in the art designates the term “realism” a realistic representation style.
Realism placed in 19. Century a reaction to the romance and became the forerunner of the Impressionismus. France the school of Barbizon for a realistic landscape painting occurred, which affected the art completely Europe.
Important representatives of realism in 19. Century
- Gustave Courbet (1819-1877)
- Jean François Millet (1814-1875)
- Honoré Daumier (1808-1879)
- Adolph ofMenzel (1815-1905)
- William Leibl (1844-1900)
- Rudolf Epp (1834-1910)
- Ilja Repin (1844-1930)
- Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Ge (1831-1894)
a privileged position takes the important English landscape painter William Turner (1775-1851). Although art-historically, despite some romantic resemblances, realism einordbar, are its experimental mark way, thoseinto a dissolution and its topic exhaustion flows to the landscape in light and color style-spreading and already anticipates elements of the Impressionismus and the symbolism .
style directions of realism
classical, neoclassical and academic realism
beside more symbolically, more ornamentaler and formalistisch abstract art were most works of art, before that the 20. Century were created, “realistically” in the today's sense of the word.
The “neoclassical one Realism " (sometimes also “classical realism” mentioned) designates the Western European art style of the center 18. Century up to early 19. Century, which decreases/goes back to the ideals of beauty of the classicism and itself at the style of the antique Greek and Roman art oriented.
This style became at the large European academies of arts (e.g. to the École of the Beaux kind in Paris) ever continues to perfect and reached as “academic realism “his high point in 19. Century in Russia, Germany, Italy, England and France. The painters of academic realism painted prefer historical and mythologische topics. A well-known representative of this style e.g. is. William Adolphe Bouguereau. 
1925 became under the title “new Sachlichkeit” inthe arts center Mannheim works issued by 32 artists. The pictures were characterized by a over sharpness in the representation of articles and figures. One spoke with this painting developed after the First World War also of “magic realism”. 1961 became in the houseat the forest lake in Berlin again an exhibition under the title “new Sachlichkeit” organizes.
representatives of of the “new one Sachlichkeit”
- Otto DIX, (1891 - 1969)
- Elfriede Lohse Wächtler, (1899 - 1940)
- George Grosz, (1893 - 1959)
- Karl stroke book, (1891 - 1979)
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Oelze, (1900 - 1980)
- Christian harm, (1894 - 1982)
American Scene or American realism
style direction of the realistic paintingin the USA and of the 30's 20's 20. Century. As realistic a rendition of the “American as possible Way OF would run” was the goal of this first independent style in America, which defined itself completely consciously against the European modern trend.
artists of the “American Scene”
- Edward hopper, (1882 - 1967)
- Georgia O'Keeffe, (1887 - 1986)
- Charles of cross-eyed ones, (1883 - 1965)
- Grant Wood, (1892 - 1942)
Realism in the service of an ideology
in the Soviet Union placed after 1930 the painting into the service of the stalinistischen society theory and also the national socialism in Germany bore no artistic liberties, but forced the art into the service thatIdeology. Modern art, above all abstract painting, was shown, forbidden as “degenerated” denunziert, in particularly an exhibition “degenerate art” organized for it and taken to the artists each possibility for employment. In weakened form the interferences of the state repeated themselves into the art inthe GDR, “socialist realism” became the Gängelband for many artists also here, particularly since state and a party were the primary mission givers and a free art market did not exist as well as. (See also: Leipziger school)
Important representatives of socialist realism
- Alexander Michailowitsch Gerassimow (1881-1963)
- Alexander Alexandrowitsch Deineka (1899-1969)
- Willi custom (1921)
- Bernhard Heisig (1925)
- Wolfgang matte this year (1927)
- Werner Tübke (1929-2004)
new realism is one itself end of the 50's20. Jh. developing reaction to the abstract expressionism and to the Informel. He finds his new styles in action art, happening and object art. It takes some elements of the Pop kind with its turn to the banal everyday life things of the lifein front. General agents of the movement are the artists of the group of Nouveau Réalisme. A further in the 60's version of new realism developed connects itself with the group ZEBRA. You belong the painters Dieter Asmus, Peter Nagel, DietmarUllrich and the sculptors Christa and Karlheinz Biederbick on. Under formal criterion the fusion of tradierter picture means of the painting with style means of the photography (ingate, cutout, wide angle, Farbstichigkeit etc.) is new, which led to a revitalization of the medium board picture.
artists of photo realism
- Chuck CLOSE (* 1940), the USA
- Alex Colville (* 1920), Canada
- Robert Cottingham (* 1935), the USA
- Don Eddy (* 1944), the USA
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Estes (* 1932), the USA
- Franz Gertsch (* 1930), Switzerland
- Ralph Goings (* 1928), the USA
- Philip Pearlstein (1924), the USA
new Leipziger school
since beginning 21. Century make themselves strengthens new realistic tendencies in the German painting noticeably. Following the old “Leipziger school “of the GDR art around the painters Bernhard Heisig, Wolfgang matte this year and Werner Tübke, they become exemplary as “new Leipziger so mentioned school” of that, artists trained to the Leipziger university for diagram and book art (HGB) teaching or, Arno Rink, victory hard Gille, Neo smoke, Tim vain and Tilo Baumgärtel represent.