|of these articles treats the entire Primat of the Pope appreciative catholic church; it consists of 23 partial churches. The church of latin rite, the most important of these partial churches, which is sometimes called simplifying Roman-catholic church, is under Latin church.|
The Roman-catholic church (v. griech. καθολικός „“) in terms of figures largest denomination is general within the Christianity. It covers 23 partial churches with own rite, among them (in terms of figureslargest) latin church and university ores the east churches. With the old-catholic churches and the orthodox churches the catholic church divides the filter number of the Sakramente and the Weiheamt, subdivided into bishop, priest and deacon. Differentiating characteristic is the acknowledgmentthe Primats of the Pope.
To the catholic church world-wide about 1.25 billion Gläubige belong.
the designation „Roman-catholic church “is a konfessioneller term, which developed in the consequence of the reformation for the simpler distinction of the split Christian confessions. The catholic church, which recognizes the Primat of the Pope, is meant. There the catholic church term a konfessionelle condition of the church because of theirSingularity does not know, has it difficulties with this designation. Nevertheless official documents in the ökumenischen dialogue - probably for simplification reasons - exhibit sometimes the designation „Roman-catholic “. The use of the designation „Roman-catholic church “does not contradict however the catholic faith, there „Roman “(secondary) a characteristic of the church is quite, i.e. the line of the church by the successor of the Petrus buried in Rome represents.
Usually however the Roman-catholic church calls itself only with „catholic church “, or theologically occasionally in detail as „those one, holy, catholic and apostolische (D. h. on the Apostel decreasing/going back) church “. The designation „latin church “refers to (catholic) the church of the evening country (contrary to the university Universities of east churches). If in various church texts, like z. B.Council documents of „the holy Roman church “or of „the Roman church “the speech is short, is meant with it the Diözese of Rome, that in catholic view due to the Primats of the bishop von Rom over the whole catholic church likewise onespecial meaning for the whole church comes.
Generally and official linguistic usage particularly in western countries the designations are usually used „catholic church “and „Roman-catholic church “synomym. In Germany the designation is catholic “also named-legally protected „andmay be used (without differentiating additive) as designation only for mechanisms and meetings of the Roman-catholic church.
The catholic church understands itself also theologically as the catholic church: After its view it can do only a catholic, D. h. universal church Jesu Christi give, and in their this is carried out a church in so singular way that there cannot be other catholic church.
This contradicts the self understanding of a whole set of other churches, which understand themselves as catholic,if it is, since it itself with one the catholic church similar Ausschliesslichkeitsanspruch as , true catholic church see, is it, since they see themselves as part of a far understood catholic church, which covers also further konfessionell written churches. SuchChurches use Roman-catholic church in official texts for the catholic church usually also the designation „“, even if in the everyday life member of these churches usually follow the general German linguistic usage. The catholic church speaks also z. B. the orthodoxChurches the Katholizität off, however are not called them „not being located in full unit “with the catholic church or as separate churches.
See also: catholic
historical derivation of the structure
a bishop (v. griech. ἐπίσκοπος „guardian, custodian “)is since approx. 100 n. Chr. Chief of the Christian municipality in a city and the surrounding villages. The range of a bishop is called diocese or Diözese (v. griech. διοίκησις „administration “), the city is the bishop seat. (When Germany was christianisiert, it gaveno cities, therefore the Diözesen became rather large rural districts. This very day the Diözesen is here much larger than z. B. in Italy, where there were correct cities already in the antique one.)
in the first 3 centuries those formed Church provinces out. A church province covers several Diözesen, the chief is called Metropolit. In German one calls it archbishop and that Diözese, whose bishop is the archbishop, is called normally also ore diocese. The seat of an archbishop is the metropolis (= means polis, large city, capital).In the Roman-catholic church the Metropoliten at meaning lost. It is today more a formal priority.
To 451 n. Chr. became the five „most important “Metropoliten Patriarchen (Rome, Konstantinopel, Alexandria, Antiochia, Jerusalem). The controversy between Rome and Konstantinopel ledto the fact that the western church finally separated from the eastern (orthodox). Today it gives somewhat over 10 Patriarchate, importantly is above all Konstantinopel. In the west there was only a Patriarchen (Rome), which a great many rights on Rome concentrated, duringin the east the Patriarchate remained very many more independent. Some eastern dioceses reconciled itself in the course of history with Rome (university ore), usually by the influence of catholic rulers (filter defiency guarantee, Ukraine and. A.). It gives today at some placesseveral bishops, z. B. one with Rome university University of, one catholic, an orthodox. University ores the churches have a rite, which decreases/goes back to the Greek culture of the antique eastRoman realm, often also as Greek catholic are therefore designated.
See also: History thatRoman-catholic church
the one church and its partial churches
the catholic church consists of 23 partial churches, whose by far largest latin is church. The remaining 22 churches divide themselves on the other rite families; there is parts of othersPartial churches, which reconciled themselves in the course of the last 1000 years with Rome, their rite grown historically however maintain. Only the Maroniten does not have orthodox Gegenpart; they completely belong to the catholic church.
Exterior characteristic of the affiliation to the catholic church is apart from the common faith teachings the acknowledgment of the papal Primats, i.e. the mirror-image-ritual and legal line function of the Pope. This exercises however only over latin church patriarchale force; the remaining partial churches have usually own Patriarchen or large archbishops.
„There is thus only one church Christi, which is subsistiert in the catholic church and led by the successor Petri and by the bishops in community with it. ThoseChurches, which are not located in perfect community with the catholic church, but by closest gang, how the apostolische Sukzession and the valid Eucharistie remain connected with it, are genuine partial churches. Therefore the church is Christi also inthese churches at present and effectively, although the full community with the catholic church is missing to them, if they do not accept the catholic science of the Primat, which the bishop von Rom holds and over the whole church exercises after God will objectively. “
After the Annuario Pontificio 2005 gives it in the catholic church the following partial churches:
- Albanian Greek-catholic church
- Bulgarian-catholic church
- Greek Greek-catholic church
- Italo Albanian churches
- church of the Byzantiner of the Eparchie Križevci (Croatia, etc.)
- Macedonian-catholic church
- Melkiti Greek-catholic church
- RomanianGreek-catholic church
- Russian Greek-catholic church
- ruthenisch Greek-catholic church
- slowakische Greek-catholic church
- Ukrainian Greek-catholic church
- Hungarian Greek-catholic church
- Byelorussian Greek-catholic church
a hierarchical church
as indispensable structural component becomes that Petrusamt outstandingly, which changes successors in accordance with catholic theory of Petrus (matte house 16.18) on all its into the Roman office for bishop. The catholic church is structured hierarchical. The catholicism differs objectively ascertainable thereby from all other Christian denominations that in accordance with„the petrinischen principle “to a putting of the church above over politics, state and Gesellschftsordnung one holds. The religion is not private thing, but a public requirement for authority comes to the Christianity, which manifests itself in the papacy. Direct privileges in state and society stressesthe catholic church however since II. Vatikani council (1962-1965) expressly no more. It recognized the privilege of each individual human person before the requirement for penetration of an institutionally objektivierten Religiosität, without however their self understanding, which protects in its explanation to the freedom of religionTo subsistieren church Christi to change. Some theologians, like for example the suspended priest Gotthold Hasenhüttl, demand a paradigm change in this structure question.
the Pope stands
for Pope and cardinals at the point of the catholic church. Ithighest authority is in questions of the teachings and the church order (see papal infallibility). Generally obligatory guiding principles are published as Enzykliken and instructions.
Closest and most important coworker stands for it to the side the cardinals as its; as it were the cathedral chapter of thePope. Some cardinals work in the Kurie, the church central administration in Rome (Kurienkardinäle); others are archbishops or bishops in most diverse states of the world (S. and). Each cardinal except for few exceptions is a geweihter bishop.
Archbishops and bishops
under the Pope come in hierarchical order the archbishops and bishops. Regionally the catholic church is organized in church provinces with an ore diocese and several dioceses. The bishops one or several states meet regularly in bishop conferencestogether (see also diocese). The bishops are directors/conductors of the local churches.
, then also
the Vatikan maintains Nuntien and bishops like each state diplomatic agencies at the states. These are led by a Nuntius, which besides thoseMaintenance of the connection to the local churches is transferred. The Nuntius always possesses the Bischofsweihe and is as such owners of a Titularerzbistums.
Dechant and Dekanat - priests and Pfarreien
coworker of the bishops are the priests and for the not priesterlichen service the deacons. The Gläubigen is local to Pfarreien (regionally also Pfarren) united, which a priest manages as a minister. Sometimes administratively several Pfarreien are combined into a Dekanat and appointed by the responsible bishop a minister of the Pfarreien concerned the Dechant. Become increasing particularly because of the lack of priestalso several Pfarreien combined into a Seelsorgeeinheit, whereby the Pfarreien remains independent however in many ranges. For the offices of the bishop and the priest is regularly prescribed in latin church of the Zölibat; Deacons must itself before the Diakonsweihe between Before and Zölibat decide. In the university ores churches can marry also priests.
catholic student municipalities are a special form of Pfarrei. They are not usually independent, but to an existing Ortspfarrei attached, are subordinate however directly to the diocese.
communities and medals
beside it give it numerous community forms, from loose movements over institutes for secular up to a large number of medal communities. In Germany many catholic youth federations are organized in the federation of the German catholic youth (BDKJ). The numberfrom the BDKJ of independent youth movements, which are resident particularly in new religious communities, grows. To the catholic church belong some regional and supraregional welfare organizations, which the Linderung of poverty sequences dedicates itself. In the German area is z admits. B. the Caritas. Thosecatholic church applies with approximately 100,000 persons employed in Germany as the largest employer. A German peculiarity is the fact that the state for the church levies the church tax, with that the church and. A. their social mechanisms receives.
all conditions and communities of the church educate together the God people. Each catholic has portion of the transmission of the church by baptism and Firmung into the world (Laienapostolat, see. Second Vatikani council).
Like the churchalso the service has a certain structure, so that it is possible the catholic Christian to participate in each service of the same rite also abroad. Also the catholic church year offers always recurring celebrations and anniversaries.
In the Federal Republic of Germany countedthe catholic church 2003 26.16 million members, that 300,000 is less than in the previous year and 31.7 per cent of the total population. Scarcely 4 million visit Sundays the you air low eggs. The number of the church withdrawals is constantly with over 100.000 annually.
- Dreifaltigkeit: Jesus as a son of God is a nature with God (S. People becoming of God); God is father (Jesu and humans), son (God) and holy spirit. By its historical living and working, its death at the crossand its Auferstehung took the son of God the sin of the world on itself and opened the way to God for all humans.
- God working in the world: God is not only the creator, but seizes from loveto each individual humans actively into the world; its acting is however understandable after human yardsticks not completely (see to Theodizee - question).
- The catholic church sees itself in the follow-up of the Apostel, to their Glaubensbekenntnis it in Kraft of theHoly spirit by the times retained, deepens and in view of new questions clarifies. This tradition of the church, their more importantly and therefore independently mentioned („the holy excessive quantity and the holy writing “), but only part the Bible is, does not form its training basis. ThatApostelamt was passed on according to catholic training view smoothly by consecration with hand presenting from the Aposteln to the today's catholic clergyman (apostolische Sukzession).
- Sakramente: God gives after catholic teachings humans the welfare by the Sakramente. The catholicChurch knows seven Sakramente:Baptism, Firmung, Eucharistie, penalty and reconciliation (Beichte), Krankensalbung, the Sakrament of the consecration, and marriage. Into the Sakramenten, particularly in the Eucharistie, the church comes as universal Heilssakrament for feature.
- Final-arranged and lives after death (Eschatologie): The catholic church expects a coming back Christi in glory and the court over all humans. Yardstick of the court becomes the faith and (after the measure that) Love carried out gifts its. The released ones receive paradiesisches, eternal life in God proximity („look “God from face to face, himmlisches wedding meal). For each humans there is also the possibility of final losingness with the break with God („hell “). Hopethe Christ faith cannot be limited however.
- Marien - and holy admiration: Humans, who led a Christ-centered life, can serve other believing than models. God is particularly in relations between humans experiencable, and there such relations after deathnot to break off, can the occupation with such models (holy ones) must be very helpful. The holy ones are considered also as advocates with God, because one assumes they already are in the community with God. The universalWelfare intermediary shank Christi, to which all holy ones refer, is questioned but is not underlined thereby not. The process of the holy speaking is very extensive and can persist several decades. This applies also to the acknowledgment of Jesus, Marien and holy features, on thosethe places of pilgrimage are based.
- In the catholic church requests for the deceased are usual. The deceased, who are still in the loud condition of the Purgatoriums, is to be thought hereby.
the moral teachings of the catholic church are since the beginningsby coined/shaped holding and at the same time for the conditions of the terrestrial reality calculation carry to the ideals of the mountain lecture. In earlier centuries the reproach was regular to large Laxheit reason for criticism and splitting off (Montanismus, Novatianismus, Donatismus, Katharer, Waldenser). Today the church criticism catches fire usually to allegedly to high ideals, paired with the reproach of the Heuchelei and double moral, particularly within the range of the Sexualität.
The mountain lecture the central catholic value setting love, truth, non-violence are following,Possession renouncement, loyalty, Keuschheit. The conversion to church and, where possible, national right happens in always new approaches and under internal-church and social conflicts.
For a long time topics were disputed such as oath , military service or capitalism. Here are the catholic moral teachings traditionally ratherready to compromise. For approximately 1968 Humanae Vitae stands at the same time with the soziokulturellen circulations almost exclusively the before and Sexualmoral in the center of the attention and argument with the Enzyklika. The church teaching profession has itself again and again clearly in the sense of the Zusammengehörigkeit ofSexualität, lifelong loyalty and reproduction and thus against divorce, „artificial “ Empfängnisverhütung and the equivalence of the Homosexualität expressed. Just as compromiseless the life protection is represented and rejected abortion , euthanasia , clones , death penalty , Eugenik and attack war.
Many positionsin addition, are internal church for a long time disputed. Catholic moral theology holds the opinion the fact that the values of the gospel would not contradict the nature right but its last and highest expression was. This nature-legal beginning and the church Lesart in the new willto mediate succeeds to basicput moral to the church however less and less. Also Kirchgänger live - often secretly agreement with their Seelsorgern locally - in a so-called vertical Schisma: Again and again the instructions in-sharpened from Rome become in thatPractice either ignored or with internal emigration answers.
the communication and the exchange with other Christian religious communities one searches and one maintains, in particular with the eastern-orthodox churches, the anglikanischen church and the Evangelist churches and communities. The catholic church is not in the ökumenischen advice of the churches represented, however member of many national and regional ökumenischer organizations.
One sets also on the dialogue with other religions,as world-wide religious meetings show, which decrease/go back on initiatives Vatikan.
Due to its church, office and in particular Eucharistieverständnisses is it against Interzelebration and intercoming union. After the ökumenischen church conference there was 2003 sanctions on the part of the catholic church against onePriest, who had participated actively in a ökumenischen communion. In opinion of the catholic church Jesus Christ is material present in konsekrierten bread and wine. Also the remaining catholic churches as well as the Lutheraner represent this view. However those differsView of the Lutheraner in as much as these assume, the material operational readiness level is present only for the duration of the communion. All other Evangelist churches reject the material operational readiness level and see in the communion a symbolic memory act. For this reason the catholic church obligates theirGläubigen to participate only in the you air low eggs the own church and permits the receipt to the coming union member of separate denominations only under special circumstances. In certain emergencies such as mortal danger a catholic priest may donate the Sterbesakramente also to members of other Denominationen. 2004Pope has Johannes Paul II. in the Enzyklika Ecclesia de Eucharistia again the meaning of the Eucharistie underlined and called to prevent each abuse.
the catholic church is common in far parts of central and South America, inSouth Europe (Spain, Italy, Portugal), Western Europe (France, Belgium, the Netherlands), Eastern Europe (Poland, Croatia, Lithuania) and in some parts of Africa. Asia their influence on Osttimor and the Philippines is limited. World-wide there is about 1,25 billion catholic.
The catholic church is besides,with something 1.2 millions employees, world-wide the largest employer.
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