|of these articles describes the Islamic chamfering month; for the Egyptian scholar family see Said Ramadan and Tariq Ramadan.|
Table of contents
in this month of the Fastens (Arab صوم seam) are in accordance with that Koran during the day, i.e. between incipient crack of the dawn and the sunset, physical benefits like the admission of solid and liquid food, drinking water, to which sexual intercourse and also smoking forbade. The moreover one nearly-ends person hasto make certain that it does not begin a controversy with its fellow men, reading ore etc. does not lie. The Sufis (Islamic Mystiker) knows still further stages to make certain as for example that one does not have bad thoughts and that one at nothingother one than to the truth thinks. In addition they see in chamfered a particularly effective instrument in the fight against „the low impulses “(see also:nafs).
Since the Islamic calendar is a pure moon calendar, the Ramadan moves gradually by the seasonsand each year begins approximately eleven days in former times as in the preceding after western calendar. After approximately 33 years it moved once by the whole sun year. The definition of the data for beginning and end of the chamfering monthly and thus also the conversionon the Gregorian calendar with some right schools not only on the astronomical calculation, but also on the actual sifting of the Neumonds one makes dependent. This leads to the fact that not all Muslims begin and terminate the Ramadan exactly at the same time, and thatthe exact definition for some Muslims often only the eve of the beginning or end of the monthly is possible.
The end of the Ramadan becomes with the celebration of the chamfering breaking (arab.: عيدالفطر ID aluminium-fitr, türk.: Şeker Bayramı - sugar celebration and/or. Ramazan Bayramı - Ramadanfest) celebrates, which millions Muslims in all world celebrate. The chamfering breaking celebration and the victim celebration are the two main celebrations in the Islam. They are obligatory on all Islamic right schools and peoples and depend on the Islamic moon calendar.
Geographical or weather-conditioned conditions can cause that the definition varies global seen around one, sometimes also by two days. For example the Neumond in the Arabian desert can be observed more easily than in Northern Europe, easier in flat area than in stronggebirgigem, with cloudless sky more easily than when strong cloudy appearance, and already in western Morocco often one day in former times than in eastern Indonesia.
at the night, after the chamfering breaking, festivenesses can be committed, and which happenalso usually. Also often particularly sumptuous meals are served at night. Altogether the character of the Islamic Fastens differs very strongly from the Christian, buddhistischen and hinduistischen chamfered, which resembles each other rather. Daily a Koranlesung takes place and it becomes religious devotionsheld, that entire Koran is distributed in its 30 parts on the 29 to 30 days of the monthly and rezitiert in such a way during the Ramadan once completely. The last nights of the Ramadan form the high point, in those „the night of predetermination “- Arab Lailatul Qadr - lies, in which Muhammad is to have received the first verses of the Koran (their exact date is not delivered however).
The chamfering time becomes with the celebration of the chamfering breaking at the 1. and 2. Looking whale, the Ramadan followingMonth, terminates. Committing the chamfering monthly Ramadan belongs to the five columns Islam.
Women, who have their Menstruation, did not chamfer. It is freely posed to humans on journeys as well as persons, which must take medicines, whether they chamfered or not.Completely of are released children and humans with heavy physical physical defects chamfered. Satisfying mothers, pregnant women, old persons as well as obstructed is chamfered even strengstens forbidden.
Since during the Fastens a particularly religious life is led, make themselves in Islamic countriessome people, in order to refer to their alleged needyness. For example particularly for this purpose foreigners enter into the united Arab emirates, over with the inhabitants at the entry door or at animated places money too erbetteln. The government tries thathowever by strict border controls, a two-week detention with following deportation and entry prohibition to prevent as well as information campaigns in the population.
While the time of the Ramadan bought in Arab countries clearly more prepared at food and than can be eaten. ThoseConsequence from it is an on the average twice as high garbage arising with increased employment of the garbage disposal. The food prices usually rise during the Ramadan, which is continued to propel shortage of the offer skillful by some dealers by. Of Islamic clergyman becomes thisDevelopment often criticizes.
regulation in the Koran
of the Koran expresses itself as follows to the Ramadan: The month Ramadan is it, in that the Koran was down-sent as right line for humans and as clear indication of the right line and thatDistinction standard. Who from you now in the month is present, which is in it chamfered. And who is ill or is on a journey, to a number of other days applies. God wants easement, it for you wants foryou not complication, and that it the number (the days) completed and God for it high-praised that it quite-led you, and that it probably gratefully become. (The Koran, translation of aristocracy Theodor Khoury, 2. Sure, verse 185)
toDuration of the daily Fastens stands in the Koran: […] And eat and drinks, until you differentiate a white thread with respect to the dawn from a black thread. Then hold chamfered strictly up to the night. […] (The Koran, translation of max of Henning,Revised by Murad Wilfried Hofmann, 2.Sure, verse 187)
the white and black thread are not to be taken word by word, but represent rather a figurative rewriting of the beginning of the dawn. The horizon line is the border to the Himmelsgewölbe andAffect ground approximately apparently each other. At the beginning of the dawn the dark earth appears against, the easily illuminated sky behind it.
Since the dawn spreads at first in a narrow line horizontal, one can do these as white thread over thatblack thread, which represents the earth, represent.
the beginning and the end
of the monthly Ramadan are based to beginning and end of the Ramadan like the prayer ( Arab salad) or the Islamic Pilgerfahrt (Arab hadsch) on fixed times.In the Sunna is the following excessive quantity: `Abdullâh Ibn `Umar reports: The prophet (peace was with it) mentioned the Ramadan and said: Chamfered not, before it the Mondsichel [Arab Hilâl] see, and break did not chamfer not, before itit [the Mondsichel] see. And if it [of clouds] is covered, are to compute you it. (after aluminum book air).
|2005||4. October||3. November|
|2006||23. September||22. October|
|2007||12. September||11. October|
|2008||1. September||29. September|
|2009||21. August||19. September|
|2010||11. August||8. Septembers|
the data can depending upon country over approx. 1 day vary.
- aristocracy Th. Khoury (over.): The Koran GütersloherPublishing house house, several expenditures, for example ISBN 3579021540
- Klaus Lech: History of the Islamic Kultus. Right-historical and hadit critical investigations to the development and systematics of the 'Ibâdât. Bd. I. Ramadân chamfering. First part. Otto Harrassowitz. Wiesbaden 1979. ISBN 3-447-01943-3
- K.G. Jacob: The MuslimChamfering month Ramadan. In: VI. Annual report of the geographical society to Greisfwald 1893-1896. 1.Teil, S.1-33.
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Ramadan - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- www.weltzeituhr.com information at the beginning of the Ramadan
- www.feste-der-religionen.de explanationsto the chamfering month Ramadan
- www.mondsichtung.de an Islamic-astronomical side for moon sifting.
- www.islam-basis.de large link collection approximately around the month Ramadan.
- „Ramadan, the month of the consumption “, Telepolis, 30. October 2005