Roman ones of emperor haven advice

as Roman of emperor haven advice are designated portraits of the emperors of the Roman realm. They were often artistic masterpieces, became from purely artistic reasons to create however rarely, but as important means of imperial propaganda. They are - apart from their artistic value - this very day as source for self understanding and Rezeption of the Roman emperors of importance.

Table of contents

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the Augustusporträt with

haven advice of the emperor Augustus begins the first line the dynastischen haven advice, first those that regards the julisch claudischen dynasty.

How it was usual with many large personalities of history, developed also from the first emperor von Rom a set of haven advice. No contemporary reports are received us over it as it selected the shape this haven advice thought for the public or the artists responsible for it. But it is sure that Augustus acted very mindfully, if it concerned to present itself the population.

Earliest haven advice from Octavian since 43 the v. appeared on coins. Chr. were coined/shaped. With this money, which it after the murder Caesars 44 v. Chr. had inherited, it devoted professional army was paid and haven-guessed/advised on the coins should it of loyalty constantly remind, which they owed their backer. On this haven advice had it a beard, which was probably carried as indication of the mourning. Beside the beard also still the Beischrift at the edge of the coin addressed the connection with the murdered Caesar.

When the conflict with Marcus Antonius broke out openly, changed also haven-guesses/advises the Augustus. While from the type Octavian with beard only coins are received to us, then we possess some round plastics, which can be arranged fundamentally into three different portrait types from the following types, whereby the characteristics lie for differentiation in the different hair-styles:

  1. Octavianstypus (and/or. in former times: `Actium type')
  2. Primaporta type
  3. type Forbes

1. Octavianstypus

the term „Octavianstypus “is modern and is to express that the portraits mean this type not yet Augustus, but Octavian in the time before that 16. January 27 v. Chr.

Its hair seems whipped by the wind, its face suggests tension and energy, the head is turned and it looks to the right upward. This type stands in the tradition the bright-sneeze-table-Greek king haven advice.

Hair organization: Directly over the front center are three Haarsträhnen, which are to the left painted seen from the viewer. They are locked on both sides by curls moving in opposite directions. Thus a motive for fork forms on the left of motive for pliers and a right.

2. Primaporta type

Augustus of Primaporta

of these is designated after famous armoring atue of the Augustus of Primaporta, a marble statue after a bronze original, dated after 20 v. Chr.

In the year 27 v. Chr. Octavian submitted a new condition. In the same year it received the title Augustus from the senate. Now it had itself as first citizens of the republic, it naturally gave to have restored, explain let, to which haven-guessed/advised in the tradition of king haven advice surely not expedient was. Augustus selected now a portrait, which relied on the polykletische ideal, D. h. that the shape of the statue was idealized. Its body received heroische and completed courses, which looked to head calmed down forward and the violently moved hair solidified.

Hair organization: The same as with the Octavianstypus, only that from the three Mittelsträhnen a particular became. Pliers and motive for fork were maintained.

The Primaporta type is the main type, which was exported into the entire realm. (Are received us from this type and the two different over 250 of haven advice.) it became with small variations up to the death of the Augustus 14 n. Chr. re-used.

3. Type Forbes

this type is designated after a head in a private collection. It is a Nebentypus, thus a type, which was used apart from the main type (the Primaporta type), however not as frequent as these.

Hair organization: Three uniformly arranged curls are seen from the viewer over the left front half. The hair over the right front half is to the left painted. Thus without the pliers and motive for fork one did.

This portrait type is also on the era Pacis (13 v. Chr. donated) occupied, he must thus before 9 v. Chr. developed its, the year of the Weihung of the peace altar.

Portraits of the Augustus were produced and spread during a very long period, beginning with the Münzbildern until its death, because there were also posthume Augustusporträts.

It gives no age haven advice of the Augustus; no interest obviously existed to represent the age.

the development of the Roman emperor haven advice in the crisis of the 3. Jh. n. Chr.

The 3. Century n. Chr. is considered as the age of the large crisis of the Roman realm. Also in art-historical regard this epoch belongs in the archaeological research to the difficult, since due to the unstable circumstances only very heavily a clear line in the development form can be pursued. Furthermore is difficult the process of change of this time to seize, since there are only few datable Monumente. As surely datable monument kind those of haven advice of the soldier emperors are to be called, whom one can arrange due to comparisons with Münzbildern temporally. The change of style of 2. to the 3. Century n. Chr. social regrouping, rule was finally coined/shaped by the military and an internal uncertainty by external influences. In only one century more than 60 emperors came to the rule, often governed them only some days long, and only few died a natural death.

general characteristics the soldier emperor haven advice of this time

in the development of the art style of this politically unstable time are expressed realism , expressionism and an abstracting form.

At first still the distrustful, sharp view and from concerns around the state which were afraid and suffering face courses dominate. The typical Physiognomie of a soldier emperor is characterized by the briefly sheared Haartracht: the hair is suggested only by superficial scratching and working on with the chisel. Furthermore these portraits are characterised by particularly hard and rough face courses. One can into emperor haven advice the gradual solidification of the individual face forms, briefly said: an abstraction of the forms pursue.

With the emperor Gallienus however the feeling of a new mentalness is obtained. Its restoration politics and back meditation on old-Roman values reflect themselves in its haven-guessed/advised. In the course of the time the strict and anxious face courses of a developing Stereometrisierung yield: the folds do not go any longer deeply, which appear and petrify skin and the Physiognomie as rigidly. The view is no longer distrustful in later time, but seems into the distance to curve.

some emperor haven advice - more near regards

the change of style of 2. to the 3. Jh. n. Chr. begins with Septimius Severus (193-211): with the prince portraits the curl splendour of the Antoninen and the solvent drillings of the hair mass end. The so-called. antoninische baroque 2. Jh. n. Chr. it is characterised by the fact that the hair is in such a manner plastic arranged by drillings, whereby the light and Schattenwirkungen developed from it give the appearance to an optical deception. A kind flicker effect of the hair was obtained by hammer, chisel or drill. In contrast to it the hair organization the emperor haven advice of the 3 stands. Jh. n. Chr.: here is outlined the hair mass closed and almost perückenähnlich. In the third portrait type its haven advice Septimius Severus identified itself even with Sarapis, by being able to be explained with the typical three to four turned Sarapislocken over the forehead and the divided beard.

The portraits of the older persons differ very strongly from youth portraits: Haven advice of the child emperors Elagabal, Severus Alexander, Philippus Caesar and makes a by far more juvenile impression than comparable portraits in 2 is clearly smoother. Jh. n. Chr. The Mimik the haven advice of older persons works often anxiously and gives a suffering and thoughtful appearance.

The emperors close and. A. the tradition of the beard-basic Caracalla they appear on, often unrasiert or carry for this epoch a typical - frequently only by cutting suggested - gleaning beard. The soldier emperors - with exception of the Gallienus - carry military short crop.

With Elagabal and Severus Alexander their fremdländische face courses and Physiognomien are particularly emphasized: full lips and cheeks, closely together-pushing brows and a large nose characterize their Syrian origin. Severus Alexander was represented in a portrait type as recent rulers of different age groups with its haven advice.

haven advice of the soldier emperors

the first soldier emperor Maximinus Thrax to the murder of its predecessor Severus Alexander had come to the rule. Its rough nature expresses itself by hard face courses as well as a sharp-edged chin. The hair organization is kalottenähnlich. The soft form of the treatment of the hair, by so-called. A penna technology (like feathers/springs), does not occur here. The face of the Maximinus Thrax is characterised besides by hard folds and on linear forms reduced face courses. A distrustful view - the all emperor haven advice of this epoch too own actual also with this haven-guessed/advised clearly and can the heavy crisis of the 3. Jh. n. Chr. evoke.

The style forms, which were used under Maximinus Thrax, changed also with its successors Pupienus, Balbinus, Gordian III., Philippus Arabs and Philippus Caesar not noticeably. This could be justified in the fact that under these difficult circumstances at the personal attitude of the emperors hardly somewhat changed: The heavy crisis and the contrast in the controversy between imperial power and that urge of the victorious field gentlemen after the rule, find its correspondence in the faces the haven advice which were afraid by concern folds. On the occasion of this unstable situation a back meditation on earlier, better times and the desire for restoration took place.

The Christian pursuer Decius is characterised by, a suffering face expression marked by effort and trouble. The Trebonianus Gallus haven-guesses/advises exhibits more calmed down face courses, perhaps what with its origin from the italischen aristocracy is begründbar. Valerian is represented again as typical soldier emperors with strict courses, the characteristic short crop and one of folds which was afraid face.

The rule of the Gallienus applies by its restoration politics as turning point in that age of the crisis. Gallienus does not only differ in its haven-guessed/advised from its predecessors: One can speak of a gallienischen Renaissance or a classicism. A new mentalness is expressed by the high education of this emperor. Its restoration politics reflect themselves in a kind Erlöserbildnis. The portrait of the Gallienus oriented itself with its hair-style and hair organization occasionally at Augustus and so partially to older traditions of the Roman ruler portrait fell back, as for example the pliers and forks - motives of the Augustusfrisur - at this appear. Perhaps in later time it wanted to also remind raised Strähnen by a curlier hair-style over the forehead of Alexander the large one. The portraits of the Gallienus work by far more relaxed, in the surface organization more softly and besides more left than preceding soldier emperor haven advice.

To this representational form also the following emperors Claudius Gothicus and Aurelian tie : The suffering expression, which was determining so far, withdrew now. Emperor Tacitus falls back the republican portrait type, whereby its face expression solidifies and works calmly. Become generally accepted gradually a Stereometrisierung, a gradual flattening, Kubismus and spherical shape of the faces.

Haven-guesses/advises the pro bus works remarkably angularly. The face is arranged laminar, the mouth contrary to the even face rather small and tricks arranged. The back of the head hardly exhibits roundnesses. Haven-guesses/advises the Carinus is characterised by rounder and softer forms than the portrait of his predecessor.

summary of substantial developments in short form

with haven advice of the Roman emperors different salient points of development are recognizable. It concerned here not to represent the respective emperor absolutely life near but around it, to interpret it by program i.e. thus to represent, how he wanted to be seen and how it corresponded to the respective ruler program.

There are the following developments with these round-plastic representations in such a way specified of the emperors:

the representation refers to the Doryphoros sketched by Polyklet. Considerably for those approx. 250 Augustusporträts are 3 different portrait types, which were in each case further-copied: the Octavianstypus, developed approx. 31 v. Chr. (Victory of Actium ), the Primaporta -, developed for type approx. 27 v. Chr. (Mechanism of the Prinzipats), and late come out type: the type Forbes, is datable ante quem with which only the term, thus the time, before which it must have developed, i.e. before the time of the establishment of the era Pacis, thus before 13 v. Chr. to 9 v. Chr.. In all three types the representation of raisedness and Alterslosigkeit of the emperor is priority. Also the 70-jährige Augustus is represented to 30-Jährigen in the picture one for instance.

after the four-emperor year 69 n. Chr. Vespasian finally becomes generally accepted after Galba , Otho and Vitellius. It is illustrated extremely in a true-to-life manner. Its face drawn by the age and strains shows, what is to characterize it: Responsibility for the people and the burden and/or. Load, which it carries for it (lat: onus), as well as public-friendliness, ability of getting through.

Trajan becomes likewise realistically, but no longer so “ungeschönt” like Vespasian represented; it is however in the representation also less idealized than Augustus. Its face expresses will power and Entschossenheit. Without verzierende attributes one does to a large extent.

its haven-guessed/advised breaks with the past representation. Hadrian is mindful as a “friend of the Greeks” to integrate the former Königtümer of the east more strongly. Its haven-guessed/advised therefore for the first time in the history of the Roman emperors a beard, which is for centuries the indication of philosophers and education.

the Antonine take up this development and expand them: They are likewise with beard represented, however with longer. Their Haartracht consists of artful this development up to Septimius Severus is maintained.

Caracalla breaks however with this tradition and can in the sense of the soldier emperors differently be represented: no longer reserved education is haven-guessed/advised recognizable in its, but rather the opposite: Instructions can and abilities of getting through. Its portrait addresses itself particularly to the soldiers, who could understand the figurative statement of its haven advice easily. This is therefore important, since Caracalla relied in its claim to power primarily on the army.

Macrinus refers again to Marks of Aurel and interrupts the expression-strong representation method of the soldier emperors aiming at abilities of getting through.

Gallienus refers in its haven-guessed/advised to the beginnings of the Roman haven guessing representation, i.e. to Augustus. Its hair representation attaches to those of the Augustus, as the fork and the motives for pliers are taken up. This is called also Gallieni Renaissance.

With Diokletian the realistic ruler representation disappears. Againstistic a stic - thus realistic - mode of expression as with the Vespasianporträt here again - similarly as with Augustus - a stereotyped mode of expression is introduced: haven advice of this time show therefore the respective representing only with difficulty and are heavily from each other to to be usually differentiated.

Konstantin finally breaks completely with the representation, which prevailed since beginning of the Prinzipats. Its haven advice are often oversize put on, in the representation substantially more abstract, and also the view is not aligned no more to an opposite.

literature

  • Berne pool of broadcasting corporations Andreae: The Roman art. Revised and extended expenditure. Herder, Freiburg in break. 1999, ISBN 3-451-26681-4.
  • Marianne miner: To the Roman haven-guesses/advises studies the 3. Century n. Chr. Having ELT, Bonn 1977 (Antiquitas, 18), ISBN 3-7749-1277-7.
  • M. Miner: Mark of Aurel. 1978.
  • Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Delbrueck: Antique Porphyrwerke. De Gruyter, Berlin 1932 (studies to the lateantique history of art, 6).
  • J. Feifer: The novel emperor portrait. Some of problem in methodology, in: Ostraka. Rivista di Antichità 5, (1998) 45-56.
  • Bianca Maria Felletti Maj: Iconografia romana imperial there Severo Alessandro A M. Aurelio Carino (222-285 D. C). L'Erma di Bretschneider, Rom 1958 (Quaderni e guide archeologia, 2).
  • Klaus Fitt, Paul Zanker: Catalog the Roman haven advice in the Capitolini museums and the other local collections of the city Rome. Text and board volume. 2. , edition revised. Philipp v. Zabern, Mainz 1994 (contributions for development brightistic and emperor-temporal sculpture and architecture, 3), ISBN 3-8053-0596-6.
  • Helga of Heintze: Antique haven advice in lock the Fasanerie with Fulda. Philipp v. Zabern, Mainz 1967.
  • D. Ohly: Glyptothek Munich. Greek and Roman sculptures. A leader. Munich 2001, S. 75-92.
  • R.M. Cutter: Gegenbilder in the Roman emperor-haven-guesses/advises: the new faces Neros and Vespasians, in: M. Büchsel (Hrsg.): Haven-guesses/advises before the invention of the haven advice. Colloquium, Frankfurt 1999 (2003), S. 59-76.
  • K. Vierneisel, P. Zanker: The portraits of the Augustus. Ruler picture and politics in imperial Rome. Exhibition catalog, Munich 1978.
  • Susan Walker: Greek one and Roman of haven advice. Reclam, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-15-010454-8.
  • Max Wegner: Gordianus III. to Carinus. Man, Berlin 1979 (the Roman ruler picture, 3, 3), ISBN 3-7861-2000-5.
  • Paul Zanker: Augustus and the power of the pictures. C.H. Beck, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-406-32067-8.
  • Paul Zanker: Prinzipat and ruler picture, in: High School 86 (1979), S. 353-368.
 

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