sources are places, at which water withdraws in natural way, without it must be pumped. If one collects the spring water by construction measures, one speaks of a spring intercepting structure.
The spring water does not come from a groundwater lake,separate from above from ground connection or rock columns, and/or. by the underground discharge of precipitation. The places of the Wasseraustritts can be also under the earth's surface, so that the water seeps again.
Some sources cannot be located exactly, e.g. in humid areas or in alpine High valleys. One speaks then of the source area of waters. With appropriate geological underground it can extend over dozens of square kilometers.
Table of contents
condition of the water
to sources with vadosem water
The quality of the water depends strongly on the duration of the stay in the soil. One can often determine with sources, how long the time between strong precipitation and a increased Wasseraustritt is. One often says that the source starts.
If a spring water onlyshort period spent in the soil has, exists the danger that also occasional a washing take place. Like that a great many pouring was easily germinates in the year 2003 by the before-year old strong precipitation. Since the soil was similarly as a sponge with water “full-sucked”, it had too little cleaning strength, andthe surface germs arrived unhindered into the source.
in addition, sources with juvenilem
water water from the interior of the earth can be, which arrives the first time into the water circulation. Such sources are opened at present in Libya. The water is there millions yearsold.
The water in the interior of the earth can be present depending upon lining up geology both in more moved and motionless form. Loose and loose rock permits easy flow and flow movements opposite to the earth rotation. These underground lodgements of water are called also groundwaters. In not looser, but nevertheless permeableRocks collects itself the so-called.Sickerwasser. Of the joint water one speaks with amorphous, impermeable rocks, where the water can flow only along the layer joints, spades or gaps (e.g. Karstgebirge Swabian Alb). With completely impermeable surrounding field it can come also to the training of underground lakes(motionless, stationary water).
in addition there are
sources with Thermalwasser Thermalquellen, at which warm water arrives at the surface. The water comes likewise from the interior of the earth, however a substantially higher temperature possesses. It can exhibit still additional minerals, so that itcertain welfare effects possesses. At such sources therapeutic baths often develop.
types of sources
depending upon situation of a source one differentiates between different source types:
- Source of discharge (source of layer)
- source of overflow
- Artesi source (artesischer well)
- pilot source
- climbing source
- source of debris
- source of valley
another arrangement divides into threefundamental source types dependent on ground condition and kind of the water output:
- Helokren (seeping or source of sump): With this type groundwater withdraws in numerous small water veins, which impregnate the soil and form a more or less large laminar source sump. A source brook forms with the Helokren for thatDownward gradient following only from the confluence of many source rivlets.
- Limnokren (source of pool, source of funnel): The source withdrawal is with this type because of the reason of a hollow, in which the withdrawing groundwater collects itself and forms a source pool. By overflowing the spring water over its edge that formsSource brook. This type is to be found particularly in Karstgebieten.
- Rheokren (flowing or source of mineral water): This type shows a clearly recognizable, locally limited withdrawal and forms directly a visible discharge, which is usually slow and laminarly flowing and can occasionally quiet water zones exhibit.A Untertyp is the drop or source of fall, with which the water in steep area withdraws from rock columns and flows as more or less large Wasserfall talwärts.
famous one sources
- famous one sources in Germany
- Aachtopf: The largest German source, from that thatWater of the Danube infiltration again to day steps.
- Blue pot: Similarly large and famous Karstquelle with Blaubeuren.
- Wasserscheide Elbe Rhine Danube: In the Fichtelgebirge large rivers rise at relatively small distance of each other four: The Eger, the Main, the Saale and the Naab. Eger andSaale flow into the Elbe. The white Main into the Rhine and the Naab into the Danube. Here three European Wasserscheiden meet one another .
- Fulda (river). The Fulda rises at the highest mountain of Hessen of the water crest.
- Area of source of four Fichtelgebirge/Nordostbayern
- the warmest Thermalquellen in Europewith 74°C in Burtscheid with Aachen
- Rhumequelle, one of the most productive sources in Central Europe with water from the resin
- Lutterquelle at the Elm, one the most productive in Northern Germany
- famous one sources in Austria
- Piessling origin: Largest Austrian Karstquelle close hospital at the Pyhrn in the dead mountains (Upper Austria). The river fed by it flows after approximately. 7 km into the Teichl and later into the Steyr.
- Water hole: Second largest Karstquelle in Austria in the Salzatal close Windischgarsten (Steiermark). After the withdrawal from rock the Wassermassen fall over numerous Wasserfälle and cascades about 350 m into the depth and form the tourist attraction of the water-hole-clammy.
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