a Putsch or a coup d'etat is the attempt of a usually reactionary minority to fall with a surprising action by force the government and to transfer power in the state diktatorisch. Putschisten are usually high of military or leader of paramilitärischer organizations. In addition, often a group takes over the power, which already checks parts of the state legitimately, whereby this happens contrary to volonté générale, which is formed by the majority of the citizens. This is for instance the case, if those Legislation is switched off by the executive. Frequently a military dictatorship or the rule of an authoritarian regime follows after a Putsch.
original originates the term from Switzerland, where it around 1840 in Zurich coined/shaped by party fightsfor a sudden, rapidly passing human being-accumulate or rebellion against the government one used. The Swiss-German dialect word Putsch means originally loud-pictorial collision, v.a. in the Berne-German language area, became however already in 16. Century also in the transferred sense militarily for a suddenRaid, which impact against an obstacle or the initiative uses for an enterprise. In 19. Century spread the word by the newspaper reports over the successful Putsch of the reactionary forces in Zurich 1839 (Züriputsch) in German, French (le putsch) and English (the putsch) linguistic area.
The term meanings „Putsch “ and „coup d'etat “ (franz. coup d'État) are however not completely identical. With a Putsch the fall by force of the government is tried from the outside (for instance of the military), duringin a coup d'etat one or more members of the current government are involved. The term coup d'etat orients itself thereby at the seizure of power Napoleon I. in France 1799.
Putsche in history
- France, 1799: Coup d'etat 18.Brumaire VIII, Napoléon Bonaparte transfers power to France
- Germany, 1920: Cut Putsch
- Germany, 1923: Hitler Ludendorff Putsch
- Austria, 4. March 1933: Seizure of power of Engelbert Dollfuss („self elimination of the parliament “)
- Germany, 1934: Röhm Putsch (no more reallyPutsch, but in LV propaganda so represented)
- Austria, 25. July 1934: National Socialist Putschversuch (Juliputsch) fails - Federal Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss is shot.
- Japan: the Putschversuch of some Japanese officers of 26. February 1936 is struck down, hasbut nevertheless extensive consequences.
- Spain, 17. July 1936: The Putsch (pronunciamiento) of military oriented towards the right leads to the Spanish civil war.
- Germany, 7. March 1944: Tresckow - Dohnanyi - Putsch (assassination attempt on Hitler)
- Germany, 20. July 1944: To revolution attempt (assassination attempt on Hitler), see 20. July 1944
- Czechoslovakia, 25. February 1948: The Putsch, with support of Moscow, prepared for the past few years, leads to seizure of power by the communist party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), and totalitarian stalinistischer dictatorship, until 1989 officially celebrated than „victorious February “ (Vítězný Únor)
- Iran, 22. August 1953: Mohammad Mossadegh is fallen, sees operation Ajax
- France, 23. April 1961: le putsch généraux or Putsch more d'Alger, an attempt more high-ranking franz. Military, the negotiations franz. Government over the independence of Algeria to torpedieren
- Greece, 1967: Beginning of the Greek military dictatorship
- Chile, 11. September 1973: Putsch Augusto Pinochets against Salvador all end, see history of Chile
- Portugal, 1974: „To carnation revolution “, see history of Portugal
- Argentina, 1943, 1962, 1966 and 1976: various Putsche, see history of Argentina
- Iran, 1979: Islamic revolution, Schah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi , Ruhollah Chomeini is entmachtet becomes a head of state
- Spanien, 1981: “23-F”, anti-democratic Putsch of officers around Antonio Tejero to 23. February 1981
- Soviet Union, 1991 (Augustputsch): Tried Putsch of the military, Muscovite population successfully defends Boris Yel'tsin government.
- Venezuela, 12. To April 2002, Putsch by conservative circles and parts of the military against Hugo Chavez, by mass protests of the population and loyale parts of the military [
also military dictatorship
|Wiktionary: Putsch- Word origin, synonyms and translations|