of the Rütlischwur is a Swiss national myth. It means that envoys from the three places or forest places ( the Urkantonen of Switzerland) on the Rütli at the Vierwaldstättersee carried an oath out, which sealed a protection and an Trutz alliance. This alliance applies inVernacular as establishment of the confederation. Historically however nowadays the federal letter is considered as establishment document.
Since Aegidius Tschudi (Chronicon Helveticum) become the leaders of these envoys (the so-called three oath comrades) with Werner Stauffacher of Schwyz, walter prince of Uri and Arnold equated of Melchtal from Unterwalden. Other variants replaced prince by William Tell.
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of the Rütlischwur is mentioned for the first time in the white book by Sarnen 1470, however still without dating. The historical writer Aegidius Tschudi set 16 in his center. Century developed Swiss chronicle the date of the Rütlischwureson “Wednesday before Martini” 1307 firmly, thus on the 8. November 1307.
toward end 19. Century the not provable establishment myth of the Rütlischwures was replaced by a new establishment myth. The idea, the year 1291as year of the foundation of the confederation and first August as national holiday to specify, the Bernese decreases/goes back to the initiative. In Berne one wanted to celebrate 1891 the 700jährige existence of the city. The connection with a 600-Jahrfeier of the confederation came there very convenient.In the report, that the section of the inside to 21. November 1889 for the Upper House of Parliament wrote, is also actually a two-day celebration in Berne, and not intended in inside Switzerland.
With the federal letter of at the beginning of of August 1291, thatthe defense agreement between the three Urkantonen held, one a document had selected, which was not undisputed. Historians already counted in 19. Century for the period of 1251 to 1386 82 documents, with which similar federations were sealed. In particular the federationto wells of 1315 many were considered as actual establishment act of the confederation, if one did not proceed at all from a gradual emergence of the confederation. Still to in 20. Century held itself also Tschudis date of the Rütli oath as an establishment year of the confederation. 1907in old village in the presence of an Upper House of Parliament delegation the 600jährige existence of the confederation was celebrated. Since that time the memory lost itself to the year 1307 as date of the Rütli oath and thus as a year of the foundation of the confederation. In the new national myth, that in the timethe Second World War - among other things with the Rütlirapport of general Henri Guisan or with the 650 anniversary of 1941 -, connected themselves the Rütli oath myth was coined/shaped more and more with that 1. August, that of the Upper House of Parliament 1889fixed Swiss national holiday.
the Rütli oath in the drama William Tell of Friedrich Schiller:
- We want to be only one people of brothers,
- in no emergencyus separate and danger.
- We want to be free, like the fathers were,
- rather death, when in the farmhand shank live.
- We do not want to trust on the highest God
- and be afraid us of the power of humans.
thoseThree oath comrades
the three oath comrades belong to the establishment myths of Switzerland and the idea of the equality transported by them in the difference are a motive always recurring in the Swiss state ideology.
The strongest motive of the threeOath comrade is the much-sworn to variety in the unit. Three men of different origin, different age and with different motivations appear equally in a common goal. The three oath comrades stand for a cooperating community, it with the help of this co-operation, an existing creates, to replace as in an unfair way felt legal order by sworn to articles of association. The number symbolism is likewise very meaningful and stands here for three peoples, three generations and three conditions (farmer conditions, middle class and craftsman class).
During the single fighters William Tell approximatelyEnd 19. Century by nationalistic currents, the workers' movement the motive for three-oath comrade for itself was used in particular stressed to stand together as symbol for a classless society, in the workers, farmers and employees solidary.
during in early representations of the three oath comrades these alone stand there, are them later in company of their respective Gefolgschaft, which only represent “that people of brothers “.
Starting from center of the 16. Century were liked figurative representations of the 3 motive for oath comrade. Most well-known the painting might be the three oath comrades with the oath on the Rütli of the painter Johann Heinrich Füssli of 1780 (S. Illustration). The often illustrated, from three sources gespiesene andlikewise mythologische wells on the Rütli in the year 1865 one inaugurated. Very impressive is the group of monumental provided by James Vibert in dome-resounds the German Parliament Buildings, Swiss parliament building, in Berne.
On a representation from the year 1908one of the three oath comrades is represented even as a woman, whereby “united the people of brothers” included for the first time also the “sisters” with.
- to Patto di Torre' as possible forerunners of the Rütli oath see ', IL castello di Serravalle, Puntistoria della Valle di Blenio, Don Pietro Berla, Edizioni Arca, ISBN 88-85232-04-3
- George circle: The myth 1291: To the emergence of the Swiss national holiday. Basel: F.Reinhardt, 1991.
- George circle: Myth Rütli: History of a memory place. Zurich. Orell Füssli, 2004.
- of Tavel, H. - C.: National picture topics. 1992