Ravenna

the tomb of the Theoderich lies a little outside of the old part of town

Ravenna (in former times dt.: Raben) is an Italian city with approximately 140,000 inhabitants. Ravenna is capital of the Italian province of the same name in the region Emilia Romagna and lies to the Adria between Rimini and protects. From 402-476 Ravenna was capital of the westRoman realm. Later here also Odoaker and Theoderich the large one resided; after the back conquest of Italy by eastRoman troops then the imperial Exarch in the city resided to 751.

To table of contents

history

antique ones

in the antique one was Ravenna an important port and one of the most important Roman fleet bases. The fallen Mark Oman niche king Marbod in the year 19 up to his death in the year 37 one interned here.

late ancient times and people migration

in the year 402 shifted thatwestRoman emperors Honorius its yard after Ravenna. The Westgoten under Alarich I. 408 Ravenna besieged. In the same year the field gentleman Stilicho became victim of a plot at the emperor yard. Making a pact with Alarich and thus the high treason accused of, he became in Ravennaexecuted.

After the death (with) emperor Constantius III. its half sister Galla Placidia governed 421 in Ravenna and the death of the Honorius first for its son under age Valentinian III. She let the city develop magnificently. A legend means that itselfin the year 410 the nephew of the Hunnenkönigs Rugila, Attila, to yards as hostages found.

After the joggle of the last emperor Romulus Augustus the Teuton Odoaker, the 493 Theoderich Ostgotenherr of that prevailed after in the city starting from 476the defeat in the Rabenschlacht personally one murdered. The Ostgoten under Theoderich established a realm, which had 552 existence up to the defeat against Byzanz in Italy. The capital Ravenna experienced a cultural bloom time.

Emperor Justinian
mosaic detail from the church San vital one, 6. Jhdt.

Against his protest the frail Pope became Johannes I. 525 skillfully from the arianischen Theoderich to Konstantinopel, over there with Justinian I.to negotiate about its decree against the Arianer. Theoderich threatened the Pope alsoRepressionen against the catholics. When Johannes of unfinished things returned, Theoderich let the Pope with the accusation arrest, it had itself with emperor Justinian I. conspire. It was held in Ravenna and died there due to the bad treatment 526. Theoderichdied shortly thereafter to 30. August in Ravenna. Its there tomb is however today empty.

In May 540 the Ravenna besieged by Belisar on behalf emperors Justinans fell, had eastgothical noble ones the army master in the west was probably offered. Belisarwith it and conquered so the city dealt. Whether Belisar only to the light assumed, is unclear, but probably most probable. This aroused nevertheless suspicions Justinians, which anyway never trusted its generals quite.549 Belisar was recalled andby its competitor Narses replaces. It succeeded to that to at the beginning of of June 552 to conquer the again gothical Ravenna again.

Now attained Ravenna to 751 as Vorposten of the Byzantine realm in Italy meaning, the city became soon after the idea that Langobarden (568) capital of the Exarchats of Italy. From this time of the paging from the antique one to the Middle Ages (see above all late ancient times) one finds in Ravenna today still numerous important buildings, those often still the original mosaic decoration 5. to7. Century show and in the meantime as the world cultural heritage were explained. They are singular, since in the central area of the eastRoman realm nearly all such mosaics the picture controversy to the victim fell later.

the Langobardenkönig Aistulf the city conquered 751, with which the Exarchat ofRavenna ended. In the contract of Quierzy (754) promised beep pin the younger one, which formerly Byzantine Exarchat of Ravenna to the Pope over too hands (Pippini donation); in response Pope legitimized Stephan II. the Karolinger as kings of the Franconia realm. The Frankish king the request already overtook 755 to help the contract by acts to the fulfilment. Up to its death beep pin led two successful campaigns against the Langobarden and gave to the Pope the conquered areas. It is considered in such a way asFounder of the church state, to which also Ravenna belonged. Thus also the bishop seat of Ravenna arrived finally under the papal sovereignty. Because at present the Pope Vitalian extracted 666 eastRoman from emperors Konstans II.the church of Ravenna of the sovereigntyfrom Rome and it made a church independent in itself. The Schisma following from it was again eliminated under Pope Donus and its successor Agatho, but in the consequence the ravennatischen bishops had themselves as Patriarchen of a capital again and againas to a large extent equal seen.

the Middle Ages

around the year 950 were born in Ravenna the holy founder of the Kamaldulenser Romuald, the later large influence on emperors Otto III. to win should.

emperor Otto II. held 967 in Ravenna. one Reichstag off. On suggestion of the emperor that approved at the same time a Synode meeting Pope Johannes XIII. the establishment of the three from now on dioceses Meissen, Merseburg and Zeitz ( late Naumburg ), belonging to the metropolitan federation of the ore diocese Magdeburg.

Later Ravenna suppliedto an autonomous Republic of increasing standard ware, to the Ancona, Fano, Pesaro, Senigallia and Rimini belonged and already was in the 11. Century seat of an important right school.

Dante Alighieri completed the 1307 “ Göttliche begun comedy in Ravenna“, like hardly another work the European literature affected, and died shortly thereafter to 14. September 1321. After its Gebeine were regained some time ago, one established in Ravenna a new tomb to it.

Modern times

since 1861 belong to Ravenna to Italy. Since 1989 Ravenna is connected with Speyer as twin city.

objects of interest

the church San vital one

to the special objects of interest belong earlyChristian churches like the Basilika San vital one, San Apollinare Nuovoor in the former port place Classe San Apollinare in Classe as well as earlyChristian Baptisterien.

Likewise richly the tomb of the empress Galla Placidia decorated with mosaics probably never took up her body. Galla Placidia died 450 in Rome and became probably thereburied.

The tomb of Theoderich the large one is considered as special architectural achievement because of Dachs formed out of an individual monolith.

The bishop chair, which bishop Maximianus (546-552) from Byzanz, eliminating the air anise mash in Ravenna, along-brought, becomes today in the museumat the cathedral kept and is one of the large masterpieces of earlymedieval Elfenbeinschnitzerei.

The bathing resorts Lido di Ravenna, Marina di Ravenna, Lido di Classe which are because of the sea and others have numerous camping sites, holiday houses and hotels, in addition, extensive protected areas. At the Lido di Dante gives it also an expanded FKK - to beach.


sons and daughters of the city

see also

literature

  • Friedrich William dyke man: Ravenna: Capital of the lateantique evening country.Bd. 1: History and Monumente (1969). Bd. 2: Comment, part of 1 (1974). Part 2 (1976). Part 3: History, topography, art and culture, indices to the complete work (1989). Appendix of plan (1976). Bd. 3: EarlyChristian buildings and mosaics ofRavenna (1958) [board volume]

Web on the left of

Commons: Ravenna - pictures, videos and/or audio files



coordinates: 44°25' N, 12°12' O

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)