|of these articles acts of the language Quechua. The word however also a group is named by peoples, sees Quechua (people).|
Quechua (also Ketschua, Quichua or Keshwa) is a name for a group of related closely with one another indianischen languages, those in and area South America to be spoken. The word Quechua actually designates an altitude in the Quechua including their inhabitants. The Quechua speakers call their language Runa simi (of runa “humans” and simi “word”, thus “people word”).
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the linguistic area of the Quechua extends from the south of Colombia over large parts from Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia into the north of Chile and Argentina. The largestPortion of the speakers has thereby Peru, followed from Bolivia and Ecuador, while in the other countries only small minorities know the language.
Today is Quechua with probably more than 7 million speakers (the estimations vary here however strongly) the usually-spoken indianische language of South America andthus rank takes 3 behind Spanish and Portuguese on this continent regarding the speaker number.
For the largest part of the language area, i.e. Peru and Bolivia, census data lie to the speaker number forwards (Peru: 1993, Bolivia: 2001). For Ecuador, Colombia, Argentina and Chile such data are missing completely; itgives only estimations, which, as mentions above, vary very strongly. To the census results it is to be marked that in both countries for the native language it is asked and that by the census children in the Vorschulalter are not seized. The actual speaker number might thus clearly over the official datalie: On the one hand already for a long time a tendency is observed not to indicate with questionings the knowledge of one as inferior felt language (underreporting); on the other hand the two and multilingualness was not in an appropriate way seized with the last censuses. However must be also considered,that a not insignificant part of the speakers for different reasons in the everyday life of the Spanish avails itself. In particular the Quechuasprecher in the large cities might hardly use the language.
The distribution of the speakers on the countries:
- Bolivia: 1.576.846 (as per. Census of 2001)
- Peru: 3.177.938 (as per. Censusof 1993)
- Ecuador: 750.000 - 2.000.000 (various estimations)
- Argentina: 50.000 - 120,000 (estimations)
- Colombia: 5.000 (estimations)
- Chile: few
In most large universities spanischsprachigen South America Quechua is taught as foreign language.
the Varietäten of the Quechua form a dialect continuum. They can be divided in two large groups, which are called after the Peruvian language researcher Alfredo Torero Quechua I and Quechua II.
Quechua I becomes in most quechuasprachigen areas of the centraland northern Peruvian Anden spoken. Again a southern group is divided into a northern and.
Quechua II covers all in the south of Peru as well as Varietäten spoken in Bolivia, Argentina, Chile , Ecuador and Colombia as well as small part of the Varietäten of remaining Peru.It arranges searches into three sub-groups. The Yunkay - group covers those relatively few Varietäten of the Quechua II in central and northern Peru, the Chinchay - group (also called northern Quechua) the Varietäten Ecuador and Colombia and the southern Quechua all Varietäten of southern Peru, Bolivia,Argentina and Chile.
Differences between the two groups exist in many parts of the grammar and the vocabulary, so that a communication between nut-linguistic speakers of Varietäten of the Quechua I and the Quechua II without knowledge of further Varietäten is only with difficulty possible. The Varietäten of the QuechuaI differ despite their small circulation area also substantially among themselves, during the Quechua II in the comparison to it are relatively uniform. The differences between the dialects of the southern Quechua II in Peru and Bolivia, which cover in terms of figures the largest group of the Quechuasprecher, are relatively small andare limited particularly to the field of the phonetics.
The realm language of the Inka - realm, the language of most received older writing certifications and the language of the majority of the modern publications on Quechua from Peru and Bolivia are based on these southern dialects of the Quechua II. Many differentVarietäten of the Quechua were however only described in the modern linguistic technical literature.
Quechua was state language in the Inka - realm. Their largest spreading attained the language between 1500 and 1700, as it between central Argentina and northern Colombia in the entire and area spokenbecame.
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the Quechua existed to writing and way of writing before the arrival of the Europeans. To what extent those at present the Inkareiches common Quipu (knot cords), those primarily inventory lists of stores o.a. represented, when a gathering mold of a complete word writing can be understood, is disputed.
Since the Spanish colonial age latin alphabet was used for the rendition of the Quechua, whereby the sound value of the letters oriented itself first usually at the Spanish model. 1560 wrote Domingo de Santo Tomás the first grammar, on their basis long time at the university of Limaone taught.
A uniform orthography did not give it, until 1946 the first official alphabet were standardized, which contained 21 letters. In the course 20. Century several competitive drafts for an orthography of the Quechua in latin letter were submitted. In Peru officially the 1975 apply inPeru developed Alfabeto Oficial again, equally there is an official orthography in Bolivia. Besides however still several regional ways of writing exist, however in Argentina two different ways of writing (of Tucumán / Jujuy and of Santiago del Estero) were established.
It pay attention thatin the public, particularly with geographical name also older, at which Spanish Orthographie is usual oriented ways of writing still until today. Thus more well-known names are written such as Wayna Piqchu , Saqsaywaman and Qurikancha also than Huayna Picchu , Sacsayhuaman and Ccoricancha.
structure of theQuechua
Quechua is a agglutinierende language as Turkishly and Finnish, i.e. the meaning of a word is adapted by attaching syllables to a constant word trunk, not by diffraction (change of the whole word depending upon time, person, sex and case) as for example in German.
The sequence of the Suffixe is strictly regulated, as the example of the word illustrates chakra (field):
- “Small” one expresses the meaning by adding the suffix cha .
- The possession announcement “mine” is reached by adding the suffix y.
- The Plural one receives through to appendices of theSuffix kuna.
- The expression “my small fields” is expressed in Quechua therefore: chakrachaykuna.
- EH Gugenberger: Identity and language conflict in a pluriethnischen society: a soziolinguistische study over Quechua speakers and - spokeswomen in Peru.- Vienna: WUV Univ. - Verl., 1996. (Theses of the University of Vienna; 17) - Zugl.: Vienna, Univ., Diss., 1994.
- Quechua sociolinguistics/OD. by Kendall A. King. - Berlin [among other things]: Mouton de Gruyter, 2004. (Internationally journal OF the sociology OF LANGUAGE; 167)
- “Rimaykullayki”: Training aidsto the Quechua Ayacuchano - Peru/zsgest. after Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz “Quechua - manual de enseñanza” Lima 1979 and suppl. of Sabine Dedenbach Salazar Sáenz… Hrsg. by Roswith Hartmann. - Updated, erw. and over work. Neuaufl., 3. Aufl. . - Berlin: Reimer, 1994.
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