the Roman Legion was an independently operating military connecting with 4.000 - 6,000 Legionären and easily armed auxiliary troops in same strength. He comes in today's terms at earliest that Division close.
In the long history of the Legion changed themselves the strength, composition and equipment of the Legion. The Legion of the classical Roman Kaiser era became by the army reform of the Marius starting from 107 v. Chr. coined/shaped.
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the Legion in the king time and the time of the Republic of
at present the Roman republic was the army a military service army, whereby the military service was coupled to the political rights. Who did not pay taxes, in addition, had not to the army, possessed no political rights. Depending upon fortunes one was divided into one of the five classes and served then as a rider,heavy infantryman, again divided in three classes, or more easily infantryman. The equipment had to be placed.
The origin of the Legion (of legio = the vintage) was appropriate for in the middle 7. Century v. Chr. in the Hopliten - Phalanx, alsothe Speer as primary weapon equipped and in 3 thousand-shanks under 3 grandstands (driving university militum) was partitioned. In addition 3 groups of one hundred (centuriae) came riders among the three section sergeants (driving university celerum). Altogether the attack army of Rome at the beginning that existedKing time thus out approx. 3,300 men. The strength of the Legion was doubled after the combination of the mountain Romans of the Palatin with the hill Romans of the Quirinal on 6 thousand-shanks foot people and 6 groups of one hundred of Reiterei.
In the context of the Serviani army reform under king Servius Tullius, which brought also the building to the first Stadtmauer of Rome with itself, was again arranged the Legion. It consisted now of 6.000 men in 6 rows plus 2.400 men lightarmed. In the first 4 numbers of the Phalanx were located40 Centurien of the full-equipped Hopliten (classis), in the following two rows ever 10 Centurien of the fully not equipped Hopliten of the second and third fortune class. The citizens of the lowest fortune classes placed 24 Centurien of the lightarmed, those if necessary also to gaps inthe Phalanx to fill out had. In addition 6 Centurien Reiterei usually came per Legion.
In the Legion served the citizens of the first quantity of 18. to 46. Lebensjahr. The older classes had to protect the Stadtmauern at home. Beside the Legionthe Roman citizens stepped the common Legion of the latinischen confederates of Rome. With the increasing Erstarken of Rome in 5. and 4. Century v. Chr. also several putting ions were at the same time placed in the field.
Roman Republic of
the Roman army was at present Caesars as follows developed:
1 Legion = 10 Kohorten = 3.600-6.000 men;
- 1 Kohorte = 3 Manipel = 360-600 men;
- 1 Manipel = 2 Zenturien = 120-200 men;
- 1 Zenturie = 60-100 men
- 1 Manipel = 2 Zenturien = 120-200 men;
- 1 Kohorte = 3 Manipel = 360-600 men;
starting from that 2. Century v. Chr.the Legion consisted no longer of citizens, but of freiwilligen career soldier and consisted of altogether 10 Kohorten. Generally speaking the Roman army covered approx. 25 putting ions. The major task of the Reiterei was not the employment in the battle,separate the clearing-up and pursuit. All putting ion officers were in addition, mounted. As horse farmhands and drivers slaves were usually carried. The number of the horse farmhands became estimated on 700 per Legion, those the driver on 300. Stood for a Legion about1,200 load animals for the order, according to the Auxiliartruppen less. Auxiliartruppen are troops of not-Roman origin. They were enlisted as reinforcement of the foot troops. Frequently such a troop consisted those of riders and easily armed special-purpose forces, the Roman easy infantry and Kavallerie onFar and replaced they exceeded quality with the time completely. Admits is to accurate elbow contactors of Crete and the Schleuderer of the Balearen. The riders on the wings were predominantly Spanish and numidischer, in addition, gallischer and Germanic origin.
in 4. Jh. v. Chr. those was improved so far relatively rigid Phalanx (alleged of Camillus) by introduction of the more flexible Manipularordnung, whereby the Legion in later campaigns won the superiority opposite the Greek and Macedonian Phalanx.Three meetings were placed one behind the other to several Manipeln. Between the Manipeln so large distances were left that shifts standing Manipel of the rear in each case meeting between them advance could. That resulted in a kind chessboard sample and permitted a very flexible engagements guidance.Each Manipel consisted 60 of two Zenturien à and/or. (with the Triarii) 30 men, which stood one behind the other. Directly before the enemy contact the rear Zenturien advanced into the gaps, so that a closed combat line resulted. With (forced or freiwilligen) the retreatthe first meeting lined the two Zenturien again one behind the other and opened so the gaps again, the Manipel up of the second meeting could now advance.
The past Legion of 8.400 men was divided into 2 new putting ions per 4,200 men. EveryoneLegion consisted of 10 Manipeln (of manus = the hand, the crowd) to 2 Zenturien each to 12 members in open and/or. 6 members in closed order. In the first meeting the Hastaten, then the Principes, stood finally the Triarier. Hastatiand Principes received the Pilum, a Wurfspeer, while the Triarii remained equipped with the long impact lance further and fought, only three members deeply, in closed order. The Pilum became on command from a distance of approx. 10 to20 step closed into the enemy thrown, in order to open and its sign weight its rows. Subsequently, the fight with the sword ( Gladius) took place, in addition the Legionäre changed from the open into the closed order. EveryoneLegion were besides 300 riders (equites) assigned.
The infantry consisted of four troop units:
- Triarii =altgediente, heavily armed veterans/elite soldiers in the third meeting (Speer)
- Principes =Soldaten in the second meeting (Wurfspeer, sword and sign)
- Hastati =Soldaten the first meeting (sword and sign)
- Velites =leichtbewaffnete Plänkler, those outside of the battle order with several easy Pila fought and the fight opened
the Triarier into the Legion as elite soldiers were admired and usually only into way outless situations used.
The summary from two Zenturien to oneManipel was particularly in combat of tactical importance. There the command was always led of the older two Zenturionen (the respective “Centurio prior”). The past classification after fortune classes was omitted. Instead the length of service became relevant. The recruits began asLightarmed, came then to the Hastaten, later the Principes and finally to the Triariern. Thus gave the most experienced soldiers, the Triarier, to the troop the support.
In emergency situations like the Puni wars against Karthago, in particular after the loss of several putting ionsagainst Hannibal, the organization was opened downward, in order to receive the necessary number from recruits to. These were not too constituted partly able, their equipment, and the state had to place these.
In the further process of the RomanHistory came it to a depletion of the italischen Kleinbauern, who extracted the basis from the Milizsystem, since the farmers no more become impoverished did not fall under the military service.
the army reform of the Marius
by the defeats against the Kimbern and Teutonenbecame an army reform ever more urgently, then under Marius starting from 107 v. Chr. effected and with that were strongly changed the organization of the Legion and the equipment. (After this reform the Legionär became whether its extensive luggage also that mulus Marianus, „the Maultier of the Marius “, mentioned.)
concrete set Marius and. A. the following changes in its reforms through:
- The minimum income (censuses) for recruits was lowered (later abolished).
- The soldiers had to be responsible no more for their equipment, butby the state were uniformly armed. The entry to the army became possible thus also for men from the poorer social classes.
- The putting ion eagle was introduced, in order to increase the motivation of the troop.
- The soldiers had to carry their luggage (therefore it those aboveaforementioned mockery designation), whereby the cruising speed of the Legion could be drastically increased, because the slow and uncertain Begleittross was generic term-oiled.
- Veterans were continued to supply by the state after their service and/or. got a piece country assigned.
The bases of this army reform became alsoin the next reform of the Augustus does not change, which provided however for a further standardization of the army.
the Legion of the classical Kaiser era
the Legion after the army reform of the Marius was in putting ion troops, in which Roman citizens served as a heavy infantry, and Auxiliareinheiten (auxiliary troops) of allied peoplesarranged. After the reform of the Legion in the Kaiser era the Roman Legion with a standard size of scarcely 5,500 men led of a staff from 11 officers.
The Legion always kommandierte the Legatus. A Tribunus Laticlavius stood for thisas deputies to the side. As third-highest putting ion leaders ranked the Praefectus Castrorum (commander of camp), the highest rank, which a Nichtadeliger could reach, and thus the dream of each simple Legionärs. Subsequently, 5 impulse university Angusticlavii, those quasi still followed in the higher officer conditionsserved. Behind it still the Primus Pilus, the highest all Zenturionen and at the same time also the leader of the first Kohorte (place fenced of cohors =) the Legion, as well as the Primi Principi and the Primi Hastati stood.
the Legion (desired strength) sat down together out (see in addition also the diagram):
- Putting ion troops (5,500 men):
- 1. Kohorte (810 men):
- 5 Zenturien à 162 men
- 2. to 10. Kohorte (4,320 men):
- for each Kohorte 3 Manipel to ever two Zenturien à80 men
- Kavallerie (120 men):
- 4 rider departments (Turmae) à 30 men. They served primarily for the clearing-up and communication.
- Aides and officers (250 men)
- 1. Kohorte (810 men):
to be added in addition had nearly the same number on:
- Auxiliartruppen (approximately 5,000 men):
- Kohorten (infantry)
- 10 Kohorten
- Kavallerie (Ala)
- 16-24 departments of (Turmae)
- Cohors Equitata (mixed unit from infantry and Kavallerie).
- Kohorten (infantry)
Thus a Legion inclusive auxiliary troops and unit train came in the case of full occupation on scarcely 11,000 men.
The summary from two Zenturien to a Manipel remained nominal still existing,however their tactical meaning lost in the course of the Kaiser era to favour of the Kohorte.
The units of the Auxiliartruppen were subjected to stronger differences than the putting ion troops, since they partly had special equipment (e.g. Elbow contactors) or to the typical conditions of the countries of originwere adapted. Usually the Auxiliareinheiten was not with the putting ions together, but in independent camps (Castra) accommodated, z. B. at the Limes.
Further the Legion still had over special troops such as cannons and a unit train for the supply of the Legion, in additionstill over an extensive administrative machinery, since the Legion had to notice also tasks of the administration in their province and many construction measures. The administration recruited itself from the active soldiers of the respective units
starting from the second century n. Chr.became a newKind set up by Auxiliartruppen, the numbers, whose strength was considerably under that the past Auxiliartruppen (approx. a third). Also these troops were used independently in smaller castellets.
Within the Centuria it gave also multiplicity of ranks, eitherthere or with detached duties to be reached could. There is well-known over 100 ranks or function names, which however not all existed at the same time.
the simple soldier was called miles gregarius. The next stage were those immune, thosefrom the normal day service releases, but still no superiors were. In the Centurie the Hornbläser cornicen were weapon-waited this and custos armorum, besides there was however immune also in the staff duty or in the civilian administration. One could do it toearliest with the today's Gefreiten compare.
As principalis the Legionär received then a higher pay and superior function. In a Centuria it gave as a deputy of the Centurio optio, also optio ad the spem, thus for transportto the Centurio of near-standing Optio, to be could. Rank-moderately over the Optio, but not as a superior, more signifer , the field semaphor stood. Further there was still one tesserarius, a kind first sergeant. Tesserarius received the one and a half times one pay of a Legionärs (sesquiplicarius), Signifer and Optio the double pay (duplicarius).
it are approximately 50 putting ions in particular well-known, however usually at the most 35 putting ions existed at the same time. Each Legion possessed a number and a name. Partly numbers were doubleassigned, since in civil war times each party set up own putting ions. With respect to the Kaiser era the putting ions were differentiated also by their surnames. So was for example the Legio II Parthica of Septimius a Severus for the fight against the Legion dug part ago. Resuming one Information in addition the list contains of the Roman putting ions.
The locations of the putting ions changed in the course of the time in the measure, how the threats changed, the realm borders were exposed to which. Under emperors Tiberius was 23 n.Chr. eight putting ionson the Rhine, six in the Balkans area and at the Danube, three in Hispanien, ever two in Africa (by those after Pannonien one shifted a little later) and in Egypt as well as four to the safety device of the east border in Syria (Tacitus Annales,4,5). Later the emphasis from the Rhine shifted to the Danube, while the Flavier the east border arrondierten to the Parthern and stationed in small Asia additional troops. In late ancient times the distribution of the putting ions changed again due to the reorganisation of the army,whereby the putting ions of the lateRoman realm only little with the putting ions the early and high Kaiser era in common had (see below).
of the Legionär of the Kaiser era had an extensive arsenal at weapons, protection equipment, digging tool andpersonal equipment. Its equipment is subjected, due in the course of the centuries strong changes both by the changes in the structure of the state and the army and to the respective enemies and by cultural influences.
- Chain shirt, shed tank or the rail tank. The latter only in the 1. to including 3. Jh. u.Z.
- Galea or cassis helmet
- Hasta of heavy Kampfspeer
- Scutum sign, large rectangular sign from wood, spans with verziertemLeather, as well as with iron Schildbuckel
- Gladius (sword), a short sword with approx. 50 cm blade length, which were carried on the right side. Exception with the Centurio, which carried it on the left side.
- Pilum (Wurfspiess) 2 pieces for each Legionär
- Pugio (Dolch)
- Spatha (sword), which Spatha became first in the Kavallerie and of some Auxiliartruppen used, particularly of Teutons. Also with the Gladiatoren it preferably found to Gladiatoren use from the “Secutor “-. Beginning 2. Century (approx. 100 n. Chr.) replacedit gradually also in regular infantry units the short sword.
- Funda (centrifuge) and elbow were with the putting ions in the use, however specialized Auxiliareinheiten with it were normally equipped.
- Balliste and Onager (catapult) were not assigned to an individual Legionär as heavy weapons.
the clothing of the Legionärs existed beside the arms parts stated above out:
- Tunica, short or langärmeliges article of clothing from wool
- Caligae, nailed Sandalen, since that 2. Jh. u.Z. closed shoes
- Paenula or Sagum, from heavy, verfilzter wool manufactured the Umhang of the Roman soldiers
- Focale, Halstuch
- Sarcina, bag, in that the equipment and food supply was transported
- canteen, outIron or leather
- Cingulum, belt or sword belt. The two military belts, for the Dolch and the sword become in the course of the 1. Jh. u.Z. to one reduces. The sword was then carried for a Bandelier at the Balteus.
depending upon operational area still different articles of equipment are added like socks or trousers (feminalia). The group (contubernium) ordered the digging tool , a leather tent over a Maultier, on that and possibly. additional food supply was shipped.
Likewise a corn mill belonged toGroup equipment, the grain ungemahlen spent. The group partly still had (probably usually unfree) an aid, that worried also about the Maultier. Altogether the number of these becomes „aid “per Legion on over thousands estimated, there in particular the unit trainand the rider units a substantial number of horse farmhands to have had must. However the status of these is not completely clarified „aids “; one assumes that it concerned slaves predominantly.
The Legion fought both in closed battle order, so that the individual soldier only from the front open to attack and very muchwell by the large sign was covered, in addition, - contrary to the Phalanx - in loose battle order, in which the Legionär did not have a contact to neighbours, front and backer. This required far larger discipline, as in the close rowsto fight the Phalanx. The normal battle order knows thereby an arrangement in three rows up. Two Zenturien were combined into a Manipel, which fought under the instruction of the serve-older Centurio. The Manipel was again in Kohorten summarized. With replacement thatManipeltaktik by the Kohortentaktik was possible template-free maneuvering, and the troop became more mobile.
The opponent became on approx. 20 step distance with a hail from throw mirror-image meal (Pila) überschüttet. These should, apart from attaching losses, the opposingSign barrier and the formation dissolve.
the Legion in late ancient times
in late ancient times the appearance of the Legion changed itself fundamentally. By the army reform Diokletians became the numberthe putting ions strongly increases (on approximately 60), whereby however its desired strength was lowered (approx. 1000 men). At the same time also the number of in such a way specified grew foederati, which fought in the numbers of the Roman army. The army became finally in
partition. The role of the Reiterei made constantly too, particularly in the context of the arguments with the barbarian rider armies (Goten, Hunnen) andeverything in the fight with the Sassaniden, in whose army the Panzerreiterei played an outstanding role. In this connection also the meaning loss of the Legion is to be explained. The standard unit of the Roman army became finally the number with a size ofabout 300 men.
In the eastRoman realm became the Legion in the course late 6. and early 7. Century gradually dissolved. To the last provable putting ions belonged the Legio IIII Parthica, which is mentioned still among emperors Maurikios.
See also: The lateRoman army
- Peter Connolly: The RomanArmy. Tiberius Claudius Maximus, soldier in the service Trajans. Tessloff, Nuremberg 1996, ISBN 3-7886-0745-9.
- Kate Gilliver: On the way to the Imperium. A history of the Roman army. Theiss, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-8062-1761-0.
- Adrian Goldworthy: The putting ions of Rome. The large manualto the power instrument of a thousand-year old world realm. Two thousand-unity, Frankfurt A. M. 2004, ISBN 3-86150-515-0. Well readable representation; Emphasis is on the time of the republic and the Prinzipats.
- Arnold H. M. Jones: The Later novel Empire. Reproduction of the expenditure of 1964in 2 Bde. (continuous nummeriert), Baltimore 1986, S. 607ff.To the lateantique army.
- Marcus Junkelmann: The putting ions of the Augustus. The Roman soldier in the archaeological experiment. 9. Edition. of Zabern, Mainz 2003, ISBN 3-8053-0886-8
- Michael Simkins: The Roman army from Cäsar toTrajan. Resistance and knowledge, Bonn 1981, ISBN 3-8033-0330-3
- Michael Whitby: Rome RK was, 293-696. Routledge, London 2003, ISBN 0-4159-6860-7. Current one, knappe overview to the lateRoman army.
- John Warry: Throwing acres into the Classical World. University OF Oklahoma press, ISBN 0-8061-2794-5
Web on the left of
|Commons: Roman Legion - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
a multiplicity of groups tries to copy and test the equipment of the Roman Legion as original-faithfully as possible.
- Representation of the Legio I Flavia Minervia Pia Fidelis Domitiana toEnd of the 1. Jh. n. Chr.
- LEGIO I Minervia PF, Legion from the area of Bonn
- Legion VI Victrix Römercohorte Opladen
- Legion XXIV (English)
- Legio XV
- on the left of to different groups of Romans
further ones Web on the left of:
- Outstanding overview with Livius.org
- different illustrations to the RomanLegion
- De RH militari of Flavius Vegetius Renatus (English)
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