Soviet republic

The neutrality of this article or paragraph is disputed. The reasons stand on the discussion side or on the side for neutrality problems. Attempts to formulate the article neutral and remove this component only if it is no longer necessary.
Barricades in Paris be-end to that Paris Commune

a soviet republic generally designates a rule system, with which the rule is exercised by the people over directly selected advice.

To table of contents

soviet republic

in a soviet republic are organized the voters in fundamental units (the workersan enterprise, the inhabitants of a district etc.) you select directly all public function carriers. These advice are legislators, government and courts in one, it give thus no division of power and also no variety of parties, because the advice are to embody the uniform people will. The advice are responsible, to their instructions bind for the basis and jerderzeit callably (see.imperatives mandate).

The advice are selected on several levels. Thus on living and operating level in plenary assemblies workers from the own rows are sent into the local advice. The local advice delegate now againMembers into the next higher level - into the district advice. This system of the delegation continues up to the Central Council at national level. Selection process happen thus from bottom to top. The levels are usually bound at management levels. In contrast to classical democracy models after curl and Montesquieu does not exist in soviet systems of government a division of power, i.e., they exercise all three Gewalten on their respective level; they are fully responsible for legislation, iurisdiction and execution. They have usually a imperatives mandate, it are thus to the order of their voters bound - in contrastto the free mandate, with which the selected political representatives are responsible to their conscience only „“. The advice can become at any time called up by their post (voted out).

The advice thought and/or the idea of the soviet republic developed from the workers' movement and became different both by Mikhail Bakunin (anarchy mash) develops further and of Karl Marx (socialism/communism) and Lenin.

A soviet system of government was converted for the first time during the Russian revolution starting from 1905. This was established however after the model Paris municipality (1871). Like at that time in Paris were also in the Russian adviceall selected members at any time accountable and vote outable, in addition were not allowed to earn them only average wages and had privileges. At that time spontaneous autonomy organs (advice, Russian = Soviet) formed those, from which Bolsheviks supports, after the October Revolution 1917 were firmly furnished and the basic structure for that Soviet Union formed.

In Russia the Bolsheviks in the advice were at first in the minority, however by their fundamental agreement to the advice, (as competition to the tsarist parliament system stood) with ever higher election results were confirmed. Different groupings, above all of „the social revolutionaries “however the representatives of the advice wanted to come to parliament system and attacked mainly with terrorist attacks. Since they were represented in relatively large numbers in the advice, the notices went themselves nearly mainly on the Bolsheviks, which this in addition moved, the advice and alsoto even defend and implement military counterstrokes. Since this happened in the middle in the Russian civil war, the oppositionals were limited by the Red Army under the guidance Leo defiance gravel only strongly in their rights and forbidden after further notices. After the civil war became with the abolition of theMartial law again all liberties for political manipulation grants all oppositional groups. After the death of Lenin the advice were limited to a large extent and smashed later, which went also with a new prohibition of the opposition.

Examples for this are in the Kronstädter sailor rebellion or the anarchist Mach NO movement,between 1918 and 1922 the largest part of the Ukraine controlled, under the guidance of Machno.

Nestor Machno installed 1918 and 1922 between into the Ukraine a system oriented at the anarchy mash. The guidance was subject however actually only to it and from it used „governors “. Thus is the role of these advice disputed. Partially anticommunist oriented, wonderful-end („democratic “) myths over Machno are doubted. In addition out recently in archives of the Soviet Union in ruins found documents it is to come out that „the Anarchisten would also have had “from crowning city contact in of Paris living supporters of the countering revolution.

To thatSayings of the Kronstädter sailors not only (anywhere did not occupy) „advice without Bolsheviks “, but ausweislich one is allegedly likewise recently in Soviet archives of found letter of a sailor at its Ukrainian father also „Jews raus! “heard. Therefore is allegedly the population of the surrounding villages of crowning citya strong movement set up (source?), those the movement of the sailors - for a long time before those arrived, at that time from Trotzki the led Red Army - struck down. However are even from Trotzki the Kronstädtern never counter-revolutionary intentions vorgewurfen, but only that their demands allegedly inevitably a counter-countering revolutionaryDevelopment to the consequence would have.

The party and parliamentary group prohibition are children of the Russian civil war, who should generally prevent the emergence of counter-revolutionary elements. Lenin and its party limited 1921 after the experiences with the Kronstädter sailor rebellion the authority of the advice strongly, around power thatTo guarantee a party also further. The discussions in the advice in the Soviet Union were however still an important element in the development in the party and the policy of the Bolsheviks.

After Lenin death the meaning of these advice continued to take 1924 and the seizure of power Stalinsoff. Under Stalin the democratic centralism was converted into one „bureaucratic absolutism “, in order to know the left opposition (under Trotzki) and later the so-called “rights opposition “( under book airs) from the party urge. In addition Stalin strengthened the power of his office (Secretary-General thatThe CPSU) and strengthened it with the creation of a person cult around it. A critical name for this special system Stalins is „proletarian Bonapartismus “. With regard to foreign policy the idea of the world revolution was given up in favor of „the thesis of socialism in a country “.

In the paging time afterformed for the end of the First World War elsewhere in November 1918 after the model of the development in Russia also in Austria, Hungary, Germany and spontaneously worker and soldier advice so mentioned (first to 4. November 1918 in Kiel). After the Spartakusaufstand under guidance of the KPD in January 1919 their number continued to rise still, now gave it among other things in Berlin, Munich, Hamburg, Bremen and the Ruhr district of worker and soldier advice. Were connected with the idea of the soviet republic the goal of the socialization of the key industries (coal, iron and steel, banks) in the senseby Marx and partly according to the Soviet-Russian model.

In December the advice decided out completely Germany in „ the advice of the people-assigned “the elections led by Friedrich Ebert to a German national assembly. With it they made the choice for a parliamentary democracy and against a soviet system of government.

Nevertheless becamein the spring 1919 after the model of the Soviet Union in Bremen, bathing, Braunschweig, Würzburg and in Munich under briefly Eisner 1919 officially proclaims soviet republics. But in March the realm government already decided to proceed against the advice. The realm resistance and free corps - soldier (so-called. „White troops “) received the order, against the socialist and communist Rätemilizen (so-called. „Red troops “) to proceed and dissolved these soviet republics by force. At the 11. October 1919 came into force those Weimar condition.

Also in Hungary in March 1919 a soviet republic was proclaimed, in addition,only until August 1919 existence had. There were further soviet republics in the summer 1919 in the Slowakei around the city Košice and 1920-1921 for 16 months in the Iranian province Gilan. The advice dipped also in the Hungarian rebellion of 1956 .

Although then notmore so mentioned, the rounds of tables “advice-republican courses had 1989 in the final stage of the VR Poland and the German Democratic Republic.


examples of modern advice democracies:

  • Ralf Burnicki: “Anarchy mash and consent. ApproximatelyRepresentation and majority principle: Structures of a not-hierarchical democracy ", publishing house edition AV, Frankfurt 2002.ISBN 3-9806407-08-4.
  • Takis Fotopoulos: “Comprehensive democracy. The answer to the crisis of growth and free-market economy ". Nevertheless publishing house cooperative, Grafenau 2003. ISBN 3-931786-23-3.

see also

Web on the left of


  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)