN 3-930-55948-X
  • Greil Marcus: Lipstick traces - ofdada to punk, a secret culture history. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1996. ISBN 3-499-60102-8
  • Jürgen Teipel: Waste your youth. A Doku novel over the German Punk and new Wave. (=Suhrkamp paperback 3271) Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/Main 2001. ISBN 3-518-39771-0
  • PaulOtt and Hollow Skai (Hgg.):We were heroes for one day. From German-language Punk Fanzines 1977-1981. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1983. ISBN 3-499-17682-3
  • January off: Vorkriegsjugend. Valve publishing house, 2004. ISBN 3-930-55988-9
  • Legs McNeil, Gillian McCain: Please Kill ME!.Hannibal, 2004.ISBN 3-854-45237-3
  • John Savage, England Dreaming - Anarchy, Sex Pistols, Punk skirt and Beyond. Edition Tiamat, Berlin 2001. ISBN 3-893-20045-2
  • Klaus N.Frick: Thank you, Peter Pank. Publishing house Thomas Tilsner, 1998. ISBN 3-910-07956-3
  • Oxford English Dictionary
  • EH Bude: Verpisst you!. Europe publishing house Hamburg, 2005. ISBN 3-203-75526-2
  • Thomas Lau: The holy fools. Punk 1976-1986. de Gruyter publishing house, 1992. ISBN 3-110-13377-6
  • S.Colegrave/C. Sullivan: Punk Munich 2005. ISBN 3-89910-255-X
  • Craig O'Hara: The Philosophy OF Punk.The history of a culture revolt. Valve publishing house, Mainz 2001. ISBN 3-930559-72-2

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Punk - word origin, synonyms and translations

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)