a Rallycross, according to Duden also Rallyecross or older Rallye CROSS, is a motorrace for closed vehicles, on a permanent racing course with changing lining (nearly always bitumen [min. 35% upto max. 60%] and crushed stones).
Contrary to the classical Rallye small groups drive against each other from racing car Sprintrennen in a direct comparison with the Rallycross. The relatively short round courses (min. 800 upto max. 2,000 m long), usually with stadium - a character, are nearly always well visible and thus for spectators and television cameras equally suited.
In Germany , contrarily to in the first sentence quoted and internationally valid definition auto+postage-punches FIA is, Rallycross running with the benediction of its national counterpart DMSB exeptionally also on autoCROSS distances (only loose carriageway surfacing) possible, if at least the starting point were asphalted there.
As abbreviation for Rallycross the English RX (X = CROSS) was established, in order to avoid a mistake with radio control LED cars (RC). Rallycross is recognized as independent kind of autohaven of the world automobile haven sovereignty FIA, which writes annually three different European champion titles out for RX-drivers, and may be confounded therefore in no case with the wild autoCROSS running in such a way specified or various Stoppelfeld - , gravel pits - or Car Crash - competitions, even if their organizer Rallycross for it adopt the term gladly „“. The European Rallycross has as well as nothing with the US-American RallyCross and the different CROSS Country - meetings (see z. B. Rallye Raid, Rallye Dakar, to do Baja Wüstenrennen etc.) and also only relative few thing in common with the autoCROSS sanctioned of the FIA and the DMSB (there open [!] and closed racing cars, temporary [!] or permanent racing courses also exclusively loose [!] Lining).
table of contents
expiration of a Rallycross competition
Rallycross running are relatively short. In addition, 3,000 meters of distance are to be completed at least, 8,000 meters already are the maximum. There most distances approx. 1,000 meters are long, go the Sprints over three to eight rounds. On some Rallycross distances recently also a Joker in such a way specified Lap is driven out. Each driver must once per running a somewhat slower alternative route follow, may however even decide, in which round he does this. After the vehicles successfully passed the technical acceptance, their drivers may participate in free training. Afterwards it goes into obligation training. Is settled, three qualification runs stand on the program. In these advances in such a way specified the participants must achieve at least twice the goal and submit two fast times, in order to be able itself qualify for the locking final running. Only the 16 best drivers of each division (vehicle category) may again begin in each case in C, B or A-final. During in the advances always three, four or five pilots from a common starting line drive off, start into the final running the six participants from three transferred in each case one behind the other lying starting rows. The winner of the C-final is automatically certified as last starters for the B-final, the same applies also to the winner of the B-final, who may place itself on the last starting point of A-finally the Grid.
in the Finals is the driven times no longer importantly, because it here far spectator-friendlier only concerns the placements, thus the final sequence of the 16 best ones of the competition. Since the total winner of the division concerned lets itself be determined only in last running of the daily, the tension is continuously increased and it comes at the end of the running weekend to the Showdown so mentioned effect. The Top cars of the FIA Rallycross EM, the RX-Specials, are prototypes after model of the World Rally Cars, have with well 550 HP however a by far higher engine performance, than the WRC - nominal value (300 HP) gives. Some of it with a number of revolutions by over 9.000 rpm from the stop „“and to reach, by all-wheel drive , very short transmission translations and extremely soft tire mixtures nearly completely without traction loss , the 100-km/h-Marke is released in clearly less than 2.5 seconds. Acceleration resulting from it „Orgien “is important (as for all kinds of Sprintrennen) to eminent, wants nevertheless each participant as the first the first curve to absolutely reach, he then nevertheless already „the half rent “for the hoped for total victory into the scale pan threw.
something Rallycross history
1967 in England invented and 1969 on the mainland imports
the roots of the Rallycross comes as can be prove from the Rallye. To 4. One left February 1967 on that particularly for it prepared racing course Lydden Circuit (between Dover and Canterbury in Kent, England) without exception invited Rallyefahrer in quadripartite groups with short Sprintrennen for a TV-production in the direct comparison to begin against each other for the first time. Total winner became the later Formel-1-Fahrer and Rallye-Monte-Carlo-1968-Gewinner Vic Elford on a Porsche 911. Thus the organizers lifted a completely new engine haven from the baptism, in which however already soon thereafter the Rallye factory pilots were replaced from now fast growing up genuine Rallycross specialists. The true inventors of the Rallycross were the television producer Robert Reed and the active running organizer Bud Smith († 1994), active for ITV, during which distance operator Bill Chesson († 1999) extended and made Lydden available Circuit for this purpose. However invented the name Rallycross the well-known journalist, Rallyefahrer and Rennkommentator John Sprinzel, which one can regard together with its press colleague Barrie Gill (The Sun) also confidently as „birth aids “of the new racing discipline.
To 25. November 1967 was likewise delivered, in Lydden, the first international Rallycross. The foreign Rallyefahrer announced for it for the start made itself however already prematurely the home journey, because the RAC Rallye scheduled before had had to be called off 1967 to a certain extent around five before twelve because of the straight muzzle and claw epidemic grassierenden on the island. As a winner from this „to nationalinternational “competition Rootes Rallye factory pilot Andrew Cowan with a small however fine Sunbeam Imp went into Rallycross history.
First Rallycross running the European mainland became to 7. June 1969 on a military area in the heath close of the Netherlands city Venlo driven out. When continental discoverer of the new Funsports may the Dutch TV-director Rob Herzet (AVRO) is regarded, which toward end of the 1980er in Germany also for as well-known Second Channel of German Television TV serials as the yielding RTS from next door, waiting-room to the small luck or as good that there is Maria! much acknowledgment found. With the Eurocircuit in Valkenswaard with Eindhoven, that with running to 17. April 1971 was opened, built the Dutchmen also the first racing course of Europe, which was conceived exclusively for the Rallycross sport.
first RX-running in Germany, Austria and Switzerland
at the beginning of the 1970er was imported the still recent autohaven by Bernd Ziskofen and its automobile club Niederelbe also to Lower Saxony and experienced its Germany - premiere to 21. May 1972 on the Estering in close proximity to Hamburg. Up to the autumn 2005 on the plant before the gates of the city Buxtehude were organized in the meantime already more than 100 RX-running. Likewise of Ziskofen and the ACN initiates, and brought in co-operation with the British Thames Estuary of automobiles club (TEAC ) toward at the end of of 1972 on the way, gives it since 1973 also an Rallycross European championship, which was tolerated in the first three years of its existence of the FIA testweise „only “and adopted then finally.
Austrian Rallycross history began with a true „force action “: Rammed within only five weeks above the city milk the Leruring at that time proper from the soil. The first national Rallycross found 29 to that at the Ostersonntag . April 1973 instead of. Only two days later, at the May holiday, one organized the first international RX and scarcely two weeks here after, to 13. May 1973, experienced the Leruring the premiere run at that time of the Embassy so mentioned Rallycross European championship.
Also in Switzerland it already gave Rallycross running, which can be counted however at the fingers of a hand. To 23. September 1984 experienced the small racing course of Lignières, above the Bielersees convenient, the 1. International Rallycross of Switzerland, with which also Formel-1-Pilot Mark of Surer with a Werks-Renault-5-Turbo tried the runway with bitumen (60%) and crushed stone passages (40%), extremely slippery by constant rainfalls.
Rallycross - a racing [work on],
, the first generation of the all wheel cars
since Franz pepper at the 3. October 1982 with an AUDI quattro the first FIA title for the Ingolstädter automobile work achieved, is today inseparably connected with all-wheel-driven racing cars the Rallycross sport until. However - its first and also very successful generation 4x4-Fahrzeuge knew the new sport already for a long time before AUDI and its quattro, i.e. end of the 1960er. To 8. The two British companies Ford and BMC - on the same day, however on different racing courses - had brought February to 1969 in each case a 4WD-Rallycross-Fahrzeug to the start. While that won about 130 HP strong triumph 1300 4WD under BMC Werksfahrer Brian Culcheth its competition in Lydden, in the consequence however by the manufacturer, got Ford work driver Roger Clark the victory in Croft (with Darlington), also achieved, was re-activated only maximumrarely still in the evening again denied, because its Capri 3000GT 4WD did not correspond „to the valid regulation at that time “. Ford could not be discouraged thereby however and began up to the autumn 1971 among the brothers Roger and Stan Clark two this Allrad Capris with ZF - transmissions and Ferguson - drive unit, with constantly growing success, strong at the end well 250 HP. The technically to a large extent identical Semi work Capri of Rod Chapman it applied to strike however also still in the British Rallycross winter series 1971/72.
The medium-effective triumphs of the British animated also the Netherlands company DAF, which built altogether three DAF 555 (the third 5 stood for the group 5 after FIA regulation) Coupé 4WD, which were driven by the two brothers January and Harry de Rooy to a multiplicity by Rallycross Gesamtsiegen for 1971 and 1972, although they were allowed to start frequently only 5 seconds (4WD penalty) behind their competitors. With that gladly as „pensioner and housewife balancing moose “smiled at DAF-55-Modellen one - almost ingenious-simply - realized the all-wheel drive by a Sportvariomatic, which had been originally developed for the formula 3. In each case a driving belt supplied the cardan shafts for the front and rear axle steplessly with force river, which into closing Differenzialen of BMW 2002 flowed there. Traction was permanently present, without a normal transmission to switch to have had the de-Rooy-brothers of eminent advantages, and those approximately 200 HP of strong Federal Employers Association engines of Ford contributed likewise to the fact that the light DAF mobile to the cars of the opponents again and again simply up and of it drove. But because the initiators of the first Rallycross European championship hoped for an imminent acknowledgment of its kind of sport by the FIA, end of 1972 the first RX-Allrad-generation was mothballed.
the return of the all wheel cars
after a new regulation starting from 1982 again all wheel cars legitimized and pepper at first attempt with an ex Mikkola - quattro was successful, went in the Rallycross at the latest starting from center of the 1980er nothing more without four-wheel drive. Of the all wheel Volkswagen beetle with approximately 250 HP, over BMW M3 turbo 4WD IMSA strong with well 600 HP - engine, up to the Porsche 911 BiTurbo 4x4 strong over 750 HP handed the pallet usually from private individuals and without work support realized prototypes. Particularly to emphasize from it is the largest technical innovation, which brought the Rallycross out ever and which even the Rallye world championship and the formula 1 affected later. The Norwegian Martin Schanche initiated and financed 1983 the Xtrac in such a way specified - system. With its idea, from a variable all-wheel drive for its new Ford Escort XR3 T16 4x4, was he with the British Mike Endean and Chris Goddard at the correct address. They realized Schanches of desires and created with it together the first Xtrac - all-wheel drive, that, over hydraulics which can be affected while driving manually, the achievement 560 HP of the strong Zakspeed - engine steplessly from 28:72 (VA: Hectar) to 50:50 per cent at the front and rear axle passed on. After Schanche had become thereby 1984 at first attempt Rallycross European champion, the OPEL at that time - sport boss Karl Heinz Goldstein the former Hewland - animated technician Mike Endean to the establishment of his own company Xtrac and to co-operation with the sport department of the German autowork. OPEL built then with the help of the Englishman two cadet prototypes (for soon thereafter again group of S rejected of the FIA), which experienced 1986 shock absorbers a total Fiasko defective because of an enormous amount with the Rallye Paris Dakar. Later also different Rallye Werksteams used that far improved and now half-automated Xtrac - system and even in the formula 1 some important teams trusted for years exclusive in the various drive components of the company Xtrac.
after the FIA the cars that extremely disputed group of B after some tragic accidents for the center of the 1980er the Rallye world championship had banished, found these „Saurier “their last international operating field in the Rallycross sport. From 1987 to 1992 partially far over 600 HP strong Boliden of the type Peugeot 205 turbo 16 E2, Ford R-S 200 E2, AUDI sport coined/shaped quattro S1, mg Metro 6R4 BiTurbo and Lancia the delta S4 here the happening, particularly since they emerged with some EM-runs in so large numbers of items, as them had experienced before no Rallye WM run in action. Starting from 1993 then a completely new regulation came into force, which has existence on the whole up to the today's day and which coins/shapes „king class of “this discipline, by giving it, from the optical copy of the World Rally Cars ( Citroën Xsara, Ford focus , Peugeot 206 etc.) up to self-developed prototypes ( Saab 9-3 aero SportSedan T16 4x4, OPEL Astra G T16 4x4, VOLKSWAGEN gulf IV T20 4x4 etc.), variety of extremely interesting racing cars.
some important Rallycross drivers
Ford Escort R-S 1600 Federal Employers Association) regards the ore rivals Martin Schanche and Kenneth Hansen as a first Rallycross European champion ( 1973) and the first RX-Eurochamp with the benediction of the FIA became 1976 the Austrian Franz peppers (Lancia Stratos HF 2,4 24V), the father of F1-Pilot Alexander pepper. During in the initial years of the paneuropäischen running series starting from end of the 1970er the Skandinavier saying dominated, took over the British, Austrians and Dutchmen this sport. The most successful Rallycrosser of history is (with so far 13 EM-titles) the Swede „His Kennyness “ Kenneth Hansen from Götene and the only German, which could achieve to date EM-gold, is the Niedersachse Sven Seeliger (EM-title of the 1400er-Klasse in the years 2000 and 2001) from Rethem. Further drivers, who pushed the Rallycross their stamp open, are the Finn Matti Alamäki (5-fold European champion), the Swede Olle Arnesson (quadruple European champion), the Norwegian Eivind Opland (quadruple European champion) and Sweden different Norstedt (triple Eurochamp). As a most well-known representative however Norway Martin Schanche is considered to this discipline (speak: Skanke), which collected six European champion titles in the 25 years of its EM-career and attained as „Mister Rallycross “world-wide celebrity. And Schanche compatriot and - friend Petter Solberg is evenly that one „lost son “, who brought it after its Lehrjahren in the national Norwegian Rallycross scene up to the profit to the Rallye world championship of the yearly 2003.
Rallycross EM (according to FIA - regulation)
- division 1: Route cars, those in the groups of A and sp (= Supertouring) homologiert are (maximum capacity for petrol engines with turbochargers = 2058 cm ³)
- division 1A: Route cars with front wheel drive, those in the groups of A and sp are homologiert and their engines over maximally 1600 cm ³ capacity order
- division 2: Production cars with two-wheeler drive, which are homologiert in the group of N and whose engines have capacity maximally 2000 cm ³
(starting from 2007 is planned to write an additional FIA European Cup out for up-to-date homologierte route cars of the group of A. The vehicles concerned may to have and have only suction engines with maximally 2000 cm ³ capacity if necessary by front wheel drive on rear propulsion to be reequipped. This applies then to the most marks and models [for example cars of BMW place an exception ]. Starting from 2008 this RWD Specials is if necessary to replace the present group N vehicles in the division 2.)
- to division 1: Route car of the group of A and THERE as well as the group of H (H = with loading and/or 4-Rad-Antrieb)
- division 1A: Vehicles of the group of A and THERE with front wheel drive, max. 1600 cm ³ and without loading
- division 4: Two wheel drive production cars of the group of N and DN as well as the group of H (H = without loading and without 4-Rad-Antrieb)
- division 5: Two wheel drive production cars with valid or Homologation run off the group of N or DN, max. 1400 cm ³ and without loading
- list of all Rallycross European champions (from 1973 to 2005)
Web on the left of
- the true history of the Rallycross (dt.)
- international Rallycross Website (dt. /engl.)
- national Rallycross Website (dt.)
- homepage of the European Rallycross Association (English)
- homepage of the European Rallycross press Association (English)
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