Roman realm

 Die Expansion des Römischen Reiches
the expansion of the Roman realm
the Kolosseum in Rome

Roman realm (Latin: Imperium Romanum) generally designates the area controlled by the city Rome in the time between approximately that 6. Century v. Chr. and that 5. and/or. 6. Century n. Chr., whereby the rule form in the course of the time finally changed itself from the king rule to the republic and to the empire. In this area with its many peoples, languages and religions it spread as state, asCompany form and as universalistic idea out (imperium sine fine - „boundless realm “). A clear demarcation is however neither to the before-Roman epoch nor to the Byzantine realm possible.

At the time of its largest expansion, at times emperors Trajans, that extendedRoman realm over the areas approximately around the Mediterranean, over Gallien and large parts of Britanniens and over the areas approximately around the black sea (see also Bosporani realm). Thus Rome controlled the largest part of the areas at that time, inMediterranean area at all admits was.

The trade, the arts and the culture achieved a first high bloom, the quality of life at that time and the population conditions at that time during the time of the Roman realm in parts of its area should in Europe and North Africa only centurieslater to be again reached.

The realm exerted a large influence on the areas controlled by it, in addition, on the areas beyond its borders. In its eastern half this influence with Greek - brightistic and eastern elements mixed.The west against it was latinisiert.

In addition, latin, the tongue of Rome, for the office language of the realm, in parts of it remained other languages. The language of the Romans is over centuries in completely Europe also later still the languagethe education been, particularly in the science, into the time of the baroque. In the Roman-catholic church latin up to the second Vatikani council remained the language of the fair. This very day become in manySciences, approximately in the medicine and biology, latin of technical terms uses and again production. From latin the modern Roman languages of Europe ( Italian, French , Spanish , Portuguese and Romanian , as well as Ladinisch and RA-gate-Omani) developed. A great manylatin of leaning words are besides in the Germanic and the slawischen languages.

Above all on the right of and commonwealth in Europe are considerably coined/shaped of the Roman inheritance.

Table of contents

historical overview

the history of the Roman realm can roughly into the following six phases be arranged, thosein the process of this article to be described more exactly; to details see to appropriate reference in the article (example:Prinzipat):

  1. King time (753 v. Chr.- 510 v. Chr.)
  2. The time of the Republic of (509 v. Chr.- 133 v. Chr.)
  3. Time of the civil wars (starting from 133 v. Chr.)
  4. Prinzipat (Roman Kaiser era I, starting from 27 v. Chr.)
  5. Late ancient times, in the older research also Dominat (Roman Kaiser era II, starting from 284 n. Chr.)
  6. Fall of the realm inThe west and transition to the Byzantine realm in the east (starting from 395 n. count, still to late ancient times)

Roman king time and early republic

of Rome establishment myth: The kapitolinische Wölfin sucks the boys after Romulus and

Remus old-RomanExcessive quantity dates the establishment of Rome in the year 753 v. Chr., it was used later also than beginning of the time calculation (off urbe condita). The area of the seven hills might however already substantially in former times of different trunks, above all Latinern and Sabinern, settle been its. From the scattered villages Rome finally developed. The new city state was soon under etruskischer king rule; this phase of its development is called (king time). Under the Etruskern Rome arrived soonto economic meaning, it controlled nevertheless two important trade routes: the via Latina and the via Salaria.

Different legends want to link the Roman king time with the history of Troia. So the survivors Troianer are by Aeneas, a sonthe Anchises and the goddess Venus, led into the area Latium its. These legends developed however only centuries later.

Culturally the Romans were affected strongly by the Etruskern; over these also Greek elements found their way into thoseCity. Examples are etruskischen numbers, which Greek etruskische writing, from which latin alphabet developed, the etruskische bird-look and the funeral ritual, which found a covered late bloom in the Gladiatorenkämpfen. Rome won in Italy increasingly in influence, after ititself approx.500 v. Chr. from the rule of the Etrusker had solved. The last one of all Roman and/or. etruskischen kings, Tarquinius superbus (Tarquinius the arrogant one), by the Roman people under the guidance of Lucius Iunius Brutus from Rome one drove out, according to excessive quantity, because one of its sons had violated a Roman named Lucretia. The year 509 v. Chr.however probably later invention is, itself to the fall of the Peisistratiden in Athens around 510 v. Chr. to lean could. The time is more probablearound 475 v. Chr., to that the former kingdom also into the Roman Republic of (Republic of = res publica, „the public thing “) was converted.

The Roman national emblem SPQR, an antique “Logo”

it is not so easy at all, thoseTo clarify characteristic of the Roman commonwealth. It grew over the years and changed constantly.Polybius, a Greek scholar, characterized it as mixture from monarchy (offices for municipal authorities such as consul), aristocracy rule (senate) and democracy (Comitia). The highest office in the statefirst a Prätor (prae Irish - who precedes the army) practiced, later dressed it annually two consuls, which had the highest Regierungsgewalt and on the highest level cursus honorum stood. The Roman aristocracy meeting, which senate played,an important role. Besides there were several popular assemblies, which comitia, which were likewise important, particularly in questions of war and peace and in the iurisdiction. As the first to some extent firm point in Roman history one can the resignation of the Twelve-board law 451 v. Chr. see.

Publica the forum Romanum represents a central place the Roman res , which as political, religious and social place served the meeting.

Das Forum Romanum heute
The forum Romanum was formed

also the Roman social order today at that time, thoseby the centuries only slowly changed. At the point stood the old families of Rome, the landpossessing Patrizier, which was politically most influential. However the Plebejer constituted the largest part of the population , which had only partial political rights, Slaves were regarded as things and had thus no rights, could attain the liberty however. The relations between Patriziern and Plebejern was regulated by the clientele system.

Senatssitzung (Darstellung aus dem 19. Jahrhundert)
Senate meeting (representation from that 19. Century)

to the highest offices of the State of, those thatCarriers reputation (something that in Rome was crucial), has one promised at first only Patrizier certified, while all free citizens had to carry war service out. After the condition fights (for instance the well-known secessio polarize to), which around the 150 years lasted, became the Plebejerfinally 367 v. Chr. politically nearly equally, yet only relatively few plebejischen families the ascent succeeded into the Führungsschicht.

Rome began with a purposeful expansion in central Italy (conquest of Veji 396 v. Chr.) had, thereby in addition, heavy setbacksbear. Here there were first the Galliersturm of 387 v. Chr., which should leave psychologically its traces, as well as several defeats against italische races. The SAM rivet wars ( 1 followed. 343 - 341 v. Chr.; 2. 326 - 304 v.Chr.; 3. 298 - 290 v. Chr.) and the Latinerkrieg (approx. 340 - 338 v. Chr.). Rome created finally a widely distributed alliance network. Thus on strategically important places colonies were set and closed alliances with several italischen trunks,however the Roman citizen right did not receive.

From this time of its history Rome followed as taut commonwealth with powerful army and strong urge for expansion. Thus the bases for its further ascent were put.

Competitive powers placed on thatitalischen peninsula the city states of the Etrusker north of Rome, the Celts in the Poebene and the Greek colonies in South Italies.

the ascent of Rome - expansion in Italy and in the Mediterranean area

in the 3. Century v. Chr.setzteitself Rome against SAM rivets and other italische trunks through. Gradually the entire peninsula fell at Rome (except upper Italy, which was annektiert only later). In the south the republic around 275 v. Chr. the there Greek city states, after had succeeded to repel the brightistic Condottiere Pyrrhos of Epiros. With this expansion Rome conflicted however with that so far Rome friendly reflected commercial republic Karthago (in the today's Tunesien), which led to the Puni wars.

Die Ruinen von Karthago
The ruinsof Karthago

in the first Puni war (264 - 241 v. Chr.) Rome broke the agreement with Karthago over the allocation of the spheres of interest on Sicilies and expanded its sphere of influence to to the border of the karthagischen sphere of influence. After Karthago,kind of such provoked, which had attacked and had struck Romans from lake, removed Rome its fleet, in order to be able successfully to advance toward the sea power Karthago. At several setbacks and changeful war luck it finally succeeded to Rome to seize particularly on Sicily footto strike and the karthagische fleet several times. Karthago lost all in the peace treaty its sizilischen possessions (later also Sardinien and Korsika); from now on it was the principal purpose of the karthagischen policy to adjust the consequences of this defeat. The influential karthagische family of the Barkiden established in Hispanien a kind colonial empire, whose resources for the fight against Rome could be used.

Hannibal überquert die Alpen (Phantasiedarstellung).
Hannibal crosses the alps (fantasy representation).

In the second Puni war (218 - 201 v. Chr.) it almost succeeded to the karthagischen strategist Hannibal, Rometo force into the knees, whereby as reason for war the FE storage and conquest served the Greek colony Saguntum by Hannibal, which was “allied” with Rome. After the case Saguntums and the refusal of the government in Karthago to deliver Hannibal followed the RomanDeclaration of war. Hannibal took the Landweg by the southern Gallien, crossed the alps and broke in with an army in Italy, whereby he destroyed several Roman armies successively. Particularly the defeat with Cannae (216 v. Chr.) was painfulfor the Romans: It concerned the heaviest defeat in Roman history, but did not succeed it to Hannibal not to destroy the alliance system of Rome in Italy so that Hannibal remained to a large extent isolated despite its victories. The Roman field gentleman Scipio set 204v. Chr. to Africa over and Hannibal defeated 202 v. Chr. with Zama. Karthago lost all except-African possessions and its fleet. It was finally switched off as power factor, while Rome with its new province Hispanien won increasingly in influence.

Die hellenistischen Großreiche um 200 v. Chr.
Those brightistic large realms around 200 v. Chr.

The victory over Karthago in the 1. and 2. Rome supremacy in the western Mediterranean secured Puni war. Beside its new role as sea power also the conquered Silberminen carried in Hispanien and the enormous reparations,the Karthago to carry out had, to Rome new wealth. Into the time starting from 200 v. Chr. also the interference of Rome fell into the power play the brightistic large realms: There the great powers had not been able, peaceful living togetherto reach. Conflicts with the Antigoniden followed, whereby Rome 200 - 197 v. Chr. in Greece against Philipp V. intervened, around the Macedonian influence in Greece back urge.

Also against the brightistic Seleukidenreich Rome war led. On a request for assistancesmallasiatic states it came 192 - 188 v. Chr. to the war against Antiochos III., in which Rome remained victorious. Antiochos had to do without a majority of its possessions in small Asia. Rome became thereby the De-facto-Vormacht in the eastern Mediterranean area. AttemptsMacedonia to put the old hegemony up again it led to the war. 168 v. Chr. the Makedonen was finally defeated and their kingdom was smashed, 148 v. Chr. finally converted into a Roman province. Thus it was issued 146 v. Chr. also Greece (starting from 27v. Chr. Province Achaea, before to Macedonia) and the new Roman province Africa after the destruction Karthagos, which before the third Puni war (150 - 146 v. Chr.) power had won.

Pergamon became by hereditary contract 133 v. Chr. to the Roman province. 64/63 v. received same status. Chr. the remainder realm of the Seleukiden, which was no longer lebensfähig and was made by Pompeius, which made a re-organization of the east, the province Syria. Only thatschwächelnde Egypt of the Ptolemäer, which became a Roman protectorate, kept its independence, before it in the year 30 v. Chr. likewise in the Roman realm came up. At the border of the part ago realm the Roman expansion came to a halt, here should Romein the next centuries found an equal opponent.

In the new provinces, particularly in the rich brightistic coastal regions, in this time from private „societies “(societates publicanorum) Roman knight and Patrizier the taxes were raised. During itthey exhausted, could a fixed amount to the state additional receipts keep. This led to often immoderate taxes, which the economy of these areas leached out and led again and again to rebellions. Over the reputation of these tax tenants one experiences for instance in the Bible (Zöllner). Due to Roman successes also the quantity of the coined money the available rose dramatically, just as the number of slaves increased ever more. The straight slavery played an important role in the context of the Roman economy, howthe slaves were consulted for completely different activities, but the possibility existed at the same time that they could regain their liberty.

So shining also successes with regard to foreign policy of Rome had been - inside eroded gradually the republican order.

thoseRevolution time and the civil wars

the republic turned out since the center 2. Century v. Chr. into a crisis relating to domestic affairs, which finally flowed into the epoch of the civil wars and should with the fall of the past system of government end. Background was first thatCall after reforms, particularly within the agrarian range. The Romans tended to transfer a part of the country in government property, conquered in the war, and to leave needy citizens for use. In order to less avoid appropriation of large agrarian goods in the hands some, was the Landbesitz officially limited to 500 Iugera. This law could not be implemented however. Wealthy citizens added themselves enormous Landgüter. This at the latest at the time to the problem, as practically all country within Italy distributed was simultaneous andever more slaves due to the victorious wars into the country flowed. The Kleinbauern and craftsman from the layer of the Plebejer could not compete with the slave army constantly increasing by the numerous wars. They were simultaneous by the numerous wars outside of Italyin a forced manner to long absence, which the receipt of the domestic yard far less favourable. The great land owners however increased their Landbesitz by the purchase of unprofitabler yards or also by driving out by force. The depletion of broad social classes led to migration from the land and substantial discontent.

Other groupsof Plebejern, which had come in the trade to wealth, required for more rights. The Gracchi reform designated after the brothers Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus should reform landed property conditions and help the poorer layers of the population to country and income.The reform failed however because of the resistance of the conservative senate circles, which remained underlying conflict further to exist: the popular ones, the representatives of the Plebejer and Kleinbauern, and the Optimaten, the conservative aristocracy party, fought each other mutually, in order to implement their respective policy. BothGracchen were murdered, road fights and political murders stood at the agenda. Also internal tensions in the alliance system of Rome became apparent, so that it 91 - 89 v. Chr. to the confederate war so mentioned came. At the end the Roman citizen right also that becameConfederates lent. Subsequently, it came 88 v. Chr. to the notorious Vesper of Ephesus: After the murder Zehntausender of Roman settlers in small Asia pulled Rome into the war against Mithridates of Pontos and defeated it after fights of several years.

CaesarsDeath (history painting from that 19. Century)

these events followed the beginning of the Roman civil war, in again the popular one and Optimaten opposite stood oneself (Marius, Cinna, Sulla). Sulla remained victorious and established the dictatorship, but had theseSolution no real existence, particularly since Sulla withdrew soon and the old forces fought each other again. The crisis of the republic was clarified by (first) the Triumvirat: the ambitious Gaius Iulius Caesar (between 59 the v. Chr. and 51 v. Chr.inGalli war so mentioned Gallien to subject), the successful military Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus should (in the east grandiose successes had celebrated and among other things the remainders of the Seleukidenreichs had eliminated) and the rich Marcus Licinius Crassus was received an informal alliance,in order to support each other in their respective interests. For the death of the Crassus in a campaign against the former friends part ago struggled Caesar and Pompeius for power in the State of (49 - 46 v. Chr.), whereby itselfPompeius on the side of the senate placed. Caesar obsiegte. Only by its murder it was prevented that the republic transformed into a dictatorship.

After the murder Caesars in the year 44 v. did not succeed to the trailers of the republic, thoseto restore old republican condition. In the civil war, which broke out now again, finally Octavian, the later „Augustus became generally accepted “, together with Marcus Antonius against the conspirators Brutus and Cassius in the battle with Philippi. Later those turnedto both out against each other, Octavian went out of the battle with Actium as a winner over Marcus Antonius and it supporting Kleopatra (31 v. Chr.). Thus also rich Egypt fell at Rome and remained for centuries „the grain chamber of theRich “. Thus the entire area was around the Mediterranean (lat. mare nostrum) in Roman hand.

the early Kaiser era (Prinzipat)

Augustus, which aimed first Roman „emperors

“Octavian like Caesar at an autocracy. But differently thanCaesar did not try to reach Octavian this goal by the means of an extraordinary dictatorship. Octavian left rather the old republican condition formal into force and secured its position by the assumption of different offices, by the transmission of special authorizations and forwardseverything by the assumption of a command of several years over important provinces with numerous putting ions. Octavian could induce the old senatorischen aristocracy to an acknowledgment of its rule, particularly since the most important republican gesinnten families were already switched off. The senate saw in Octavian„the first citizen of the State of “(Princeps). One calls the condition, which differs in substantial points from the old republican condition, justified by Octavian, therefore also Prinzipat. Octavian received 27 v. in the year. Chr.of the senate the title„Augustus “(the raised one).

Also in the Kaiser era many mechanisms remained res to that publica: about cursus honorum, the senate, the province administration and the Priestertümer (pontifex maximus was however the emperor). However became these offices ofpolitical decision positions more or less to pure administrative offices. The social order of the republic began itself to change, by since Augustus member of new layers, in particular from Italy and the provinces, into the conditions of the senators still lifted out and particularlythe knight (equites) ascended. The emperors had the right to appoint knights which caused a certain permeability of the social barriers. (You could assign also the honorable rank of a Patriziers to plebejische senators.) beside it it was now also forNichtbürger of Rome more simply to attain the citizen right.

Nero im Circus (Historiengemälde aus dem 19. Jahrhundert)
Nero in the Circus (history painting from that 19. Century)

the Imperium Romanum controlled the entire Mediterranean area at this time already. Also the west and the south Germaniens belonged to the Roman realm; the expansion after northeast,under Augustus introduced was, only by the Varusschlacht in the year 9 one stopped. Subsequently, Augustus was limited to the safety device of the existing borders, at which nearly the entire, about 300,000 men counting regular army was stationed. Its measures should because contribute also substantially to it to strengthen the Roman peace (Pax Romana). Into the time of the Augustus many important innovations fall, then a census was accomplished in the entire Imperium, which should seize the number of the Roman citizens. Furthermorein numerous provinces even if all inhabitants were seized, so for instance in Syria (this is in the Bible mentioned „estimation “). Roads and traffic routes were removed, economics and culture (augusteische classical period) experienced a bloom time; the Roman culture reached those Provinces, whose number increased.

Augustus' adoptive son and successor Tiberius, to which well humanly as a difficult character was considered and felt internally still as a republican, was limited during its rule to to a large extent defensive measures to the safety device of the borders. ItsSuccessor Caligula is considered traditionally as the first example of „Cäsarenwahn “, but sees one this emperor, who prevailed only well three years, today often more differentiated. Under Claudius Britannien the realm added, later followed still Thrakien, howevera clientele state dependent on Rome had been already before. The bad reputation of Claudius' successor Nero decreases/goes back among other things to subsequent, particularly Christian evaluation, since it introduced first large Christian pursuits; in addition, in other antique sources Nero becomesexplained, similarly he is judged also to a large extent negatively in the modern research. A further reproach is the neglect of the military. Neros death terminated 68 the julisch claudische house, which could attribute itself to two of the most important Roman sexes. The enda break in Roman history marks julisch claudischen house. From now on hardly still another emperor the old city-Roman aristocracy should come of.

the altogether successfully

governing Flavier the rule stepped the high Kaiser era after confusions of the four-emperor yearlyon, whereby emperor Vespasian let a rebellion in Judäa strike down in the year 70 by its son Titus. Vespasian reorganized the finances of the state and secured the border in the east part ago against . As Vespasian, which on a altogether successful reign look backcould, in the year 79 died, it Titus followed, which however only a very short reign was vergönnt, in which it to several disasters came (outbreak of the Vesuv as well as an epidemic epidemic disease), which became Titus however gentleman. Titus' brother Domitian stepped 81 its follow-up on. He is drawn in the sources, for example with Tacitus in dark colors, since its relationship to the senate was disturbed, could however quite successes achieve and the administration more efficient arrange. it however a yard plot brought 96 tooCase.

Trajanssäule with representations from the Dakerkriegen

the following time of the foster emperors, which began with Nerva, is generally understood as the gloss time of the Imperiums, both culturally and regarding the powerful position of Rome. The emperors took usually considerationon the presentness of the senate and usually held to the state order of the Prinzipats. Its largest expansion achieved the Roman realm under Nervas successor Trajan in the year 117, whereby Trajan, that as first emperors not from Italy,separate from the provinces originated (from Hispanien), when optimus princeps one celebrated, as „a best emperor “. The Imperium extended after Trajans Dakerkriegen and the campaigns against part ago of Scotland until the Nubien in north south direction and of Portugal until Mesopotamien in west east adjustment; however conquests had to be given up east the Euphrates after very short time again, since they were not to be held. Under the formed and hellenophilen Hadrian it came now to an internal consolidation of the realm anda civilization, cultural and technical bloom, which favoured the propagation of at that time still recent, already strongly increased Christianity. It was shifted particularly on the structure of efficient border attachments (for example the Hadrianswall in Britannien, or the attachment and straighteningthe east border). However some modern historians accuse to the emperor realm finances to have too strongly loaded. Indeed first harbingers of an economic crisis show themselves, which accepted however still no dramatic extents.

Roman provinces 117 n. Chr. ; itthe province Assyria is however missing.

Around the center 2. Century seemed to have concerned the Imperium under Antoninus Pius at its high point, but stepped under „the philosopher emperor “ Marks of Aurel (161 to 180) already the first problemsup. It came to embittered fights with different Germanic trunks, particularly with the Markomannen - whereby the fights broke out several times again, sees Markomannenkriege -, while in the east 161 attacked part ago; besides the 166 victoriously from the east returning draggedRoman troops an epidemic into the Imperium, „the Antonini plague in such a way specified “. Apart from the serious outside threat, which resources of the realm to to the borders of the feasible one stressed, first decay features became apparent inside. Afterdeath Mark of Aurels, which could achieve straight successes provisional within the range of the northern border, however internal reforms, came it missed to a set of further crisis events, particularly since its son was Commodus obviously not able, the realm securityto give. When it was murdered 192, a civil war followed.

At the beginning of the 3. Century could stabilize the Severer the situation; Septimius Severus, which interspersed itself 193 in the fight for power, was also the first originating from AfricaEmperor. It could book in the war against part ago some successes (mechanism of the Roman province Mesopotamien), on the inside grew meanwhile power that of military. Under Caracalla became all free inhabitants of the realm, except dediticii (militarily the subjecting, into Rome stood for a special legal relation), which lent Roman citizen right (Constitutio Antoniniana), which represented a salient break in the arrangement of the Roman commonwealth. Caracalla fell, which was popular at people and army, however within the senate and alsoits own family had enemies to raise during its part ago campaign an assassination attempt to the victim, and after a short meantime Elagabal mounted the throne, whose reign from the finally failed attempt was coined/shaped, the eastern divinity of the same name to the state God. 222 that becameunpopular Elagabal murdered and Severus Alexander tried in vain to work satisfactorily in the war in the east against the Sassaniden (see below) and on the Rhine against the Teutons. 235 it was murdered by dissatisfied soldiers.

It followed after the rather inglorious endthe Severer the realm crisis of the 3. Century, in which the soldier emperors saw themselves suspended to the attack of the Teutons at Rhine and Danube ( particularly the Alamannen and the Goten). Above all however came at the east border to heavy fightswith the newPersian realm of the Sassaniden (since 224), which had eliminated the part ago rule. The Sassaniden should prove as a more dangerous opponent of Rome, than part ago ever had been: The important Sassanidenkönig Schapur I.broke in several times in Syriaand could thereby several Roman armies defeat. 260 even emperor Valerian fell into his hand, which in the shank decided its life - an incomparable Blamage for Rome. While Rome was desperately endeavored in the east, the provinces of Syria and small Asiato hold, the Imperium eroded also in the west. The governors in provinces, which held the command over several putting ions in the hands, often used these, in order to arrive at power. It came again and again to fights between that Usurpers and even for the splitting off of individual provinces (particularly to Galliens, see Galli special realm), which could be cancelled again however under Aurelian. Other powers tried to use the weakness of Rome for conquests. Thus about Palmyra became, formerAllied Romes against part ago and later the Sassaniden, 272 subjected, after it had temporarily conquered parts of the eastern provinces of Rome under Zenobias guidance. The crisis led to numerous changes, concerned however not all areas of the realm in the same extent.And should finally succeed again to turn the threatening purge away of the realm.

the beginning of late ancient times

with Diokletian carried out itself 284 the transition to late ancient times, those of one - contrary to the previous time- was coined/shaped stronger centralization and Bürokratisierung as well as the later victory of the Christianity. This time should however, contrary to the older research, by no means than a pure decay time are understood, but rather than one time of paging and the transformationthe antique Mediterranean world.

Diokletian reformed the administration, which was divided into a civilian and a military sector, and created the order in such a way specified of the Tetrarchie, according to which it two senior emperors (Augusti) with in each case a junior emperor (Caesar; pl.: Caesares) to give should. Because for an emperor alone the Imperium was already long unregierbar become, particularly there the pressure on the borders constantly increased. The division of the provinces and the introduction of the Diözesen and prefectures should thoseAdministration of the provinces make more efficient. With top price regulations Diokletian tried to contain also the economic fall and the inflation, which grassierten in this time. Sakrale cementing of the rule of the emperor (in such a way Diokletian the surname Iovius assumed after the God Jupiter)a recent adjustment of the realm inhabitants should cause on the state and on the emperor. Particularly Diokletian felt the Christians as disloyally the realm opposite. Last (and heaviest) Christian pursuits took place also in its reign.

The idea of the divisionthe rule area was not completely new, but it now was more consistently converted. However the thought of the realm unit was not given up.Rome remained the idealistic center of the realm, even if the emperors their residences now into the proximity of the borders, sofor instance after Trier, shifted.

Head of the Kolossalstatue constant in in the Kapitolini museums in Rome

Konstantin the large one, whose father had transferred Mitkaiser Maximian the office senior of the Augustus after the resignation from Diokletian and its in the west, became306 from his soldiers to the emperor proclaimed, and the highest-ranking emperors Galerius recognized it against-willingly as Mitherr on. Konstantin was not satisfied with it. It eliminated gradually its rivals: Already since 312 it prevailed in the west andestablished 324 the autocracy over the entire Imperium. Its reign became important particularly from two reasons: On the one hand because of granting privilege the Christianity and on the other hand because of the establishment of Konstantinopel. The view of the realm turned moreand more eastward.

Constant in dynasty outlived it not for a long time. First brother fights followed, to Constantius II. 353 the autocracy attained. To its death it came 361 under its successor Julian Apostata, the nephew constant in, to one „Renaissance “of theHeidentums, which was however not from long duration. With Julian 363 the konstantinische dynasty expired.

Under Valentinian I. became provisional the realm from administrative reasons and after death emperor Theodosius I. finally divided. Theodosius was after the death of the Valensused of Valentinians son Gratian as emperors in the east. It succeeded to it at the defeat of Adrianopel to bind the penetrated Goten by contracts at least provisionally. 394 Theodosius finally became autocrats, after it in the west to a rowfrom usurpations and revolts had come; he was the last emperor, who should prevail over the entire Imperium. Into its time also the introduction of the Christianity falls as state religion. To its death 395 it came among its sons Honorius(in the west) and Arcadius (in the east) to the handing hurrying, which should be from then on final. The idea of the realm unit remained nevertheless alive - in such a way applied the laws emperor normally also in the sphere of influence in each case of the different one.

Fall of the realm in the west and statement in the east

Plünderung Roms durch die Vandalen 455Heinrich Leutemann, 19. Jhdt.
plundering of Rome by the Vandalen 455
Heinrich people man, 19. Jhdt.

The eastRoman realm survived confusions of the people migration, above all, since it economically healthier and more densely populated be enoughwas. In the course 5. Century disintegrated gradually the Roman realm in the west. Penetrating the Hunnen had released a domino effect, which completely changed the face of Europe. The realm lost control after the battle of Adrianopel 378 increasingly overits western provinces. Large parts of Galliens and Spain went up to the center 5. Century to the penetrated Teutons (Vandalen, Franconia, Goten) lost. Above all the loss Africas to the Vandalen 435 was a heavy impactfor west Rome. The seat of the government had been already shifted around the turn of the century from Milan to Ravenna. And even Italy turned out ever more under the influence of the Teutons. 410 plünderten the Westgoten the city Rome, 455 followed them therein the Vandalen(therefore it the modern expression „Vandalismus “).

There were several reasons for the purge and fall of the Roman realm. Which processes led in the long run to the transformation of the westRoman realm into a set of Germanic states, those at the latest since that 7. Century assovereign to apply, is for a long time the subject of the research discussion knew. Thus the army consisted mostly long no longer of Roman citizens, but out „barbarian “mercenaries. The strength of the army was not sufficient besides, in order to secure the borders.On the inside the administration marode had become, also an economic fall is to be determined, if also not so dramatic, as still the older research meant. the Teuton Odoaker Romulus Augustulus set 476 as a westRoman emperor off (last recognized west emperor was however Julius Nepos been). Odoaker however still saw itself as one „“and its rule in Italy to Teutons in Roman services as part of the Imperium Romanum under the Roman emperor in Konstantinopel, and also its successor Theoderich the large one endeavoreditself around imperial acknowledgment of its position.

Different the situation was in the east. This was „the healthier “is enough, which besides the larger strategic reserves had and also the more skillful diplomacy operated. Above all the high country Anatoliens with the Taurus mountains and the Propontis formed natural barriers against penetrating foreign peoples. Besides to Hunnen and Teutons had never succeeded in crossing the Hellespont; therefore the rich provinces of small Asia, Syria and Egypt remained to a large extent undisturbed. „The barbarian “elements in the army,to the fall of west Rome, still became in 5 had also contributed. Century back-pushed and at the beginning 6. Century mostly switched off. Although it came to heavy fights with Hunnen and Sassaniden, the east realm remained intact.

Emperor Justinian alsoAttendants
mosaic picture from San vital one in Ravenna; 6. Jhdt.

Under Justinian I., the last emperor, whose native language was latin, and its east Romans large parts of the west (North Africa, Italy, south Spain) could back-conquer field gentlemen Belisar, during them in the Orient underlarge efforts the borders against the Perser to hold could. However the attacks of the Sassaniden became since the accession Chosraus I.ever more violently and there was the intention of conquering the entire Roman east. With it the phase of the coexistence ended to thatboth large realms and a series of devastating wars began. (East) Roman emperors was again with distance most powerful rulers in the Mediterranean area, and east Rome controlled the largest part of the old realm area (with exception Britanniens, Galliens and north Spain). The back-conqueredAreas proved after Justinians death (565) however often as in the long term untenable. Thus for instance south Spain fell after some years the Westgoten and Italy starting from 568 of majority to the Langobarden.

the end of the antiqueImperiums

inside the eastRoman realm fermented it, religious disputes between Christian groups (Monophysiten against orthodox ones) and high fiscal charges because of the constant wars promoted the discontent of parts of the population, approximately to Syria and Egypt; this causeda clear attenuation of the loyalty feeling. At the beginning 7. Century first far parts of the realm were then conquered temporarily by the Sassaniden. The Persian troops pushed II. under Chosrau. twice to Byzanz forwards and kidnapped the holy cross,that allegedly Helena, which had found nut/mother constant in, and which represented „the largest treasure “of the realm, from Jerusalem. After emperor Herakleios had finally terminated the long war with large trouble victoriously, the exhausted realm the attack of the Islamic Arabs could (Arab expansion) and lost completely Syria and Africa hardly resist. Particularly the loss rich Egypt, which fell through „betrayal “ of the Patriarchen Kyros almost combatless to the Arabs, weakened east Rome substanziell. Herakleios broke with the Roman tradition, byit instead of the title Imperator the old Greek king title Basileus assumed and Greek also to the official office language made. The realm lost now its Roman-antique character. Also in the east with it the Middle Ages began.

This map shows the tremendous speed thatExpansion Islam in the Orient

the eastRoman realm with its capital Konstantinopel state-legally still remained in 15. Century receive - and the Greeks call themselves this very day popularly also as rhomoi, thus „Romans “, but the insideStructures changed after approximately 640 so fundamentally that it appears justified to speak of now on from Byzanz to.

historical tying

Kaiser Karl der Große
emperor Karl the large

Karl the large one was the first after-Roman emperor Westeuropas (translatio imperii). Its emperor coronation/culmination led to diplomatic arguments with Byzanz, whose Basileus regarded itself as a legitimate Roman emperor. The holy Roman realm (since that 15. Century with the additive of “German nation”), that in its largest territorial expansion - after today's politicalBorders - Germany, which the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Tschechien, who covered Switzerland, north and means Italy and parts of France (Lorraine , Elsass , Provence), saw itself later than successors (west) of the RomanRich, while the Russian Zar likewise stressed the follow-up of the Roman emperor crown over the Byzantine inheritance - the terms emperors and Zar are derived both from the Roman Caesar . With the emperor coronation/culmination there were Napoleons for the first time more than oneEmperor in Western Europe. 1918/1919 ended with the resignation William II. (German Reich) and Karl I. (Austria Hungary) the history of the emperors. Even in 20. Century felt with fascist Italy still another state as a successor of the Roman realm. The re-establishmentthe Imperium Romanum was Mussolinis a avowed goal in the foreign policy. It should fail thereby.

see also


overview representations

apart from ascent and fall of the Roman world, Oldenbourg sketch of history Bd. 2-4 and above all Cambridge Ancient History, 2. changed Aufl.starting from Bd. 7,Volume 2, The giant OF Rome ton of 220 B.C.:

  • Hermann Bengtson: Sketch of Roman history with source customer. Republic and Kaiser era to 284 n. Chr. Manual of the antiquity science III. 5. 3. Edition, Beck, Munich 1982 (first 1967), ISBN 3-406-08617-9.
  • Ada Gabucci: Rome and its Imperium. Theiss, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 380621932X very richly illustrated history over the establishment, propagation and rule.
  • Alfred Heuss: Roman history. 9. Edition, Schöningh, Paderborn 2003 (first 1960), ISBN of 3506739271 best ones (ifalso sometimes quite more scarcely) overview to Roman history in German language.
  • Theodor Mommsen: Roman history. German paperback publishing house, Munich 2001 (first 1854-1856 and 1885), ISBN 3423590556 history of Rome up to the murder Cäsars as well as the Roman provinces to the Kaiser era, for thoseMommsen 1902 the Nobelpreis for literature received. Becomes outdated scientifically however to a large extent.
  • Wolfgang Schuller (Hrsg.): The Roman world realm. 2. Edition, Theiss, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-8062-1744-0. Well readable cross section by the time of the Roman world realm.


  • Klaus bringing man: History of the Roman republic. Munich 2002, ISBN 3406492924 solid and reliable representation of the republic.
  • Harriet I. Flower (Hrsg.): The Cambridge Companion ton the novel republic. Cambridge 2004.

Prinzipat and late ancient times

  • Glen Bowersockamong other things:Late Antiquity. A guide ton the postclassical World. Cambridge 1999, ISBN 0674511735. Excellent, well readable overview of the current state of research to late ancient times with a useful encyclopedia part.
  • Karl Christian: History of the Roman Kaiser era. 4. Edition. Munich2002, ISBN 3406363164. Outstanding one modern representation of the Kaiser era to Konstantin. Standard work.
  • Alexander Demandt: Late ancient times. Manual of the antiquity science III. 6, Munich 1989. Good overview work (only second-hand, 2. Edition in preparation; but as contentwise shortened expenditure without scientificApparatus available:History of late ancient times. Munich 1998, ISBN 3-406-44107-6).
  • David S. Potter: The novel Empire RK bay. AD 180-395. Routledge History OF the Ancient World. London and others 2004, ISBN 0-415-10058-5. Very good overall display of the time of 180to 395.

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