as racingism is understood each theory and practice, due to material physical (like skin color, face courses) or attributed characteristics (like mentality) in “races “from different status assigns which humans. This can theoretically from inconsiderate prejudices toprepared ideologies are enough, which humans evaluate differently, express themselves and practically from in pure separation to striking discrimination.
racingism as form of the suppression and exploitation is particularly since beginning thatModern times document, historically however quite older. The modern racingism formed in the consequence of the clearing-up in 18. Century out. Prominent theoreticians of the western world tried to explain the rassischen differences scientifically. On the basis of the general acceptance that the humanRaces being certain and unchangeable characteristics exhibited, how for instance Johann Gottfried Herder, Immanuel Kant and Georg William Friedrich Hegel postulated this, developed the modern racingism, which agreed upon certain races their adequateness as humans. Another group from humans becomesagreed upon on the same stage to stand as one, and it it besides is agreed upon to be able to leave this stage.
The racingism is to be defined against the term of the intolerance: different forms of cultural or religious intolerance also supplyRefusal and suppression, differently as with the racingism however the difference is unchangeably regarded however not than hereditary and. By religious conversion or the acceptance of another cultural identity an integration of different subpopulations is possible. For this reason is alsoto reject extending the Rassismusbegriffs (“new racingism”) on the “cult Uralsism” described above.
Racingism is a global phenomenon, that among other things with the Hybris of humans on the one, and with which obedienceness of humans on the other side to do has. Stereotyped prejudices, illusions and plates usually accompany this thought pattern. The racingism similar attitudes in relation to relationship “other” and “strangers” generally concern. Mobbing belongs to a certain extent into the same category, whereby it always concerns own vital fears, which onedisplaced, by more or less oppressing apparently or obviously weaker ones. One looks for oneself, as already the Biblical report of Kain and Abel shows, flogging boys or scapegoats so mentioned for the accomplishment of the own everyday life. It goes in this broader sensenot only around groups of people, but also around aggression and Ausgrenzung opposite the particular.
The organization of humans into special, definable groups is age-old. But only the modern times tried to justify the conclusion of the racingism scientifically. Modern biology andGenetics as a result of Charles Darwin seemed to supply in addition reference points. The biological reason of the inferiority of other “races” failed however. However there are also today scientists politically oriented towards the right, who affirm a connection of transmission and intelligence (so for example Volkmar white: IQ-case. Intelligence, social structure and politics, Graz: Leopold Stocker publishing house, 2000).
The fascist excitements therefore met all together no scientific criteria. Since 1995 (Unesco, declaration of Schlaining) even not only each genetic, but also each sociological becomeDerivative of the category “race” comprehensibly in question posed:
- Criteria, on the basis those races to be defined, are arbitrarily selectable.
- The genetic differences between humans within a “race” are on the average quantitatively larger than the genetic differences between different “races”.
- Of pronouncedNo conclusion about other characteristics and no evaluation the same is possible for body characteristics like the skin color.
If one became the world on the traces Urmen (“Out OF Africa theory”) erwandern, one could state easily that it no precipitous, thus “race-conformal” changesit gives, but that the transitions are flowing with skin color , Physiognomie and Habitus, exactly the same as also the cultures. Michael punch
the linkage of body characteristics with character types and their ranking is thus a completely arbitrary valuation. Racingism is thereby asto regard unscientific ideology, which serves the off and Ausgrenzung of other humans.
After 1945 open racingism in the science withdrew. It was however continued to represent nevertheless sociopolitically and played down as social viennaism.
The 21. March is the international dayagainst racingism. In the year 2006 there the fight of everyday discrimination in the foreground stands. UN correspondent over racingism and stranger hostileness is Doudou Diène.
racingism is to be only with difficulty clearly conceptually defined. This is not leastaccuse themselves whereupon back to lead that different political and religious groups extend its borders strongly, and also mutually racingism.
The “Critical in such a way specified Theory “solves racingism under the references “new Racism” and” Cultural Racism “to a large extentfrom the linkage to biological race constructions and uses it also as “complex discrimination connection “also on similar organization and evaluations due to class, sex, nation, culture and religion. According to the combat term “anti-racingism” becomes arbitrary in many places related.Critics turn against it, this linguistic usage inflationary the term “racingism” would scoop out.
According to Albert Memmi is racingism “the generalized and verabsolutierte valuation of actual or fictitious differences to the benefit of the prosecutor and to the damage of the victim, with that its privileges orits aggressions to be justified are. “It stresses thereby on the one hand the social and on the other hand the ideological character racistic discrimination. At the same time it points out that “the racistic accusation turns off soon to a biological and soon to a cultural difference ''and the “biological characteristic” is indistinctly pronounced” only “ sometimes or even “is missing “. Thus it is made clear that modern racingism the aiming at allegedly natural and physically visible race differences represents only one variant of purposeful discrimination.
Robert Miles however understandsunder racingism a “process of the construction of meanings “, by which “phänotypischen and/or genetic characteristics determined by humans meanings of the shape are attributed the fact that from it a system of categorizations develops ", in that for the concerning “additional (evaluated negatively) characteristicsare assigned ". Also this definition stresses the ideological aspect of the racingism. At the same time it links it however closely with the “process of the race construction” and limits it in such a way to its modern variant. In order to escape in the long run unproductive ideal-typical term-controversy-purely, is thereforefrom Stuart resound and others suggested speaking generally from racingisms to and its respective manifestations strengthens concrete historical analyses to submit.
“new racingism” and race
since Martin Barker the new in such a way specified racism examined (1981), find conceptions of a differentialistic or cult-Uralsistic racingism without races spreading and are from authors such as Etienne Balibar,Pierre André Taguieff and. A. theoretically further thought. Thus racistic argumentations are meant, which do without the race term and stress instead of its cultural differences between different groups of people. The hypothesis is set up that the people races themselves no products of nature,separate social constructions are. This requires to understand it as social facts from different elements like actual or imaginierten physical characteristics, subordinated cultural abilities or attributed aesthetic characteristics built itself up.
Even to today common organization of humans intoBlack ones, white ones, red ones and yellow ones are such constructions. Thus walter Demel describes, like the Chinese was made “yellow”, Alden T. Vaughan the conversion of the Indians into “red skins” or pursued Wulf D. Dog the development of the European African picture of the 'Äthiopier' the antique ones over 'the carrots ' of the Middle Ages to 'the negro ' of the modern times. John solo MOS and many different drew from the fact the conclusion that “black and knows [...] no essentialistischen categories [is], but [...] throughhistorical and political fights for their meaning defined “and therefore “race”” a product of the racingism [...] and not turned around “is.
connection to other discriminations
in the Encyclopedia OF Race and Ethnic Studies is calledit under the keyword OTHER: To “The Main axis OF difference is the bend Three OF race, class, and towards that. Representations OF racial (ethnic, national) others often overlap with those OF women and lower class people “. Thus becomes upthe ideological connections of different categories of social discrimination referred. The modern racingism did not only qualify the races designed by it biologically, but also other social differentiations submitted: The meager beard stature of the Indians was taken as proof for their female character;the European colonialism and imperialism were stylized for the “load of the white man” (man's to burden, Rudyard Kipling white), who would have to undergo to the troubles to civilize the allegedly unrestrained colored races; Jews became the state in the state andso that as “foreign bodies” in völkisch understood nations explains, in order to prevent or question their civic equalization; etc.
forms of the racingism
- Rassisti prejudices: Prefabricated opinions over persons due to their allocation to a “race”. Example:Person A thinks that person B has the characteristic X, because she belongs to the “race” Y.
- Rassisti discrimination: The different treatment of humans due to outward characteristics, like e.g. the skin color. Example: Person A refuses adjusting person B,because person B to the “race” Y belongs.
- Institutional racingism (structural discrimination): Unequal treatment by public places and large organizations due to the “race affiliation”.
- Pseudoscientific race theories: In the interest of political forces developed illusoryscientific theories, which are to support the superiority of certain races over others,e.g. the Hamitentheorie of the Africaists Carl Meinhof or the racial theory of the national socialism.
- Cultural racingism: The unfounded way “new racingism so mentioned” (see above) often avails itself the term of different cultures, after the classical racingism was exposed as unscientific.Exemplary cliches: “Polish economy” (for “large disorder”), “Arabs are Machos “, “African stink “- the French philosopher Étienne Balibar calls this phenomenon” racingism without races “. To this Rassimuskonzept also the Ethnopluralismus belongs to new rights around Alainde Benoist. Also Samuel Huntingtons book “fight of the cultures” uses this concept, in order to derive from cultural phenomena (particularly religions) a certain Gefahrenpotenzial for the world peace.
- Everyday life racingism is the assumption of racingism into everyday situations by thinking and action forms. Inthis form racingism is not any longer analyzed, but is accepted of dominant groups than “normally”.
although racistic practices and the fight against them are quite old, are the term racingism relatively young. It became inPurchase to the LV racial theory and/or. the political argument with völkischen theories in the Germany and of the 30's 20's coined/shaped. For the first time the term of the Sexualwissenschaftler Magnus deer field in one in the English exile published writing used. The first definition comes fromthe American Ruth Benedikt, whose book appeared first “ racingism ” 1946 in German language.
In 20. Century in many countries minted forms of the modern racingism developed, which became partially official ideologies of the respective states - examplesare:
- the racistic motivated genocide at the Armenians in the Osmani realm achieved
- systematic driving out and the genocide at the indigenen population America the time of the racial discrimination in the Southern States
- of the USA, between 1890 and 1960 their high point
- die Rassengesetze der Nationalsozialisten in Deutschland und in anderen europäischen Staaten zwischen 1933 und 1945
- das Apartheids-Regime in Südafrika, das nach 1948 seine extremste Entwicklung nahm
- die Politik der australischen Regierung gegenüber den Aborigines
Greece and Rome work on
the question whether it would have given racingism in the old Greece and in old Rome is differently answered. It is remarkable in the classical Greece that the Greeks the “barbarians “straight racistic not abhorred (see Homer, Herodot, Aischylos, Xenophon among other things). Authors such as David Theo gold mountain or George M. Fredrickson answer racingism in the negative with the reference, which would not have antique ones a race term known and therefore also no racingism out to bring to be able. Authors such as Christian Delacampagne orBenjamin Isaac are other view and stress that 1) the race term similar ideological constructions would have existed and 2) racingism in the core cult Uralsistic would anyway argue. Both refer in detail to Aristoteles 'construction of the barbarian and the authentication operated with itthe slavery. Barbarians inferior a people its was attributed, because they had only conditionally reason.
“Pro Toraism” means after Isaac racingism in the sense that humans or groups of people due to of outside circumstances, which cannot affect her certain character characteristics -usually courage and/or. Cowardice in the fight against outside enemies or internal eliminators was attributed -. Which is missing thereby opposite the modern racingism, a consistent theory of the leaving barness is alleged to physical characteristics of coupled character characteristics.
Antique (pro ton) racingism i.w.S. was it shownin particular in form of the so-called. „Climatic theory “, which attributes negative characteristics to different not-Greek peoples. It is reflected for the first time in the pseudo hippokratischen writing „over the environment “(Latin „De aeribus “, ABC: „more aer. “) and partly with Herodot (both 5. Jh. v.Chr.) Herodot makes bes. in 2. Book, v.a. Egypt and often regarded as independent early work of the author is treated, climatictheoretical statements, over e.g. to explain different longitudinal dimensions of the peoples. Probably there was an original climatic theory, those from both writingsone rezipiert; such could originate approximately from the Jh. - center. Regarding the so-called. „Makrokephalen “, a mythischen people, in more aer. but when historically one describes, climatictheoretical pro Toraism is blended with the conception of the leaving barness of such characteristics, this conceptionremains however inkonsequent, surely not least wg. the insufficient knowledge of time at that time regarding hereditary biology. The climatic theory is in more aer. always the theory of the Inferiorität assigned to by foreign peoples due to its political condition (despotism). Which factor should be last crucial, remains due toa sophistisch coined/shaped Rhetorik, which would like to win if possible trailers of both theories for itself, undecided. <Another example of this form of sophistischen arguing: Paula A. Debnar, Diodotus' paradox and the Mytilene Debate, RhM 143 (2000) 161 - 178 [RhM = „RheiniMuseum, “a magazine, the article e.g. is. over Subito available.] >
Skin colors - racingism, hair colors - racingism: Against the acceptance of the existence of a skin color racingism in the antique one turns for the 80's franc Snowden.
Vincent Rosivach stressed 1999,that (usually) the red and blond hair of the Thraker and other peoples applied north of Greece than characteristics of slaves and of than connected with such meant inferior character characters: Thraker formed the first ethnical closed group of slaves in Athensarchaischer time, already in early 6. Jh. they were purchased under Solon; thus humans with this phenotype in Athens appeared almost exclusively as slaves; appropriate associations on the part of the remaining population had to adjust themselves. Thus became as an obviousFollow comedy masks with red hair exclusively for the characters used by slaves. „Red “and/or. „Blond tuft “were typical slave names.
A more well-known example of such ethnical uniform „cattle - slavery “(Rosivach) the institution of the skythischen state States of (tasks of police) is since from classical timeapprox. 480/70 v. Chr. ; see. their picture with Aristophanes, e.g. toward end „of the Themophoriazousen “and in „the Lysistrata “(in Weinschänken than in tasks of police interests skythische state States of more).
Because slaves in Greece (differently than in the Orient: see. e.g. Ex. = 2.MOS 21.20) of the arbitrariness of their owners without legal restriction were delivered a behavior to the day to put, which could, had them be considered to free ones easily as „cowardly “ < in addition: Egon Flaig, which Untermen design. Like the Greek classical period the slaves ofNature invented, in: Chr. Ralf of that Hoft and Stefan Schmidt (Hrssg.), constructions of reality. Pictures in the Greece 5. and. 4. Jh. v. Chr., Stuttgart 2001, 27 - 49.>
Dichotome and gradual devaluation, Gender tendentious applied in Athens of everything,which male Athener was not, as inferior. This dichotome aspect (ugs. very appropriate: „Black-and-white - painting “) rated thus women and foreigner, at least Nichtgriechen (panhellenischer thought bes. since philosophy early 4. Jh. after the disaster of the Peloponnesi war)EN bloc off. So e.g. is. questionably whether enslaved Greeks (like e.g. the Melierinnen after 427) at all still as Greeks was regarded, if Greeks from view of their own ideology could not be unfree out at all. <Vincent Rosivach> If it thusbut, they became unfree could not for possibly apply no more than Greeks.
With Platon there was all Unatheni apart from this dichotomen aspect, as weibisch (and/or. ), womanlike strangely, cowardly, lied, point of viewless, primitively or dekadent, some „argumentation assistance “, the one different evaluation dismissedthe different foreign peoples from Greek view as attische or Greek COMM universities at that time opinio as basis suggests. Thus it sets assigned character characteristics for Politeia “the three soul parts in its „in relationship with the individual foreign peoples; for it Perser and Karthager applyas martial, Phönizier and Egyptians as erwerbsstrebig (Plat. pole. 435e - 436 A). Its pupil Aristoteles calls the same examples of martial peoples (air dead. pole. 1324b 10-20). Thraker and Skythen, the two foreign peoples in the north (Thyrrener strangely enough obviously played no role)of both as martial are thus designated, as for prevailing and/or. to the best rule suitably both call excluding the own people.
Aristoteles (4. Jh.) seizes the climatic theory 5. Jhs. in such a manner together that the Greeks due to their central position between two(alleged) climate - extremes between courageous however stump-intimate barbarians in the north on the one hand (Thraker and Skythen mentioned) and fine-intimate however cowardly barbarians in southeast on the other hand (bes. Lyder, Phryger, Perser) both positive characteristics could have integrated, so that them as an only peopleable are to form this name worth „political “community („Polis “= „city state “). Importantly for the value of the Polis it is in it that the most capable of thinking prevails over the less capable of thinking, i.e. the Greek over its wife, its children and, toEnd of the scale, its foreign peoples - slaves. The war against foreign peoples is in the long run no war - one can lead such only against Greeks - to separate nothing else as a hunt as on wild animals, in order to kill these partly, partlyto zähmen to enslave (=; Air-dead 1255b 35-40).
A simpler differentiation than Platon makes Aristoteles, if it postulates Europe - Asia - downward gradient among the not-Greek peoples: the kleinasistischen is more servile „“(Komparativ also in grie. Orig.! Air-dead. pole.1285a 15-25).
Regarding the physicalness Aristoteles meant that on nature no relying would unfortunately be. She would give herself trouble to arrange the bodies of free ones and slaves different but would have her thereby often no success. Them attributed inferiorityone could not regard the barbarians thus necessarily.
there is ancient India, China
and Japan in Asia forms going back likewise far racistic discrimination, which class-referred and culture-referred bases had and without race term functioned. The Chinese developed alreadyCenturies before the Greek cult-Uralsistic conceptions of barbarians. After they originally assumed these could be civilized by the contact with the Chinese culture was finally compared, them with animals, which would be culturally in principle deficit acre. Franc Dikötter has on itreferred to that there was a long-lasting own racistic tradition in the empire China, before one came there with the European race thinking into contact.
That applies also to India, where box pattern and untouchability by organic metaphors (see Purusha)and mixture prohibitions were legitimized. This Biologisierung of social differences was not singular at all. It was submitted in the course by the European imperialism imported of the race typology and with the help of the arischen myth of a völkischen interpretation supported by it, which stated, the box patternthe product would be lightmembranous arischer immigrant, who would have subjected the dark-membranous Urbevölkerung. Gail Omvedt writes in addition: “Punjabi Brahmans and Punjabi Untouchables were ethnically the same, and Tamil Brahmans and Tamil Untouchables were emergency racially difference”.
There were socially justified box differencesalso in Japan. Caste to in 14 employed, is enough the racistic discrimination of the Buraku, one with low and as impure valid activities. Century back. Beside this racingism directed inward there was also the racistic directed outwardDiscrimination of the Ainu. Both on the Buraku and on the Ainu the race term taken by the Europeans was used later and so, as smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Siddle, Michael Weiner and other one to have pointed, of them to box thinking and culture chauvinistism supported discriminationrassisiert. In all cases it becomes clear that racingism without races functions and is cult Uralsistic certain in the core.
with the church fathers is already combined creation history as narration of the common origin of all humans with considerations,those mankind into sündige and gläubige groups to divide trachten. The enmity opposite women and Jews, documented thereby, contains numerous elements racistic discrimination. The Jews regarded as assistants of the devil, durably condemned and to the slavery condemned. Itwith animals are compared and one attribute to them an unpleasant smell. Their synagogs are called brothels and places of the insanity, which should be into fire.
the Middle Ages
of the racingism of the European Middle Ages start themselvesdifferent indicators point out. Once it is the time one contested picture of the African, to whom Peter Martin material gathered, which refers to contradictory conceptions, those between tungsten of ash brook beautiful black queen Belakane and the black moslemischen Teufeln of the Roland song vary. Later ideologies and practices of the Ausgrenzung and destruction step to day with the anti-Semitic Pogromen during the first crusade and the large plague, which belongs for Léon Poliakov and other one to the history of the Antisemitismus and racingism.
The speech of the so-called “Turk danger “
served contact between the Europeans and the osmanischen realm in view of the political and military strength of the Osmani realm as important element for the formulation of the unit of the Christianity and the training thatEuropean identity. After conquest Konstantinopels by the Osmanen 1453 developed an extensive bibliography, where among other things one stated, the Turks would be ignorant barbarians and it was missing to them like the animals at reason. Around this thesis in view of their culturalAchievements justify to be able, availed themselves of authors such as George of Hungary, who had lived from 1438 to 1459 as a prisoner in the Osmani realm, a Rhetorik of the deception. George appreciated first different elements of the there culture, in order to state afterwards,they would be bare light, “deliramenta et illusiones diaboli”, “illusion things and feigning of the devil”. Racingism could be formulated in this way also opposite humans, who were felt as more powerful and more highly. After the fall of the osmanischen influence in 19. Century explainedthe European Orientalisten, which would know Turkish culture quite are appreciated, because it the work caught and zwangsbekehrter Christian Arier would have been.
Reconquista and Conquista
the year 1492 stand for driving that out with the case of Granada,Jew from Spain and the eurpäischen discovery America for a blending and an overlay of different practical and ideological forms racistic discrimination.
Norman Roth and others showed, like the Antisemitismus in the policy of the blood purity (limpieza de sangre) opposite the Jewsits modern form to assume began. Target group of this politics were converted new Christians or their descendant. Opposite them with the question about for the blood purity its origin was made valid and up to one sechzehnntel portion of allegedly Jewish blood searched. It appliedeven as dangerous, Christian children of Ammen from converted families satisfy to leave, because their milk can affect itself allegedly harmful.
Conquest America had racistic with the Genozid at the Indians and following kidnapping of African slaves equal twoDimensions. In the argument between Bartolomé de read Casas and Juan Gines de Sepulveda over the question, whether the natives later America of humans were and like it would have to be treated, on the one hand still became on from Aristotelescoined/shaped term of the barbarian fallen back. On the other hand a box system oriented at skin colors began itself to develop due to the development of a variously mixed society, which knew numerous blood combinations and corner cuttings.Imanuel Geiss documented one of the usual partitionings
- “from Spaniard and IndianerinMestize develops. From Spaniard and Mestizin Kastize develops. From Kastize and Spaniard Spaniard develops. From Spaniard and Negerin Mulatte develops. From Spaniard and Mulattin Morisco develops. From Spaniard and Morisca Albino develops. From Spaniard and Albina Torna Atras develops. OutIndian and Negerin develop for Lobo. From Indian and Mestizin Coyote develops. From Lobo and Indianerin Chino develops. From Chino and Negerin Cambuxo develops. From Cambuxo and Indianerin Tente EN develops el aire. From Tente EN el aire and Mulattin developAlbarasado. From Albarasado and Indianerin Varsino develops. From Varsino and Cambuxa Campamulatte develops ".
in the course of conquest America came the racingism in different way to the expression: as Genozid at the Indians, as transatlantic slavery andas establishment of a system of white supremacy.
the European-American contact had genozidale consequences for the Americans. Over his first phase in Central America and South America David E writes. Stannard: “By the time the sixteenth century had endedperhaps 200,000 Spaniards had moved their live ton the Indies, ton of Mexico, tons of cent ral America, and POINTs ton the south. In, by the time, somewhere between 60,000,000 and 80,000,000 native from those of country contrastwere DEAD ". Over North America Ward Churchill writes: “From the time Juan Ponce de León arrived in North America in 1513, [...] until the turn OF the twentieth century, UP ton of 99 by cent OF the continent's indiginous population which eradicated". Which means in absolute numbers, depends naturally on estimations of the original population. According to Churchill has in this connection the statistics of the present racistic tendencies and bends frequently to down-add the number of the potential victims. Itit holds for realistic to proceed from originally 15,000,000 north Americans.
Colin Tatz designated “genocide as the ultimative form OF racism “. The American example makes clear in this connection that the racingism in such a way specified without races nonenew, but an old, which at the race term racingism oriented preceding concept are. The race term was not to the European people murderers in America yet at the disposal. They availed themselves for authentication of their procedure of the traditional cult-Uralsistic conception of barbarians as inferior humans.
the transatlantic slavery was not only economically a triangle relationship, in which cheap goods, liquor and weapons made of Europe against slaves made of Africa and these against American colonial goods were exchanged. It was also frequent from the historiographyneglected soziokulturelles relationship, in which the African were not only victims. This circumstances are strengthened discussed in recent time under the keyword Black Atlantic popular made by Paul Gilroy.
Nevertheless the transatlantic slavery was a system, that, like Orlando Pattersonformulated, apart from its economic calculation the “social death” of the slaves aimed at. Its analysis makes clear that the core is appropriate for racistic discrimination in the destruction of the social and cultural identity of those, which are subjected it. Estimations over the amount of thatConcerned ones vary between 11,000,000 and 15,000,000. The most important operators this profit and Entmenschlichung connecting policy were in 18. Century after numbers shown by Albert Wirz: "1. England with a portion of 41,3%, 2. Portugal (29,3 %), 3. France (19.2%), 4. Holland (5.7%), 5. Roasted. The North America/USA (3.2%), 6. Denmark (1.2%), 7. Sweden and Brandenburg (0.1%) “.
the system the white supremacy took different forms in Americaon, which set whiteness in each case as central standard of the sharing at political rights and social development possibilities. In Brazil it struck down among other things in the policy branqueamento, with that the “white” Brazilians the “Brazilian race” improves and throughMixing of by European Einwanderen imported “white blood” the “black element” in the Brazilian Bewölkerung up to the year 2012 to disappearing to bring wanted. In the USA she came not only in the policy of the racial segregation to the expression, butexpressed itself also as suspicion of insufficient “whiteness” in relation to different European groups of immigrants, which become “white” only, as Karen Brodkin for the Jews and Noel Ignatiev for the Irish described, during lengthy and painful processes could.
In both cases was it shownparticularly clearly, which is called into the Rassismusdiskussion the “social construction” by race. Where Irish and African Americans in the USA got along well with one another first in nachbarschaftlichen conditions and the prejudices them more frequently even assumed opposite of the “Southern Cuffee seems OF A more higher social degrees than Northern Paddy “, had them their “white one” during a racistic qualification process, D. h. achieve by just as violent as gehässige setting off movements of their former suffering comrades, at all only. Where the assignment of skin colorswith social success (like it in Brazil until today the case is), someone changed in could be arranged the process of its life without Hauttransplantation in different color classes and demonstrated with the fact that race in the perception of racingists no firm andnatural characteristic of the body, but them attributed social quality is.
the Europeans regarded and behaved imperialism in the age of the imperialism after Victor Kiernans words as “the lords OF human child”. Took part in the allocation of the worlditself all conditions, from the released convict to the rural settler, from the civil scientist to the Missionar, from the noble officer to the king. One the most brutal regime let establish Leopold of Belgium in the Congo. In Australia the racingism of the workers' movement ledto the exclusive “white” establishment of state. In Eastern Asia the European model fell on fruitful soil and could Japan as hope of the colored races be presented, in the USA the ideology “communist manifesto destiny” to imperial policy be transferred and as civilization mission was spent.
This politics of the theory of the life inability of the primitive races were accompanied theoretical. After the socialviennaistic doctrine they had not been up to to the fight around the existence and to the fall had not condemned. Many Europeans were convinced that the world within short onlywould be populated by them.
the Belgian crimes in the Congo (the “Congo gräuel “) took place under the eyes of the entire so-called civilization. They served for to plundering an enormous area and privateAppropriation of the profits obtained with india rubber, ivory and Palmöl. The native population was pressed with terror to the hard labour. Inhuman work conditions and violent arbitrariness demanded an immense number at victims. The policy of the Entmenschlichung was legitimized with the statement that thoseAfrican, if not half animals were, so nevertheless completely cultureless natures, which would have to be forced by force to the work. The British journalist and adventurer Henry Morton Stanley praised the machine gun in this connection as tool of the civilization. In Joseph Conrads Narration heart of the darkness demands Kurtz as Protagonist of imperialistic policy: “Exterminate all the brutes “.
“White Australia “
up to the education of a uniform Australian state at the 1. January 1901 been subordinate the individual colonies directly thatBritish colonial Ministry. Large parts of the colonial elite had furnished themselves in this situation and did not want not to change them. The Föderalisten received crucial support from the Australian workers' movement. With the demand “Australia for the white one” pleaded it for a geeintesAustralia, which would be strong enough, against stranger of influences to defend themselves and particularly able be should to refer not-white workers of the country. Since the Aborigines already applied since longer one than becoming extinct race, this politics arranged themselvesparticularly against the “coolies” and “Kanaken” contract workers mentioned from China and the Pacific area. Their readiness to work for small wages was attributed to its rassische inferiority, and they were accused of to cover for Australia with diseases and Lastern. "The totally exclusion OF undesirable alien races “stood as a goal in the electioneering program the laboratories party. The radikalreformerische journalist and agitator William Lane wrote the Australians” under the headline “Australia for: “is A true racial struggle it that isgoing on today in Australia and Australia itself is the prize “.
Yamato race in Japan
the modernization of the Meiji - time led in Japan also to the development of imperialistic ambitions, among other things in the Chinese-Japanese war and in Russian-Japanese war were converted. Under the slogan “Asia the Asian!” served one thereby on the one hand of an ideological reversal of the European-American Stereotyps of the “yellow danger” and warned themselves the asiatic community of states before the “white danger”. On the other hand the own aggressive became andexpansionistic colonial policy with racistic Paternalismus legitimizes. Afterwards the asiatic population of the “five races” the Japanese, the Chinese, Korean, Mandschuren and Mongol should consist, of whom the Japanese “Yamato race” would be destined furthest developed and most progressively and therefore, thoseto illuminate other one to perfect and above all lead culturally and morally.
When western winner powers rejected the suggestion of an explanation on the equal rights of the races, brought in from Japan with the peace negotiations of Versailles, after the First World War, this strengthenedits imperialistic efforts in the Pacific area. Contradictions between the Japanese and the ambitions of England and the USA zuspitzenden themselves finally led to the led argument, which John Dower, military as “race war”, Gerald Horne and others described.
as the recent Turkish national state in 20. Century its own rassische identity to construct tried, the Turkish historical thesis and the sun language theory was developed. They meant that the Turks would be Arier, the most valuable elements of the white race represented andfor the cultural achievements not only Egypt and Greece, but also India, China and even Central America would be responsible.
Germany of the 30's and 40's
in the Weimar Republic was apart from anti-Semitic propagandaparticularly the agitation against the occupation of the Rhine country of racistic Begleitmusik pulled through and this not only in the combat sheets of the extremely right parties and/or. political groupings. Here particularly those offered cause partially. from Africa coming troops of the French crew army. Thosein the crew time born afrodeutschen children some black soldiers and German women were regarded as danger for the German race purity. The children concerned were seized later as so-called “Rhine land hybrids” of the LV authorities and obligation-sterilized often.
racingismwas part of the ideology of the national socialism. One assumed it gives humans with high order and inferior. Therefore entire mankind would divide into three races: culture pin end races (here v. A. the nordisch arische race), culture-basic races (z. B. asiaticand African races) and culture-decomposing races (semitische race).Jews, in addition, Sinti and Roma, were added to the semitischen race (see. for this Nürnberger of Rassengesetze). High-quality humans could originate thereby only from the “gentleman race”. The members of this “gentleman race” hadthe task “to clean-hold” their race, why sexual contact between members of the “high” and the “inferior” race should be prevented. Determined, groups defined of the national socialists as “race” such as Jews or gypsies subordinated them that these decompose “the gentleman race” wanted andtherefore to the protection of the “community “to be destroyed would have.
The theoretical and/or. apparently “scientific” bases supplied v. beside Adolf Hitler (my fight). A. the LV ideologists Alfreds rose mountain and Hans's F. K. Günther in numerous publications. Howeverit is to be noticed with the fact that these appointed scientists had some forerunners and the racingism was until 1933 a totalEuropean problem. Beside numerous further race theoreticians 19. Century belonged the Frenchman to Arthur de Gobineau (1816 - 1882) and the Britisher HoustonStewart Chamberlain (1855 - 1927) to the personalities most influential for the National Socialist race ideology. Hitler, who met Chamberlain 1923, was considered as large Bewunderer of its work.
The victims of the LV racingism were pursued, obligation-sterilized, deportiert and murdered. The entire health care, social politics as well as the population politics became coordinated under “race-hygenic “ criteria, which determined also the validity of marriage ceremonies. To this program also ancestor passports belonged. The Ariernachweis which can be led due to these ancestor passports and/or. the “large Ariernachweis” e.g. was. Condition fora career with the SS. Without the co-operation of LV places and church municipalities, whose entries were consulted for births in church books, this work did not have to be mastered.
The LV racingism berschränkte itself not on humans, but arranged themselves alsoagainst cultural properties. For example jazz was diffamiert and rejected as “negro music”, and works of unpopular artists were considered as degenerate art.
in 19. and 20. Century accepted the racial segregation in the USA and in South Africa particularly perfide forms, which were thoroughly examined of the Rassismusforschung meanwhile.
The dominance of Christian participants in the Southern States of the USAled here to peculiar debates, which circled around the question of the birth of the black ones of Adam and Eva. The representatives of the mono genesis, who assumed that Adam and Eva were white, explained colored humans after driving out outdeveloped for the Paradies. The trailers of the Polygenese represented the skurrile view that God had created several different Urpaare. From both views racingism can be derived. In a case as change of the göttlichen plan, in the second case as intended göttliche Separation.Slave release in the Southern States of the USA did not terminate there the racial discrimination, it reduced it only. Numerous racistic practices were valid up to the civil rights movement in the USA. Only 1964 were legally forbidden discrimination by black ones. But also today stillthe life chances are, educational facilities etc. there after the tradierten line between white and colored unequally distributes, racistic exclusion forms still available.
After slave release in the USA the Ku Klux Klan, one developed the most well-known still existing Rassistenvereinigungenthe world.
general one present features
in the German-language countries is often accepted up to the today's time that racingism primarily in the form of Xenophobie (v. griech.: xenos strangely; Guest/ phóbos fear) is present. Between racingism andXenophobie exists a relationship, however are not simple racingism and Xenophobie to equate. In the racistic German national socialism native “Nichtarier” became (e.g. Jews) for example many more badly treats than foreign “Arier” (e.g. Skandinavier and other north and west Europeans). Of the Xenophobie takes oneon the other hand that she does not know race terms, but rather a Ethnopluralismus it antagonisiert on. One also assumes that of racistic is frequently not conscious thinking humans that they think racistic, what at the same time implied that her her perceptions not with the term “race”connect. The term of the Xenophobie (fear of the stranger) is often also used in order not to have to address the actual problem of racingism openly.
This general acceptance supported by investigations in Switzerland,where due to a study of of the Swiss federal one commission against racingism (Carmel merry Stines and Kelechi Monika Mennel (2004) “black humans in Switzerland. A life between integration and discrimination ") to assume is that racingism strictly speaking in Switzerland very many furthercommon is accepted, as original. Like that black ones are socially marginalisiert despite assimilation, integration and naturalization also after decades and, partly even under clear denomination of the skin color as devaluing factor, with applications are rejected.
|Wikiquote: Racingism - quotations|
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|Commons: Racingism - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- Censored 11
- Heidelberger communist manifesto
- gentleman Mr.
- identification with the aggressor
- Indian politics of the USA
- Nürnberger of laws
- table reserved for regulars slogan
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Web on the left of
- Christine morning star:Theory, history and presence by racingism
- Rassismus definition by Albert Memmi
- Birgit Rommelspacher: Racingism and right-wing extremism - the controversy over the causes
- Ulrich Katz man: Racingism, biology and racial theory (article on shoa.de)
- UNESCO explanation against the “race” - term (left does not function)
- www.civic-edu.net (development ofMethods for the fight against racingism and other Phobien)
- bibliography to (pro ton) racingism i.d. grie. Antique
- culture-critical encyclopedia to racingism
- www.proasyl.de/ (net against racingism for same rights)
- www.people.freenet.de (an extensive and plastic representation of the everyday life racingism in the FRG of the Migranteneven)
- African in Vienna: between Mystifizierung and disparaging
- association for civil courage and anti- Rassismus work (operates among other things an advisory board for victims and witnesses of racingism and puts annually a report about racistic encroachments and structures in Austria on)
- NO-racism (reports overRacingism in Austria)