Reality

as reality (lat. realitas, of res „thing “) or reality is designated generally linguistic usage the whole of the material one. Material thereby what exists also outside of thinking, is i.e. independently of only think-thinking its: Contents of conceptions, feelings, desires,Perceptions among other things do not apply for the reality in the everyday life understanding first of all as associated.

The exact understanding its that is to be understood reality under material , unreal and, is based to ontologischer and metaphysical kind on the philosophical basic assumptions presupposed in each case; this applies alsofor the reality understanding of the individual sciences. In philosophy the terms can be used „reality " and „reality " in different way.

For the natural sciences reality is what is accessible to the scientific view and research. Things of the reality must be measurableand can serve as basis for theory formation.


Table of contents


the reality term as such is indistinct. Depending upon use way it has different contents. Thus for instance in the philosophy encyclopedia by Hügli/Lübcke the following reality terms are specified, whose meaning differs in each case:

  1. The physical reality covers all articlesthe external world. There are delimitation problems thereby in two different regard. On the one hand it is disputed whether perceptible things do not belong to like electromagnetic radiation or neutrons, because by this theoretical Entitäten only their effects are measurable. On the other hand is in the neuroscientific discussiondisputed, to what extent consciousness contents are material (see philosophy of the spirit).
  2. Into the objectives reality also social, is included aesthetic or historical conditions thus abstract structures, which depend on human thinking. Here the question arises whether the thes subject „of the ideal sciences “ Mathematics and/or. Logic of parts of the objective reality are.
  3. When speaking about consciousness-independent reality the consciousness-dependent phenomena are excluded such as coloredness, Qualia, and the primary qualities area, time and shape from the definition, because these characteristics of the realization ability of the recognizingSubject depend: A fly or a bat surely sees the world in completely different way than humans.
  4. Calls one the reality the perceptible possibly excludes one existing, but not articles perceptible for humans.
  5. In thatOne turns designation off the actual to given circumstances contrary to the possible ones.
  6. The true as reality leads directly to the discussion across the truth term.
  7. If one places the real into the contrast to the fantasy, the question about the reality developsof dreams and feelings (Qualia).
  8. The associated to a phenomenon forms a contrast to the ideas. Contents of the term triangle can be thought only by the concrete example, just like contents of the number 10.
  9. The nature being ends (the PudelsCore) can be hidden perhaps under a misleading surface.
  10. The contentwise contrary to the formal ones. The term of the ball is abstract. A ball or a billard ball is however concrete articles.
  11. The sense of a judgement ('' Beethoven delivered the spoon''means'' he is deceased'')

in philosophy further the reality of general terms discussed (Universalienstreit) and even the question is placed whether values exist objectively (ethical realism).

reality term in philosophy

as also within other rangesthere is a multiplicity of partially substantially conflicting views in philosophy to the question, which is material. In principle the ontologische is finally differentiated from the epistemological and by the science-theoretical aspect. Ontologi realism means that it in principle oneExternal world gives, which exists independently of recognizing subjects. The opposite standpoint in addition is the subjective idealism, for which reality depends only on mental achievements (see also Solipsismus). Epistemological realism is to that extent stronger and/or. more closely than it is accepted thatthe existing reality in any way to be also recognized can. Over the degrees of the recognizability there is now again a multiplicity of most different views. The opposite standpoint is the constructionalism, which assumes all articles in consciousness on oneConstruction, i.e. again on mental achievements are based. Finally are the representatives of the science-theoretical realism of the view that over the reality theories can be set up, which are in certain respects true. From view of analytic philosophy Michael Dummett has this thesisthus it formulates that the truth of a statement exists independently of the possibility of their justification. The Gegenthese represented by Dummett is anti-realism.

reality in the theory of knowledge

in view to epistemological realism usually the following positions becomedifferentiated:

  1. Naive realism: The reality is clearly recordable and so constituted, as it is recognized, even if mistakes and realization progress are possible. This position is to be hardly still found in view of the advanced scientific realizations.
  2. Critical realism: The reality reflectsitself over perceptions and mental achievements only as features in the consciousness of humans against. But there is recognizable relations between the material articles and the features, so that e.g. two persons, who notice the same, also over the same feature order.Critical realism goes out with realization progress, i.e. the approximation of the knowledge to actual conditions in the external world.
  3. Semantic realism: In semantic realism it is assumed that there is a clear interpretation for the external world.
  4. Epistemi realism:The managing views can be summarized as epistemischer realism. The view is common to them that meaningful statements about the external world can be made.
  5. Weak realism: There is a reality and a this stands in certain relationship with the perceptive subject,but this facts actually do not permit conclusions on the world. For humans exists only, which for it is recognizable. Every other conclusion is speculative Metaphysik. The senses of humans are affiziert (whether now according to the atomistic association psychology or the Gestalt psychology is insignificant thereby) and a process of transformation develops, for that to the features in human consciousness leads (Kant or Kuhn, with the latter the hot Affizierungen stimuli). Reality without interpreting indications is not conceivable (Günter Abel). Reality is conceivable after John Hick as experience as (in approximately “experienced as”).

Into the managing organization the term of the representation fits not completely, with which the feature of the article in consciousness is understood as something mediating.The spectrum of the conceptions of representation of the physical illustration reaches over the sense data up to isomorphism between reality and language or also indication. One calls the views of representation also Phänomenalismen.

During the evaluation of the presented basic positions must one state that they all are in each case not provable empirically, but on more or less plausible interpretations of our consciousness and/or. our conceptions of the world are based, so that they are all just as metaphysical as a radical Skeptizismus.

The anti-materialista relatively easy position has in this debate, since it can persist in the fact that the human realization ability does not permit an empirical proof of the external world. Against this position however the plausibility of the everyday life experience speaks that obviously all humans a to a large extent homogeneousExperience the world to have and the practical argumentation of the natural sciences, which can refer with a realistic world view to successes of the research. The classical example is the theory of the diverson of light waves, which is based on relativity theory, by gravitation, thenby the observation of the red shift afterwards one confirmed.

the reality term in the philosophy history

from the antique one to the Middle Ages is only the argument over the reality of general terms (Universalienstreit) well-known, i.e. it is forthis time of a naive and/or. to go out if necessary critical realism. The conception of a pure construction of the world in consciousness as in the subjective idealism Fichtes or in radicals constructionalism of today's time did not give it at that time yet. Only with consciousness philosophy Descartes'and the idealistic interpretation by Berkeley (eat est percepi = its is) those began realism - debate in philosophy. It coined/shaped above all the argument between rationalism and Empirismus in the modern times, for the Kant a mediating positionto find searched.

Immanuel Kant actually designated the external world with the term „of the things “. this term was for it a border term, because it did not regard the characteristics of the external world for humans as recognizably. Into consciousness arrive onlyfrom the external world affizierte perceptions, which it called features. Since the realization way is alike with all humans, the perceptions can be examined inter+subjectively, so that there is an objective knowledge on the level of the features.

The reality covered for Kantin addition, the range of the pure understanding and the pure opinions, the so-called. intelligible world, which is appropriate for A priori in humans. Humans have independently of the things actually over it opinions of space and time as well as thinking structures,the so-called. Categories, with which it structures the features and according to rules into terms and judgements (statements) converts. Even if the things are not directly recognizable actually for humans, they must necessarily be accepted, because otherwise no opinionsto develop can. On the other side it requires the human concept formation, in order to let a reality in consciousness develop. Beyond that there were so-called for Kant. regulations ideas, i.e. God, the liberty and the soul. This are absolute terms, thosewithout empirical basis by the reason to be formed, because striving for an unlimited extension of the realization lies in the nature of humans. Also Kant in its postulates - teachings awarded to these pure consciousness contents as mental Entitäten reality.

Bythe representatives of the German idealism the acceptance of an external world (the things actually) denied, came them to the view that the reality results from a system of the spirit. Spirit and nature are to be understood as unit, on an absolutePrinciple to lead back is like z. B. which I, nature or the world spirit. This way of thinking arrested in the speculation was not suitable to make positive contributions and reflections to the rapidly developing natural sciences. As it were as counter development won in the positivisma strongly realistic conception of the world the upper hand. Classical representative of critical realism is Nicolai Hartmann. The solution of the critical rationalism Karl Poppers is similar. Since Popper did not keep however the possibility of the epistemological proof of an external world for ensured, he tookinstead on that it is pragmatically meaningful to consider the position of critical realism meaningful. In connection with the Fallibilismus prepared by him one speaks with Popper therefore also of a hypothetical realism.

Jean Baudrillard (Agonie of theSees material ones) as philosophers of the Poststrukturalismus end 20. Century the current reality by a “Agonie of firm purchases, Agonie of the material one and rational one " determines, with which the age of the simulation introduction holds. History has itself “zuückgezogen”, one“Crosses nebulas of the Indifferenz behind itself leaving, from rivers, but empties all their purchases”. Building twisting pool of broadcasting corporations sets up theories of the hyperreality , in which originally from it designated the indication at expense at power wins.

A new view received thoseDiscussion in the languageanalytic turn, with which alone priority for questions of the realization was granted to the language. In consequence most representatives of languageanalytic philosophy anti-materialists are as outstanding Michael Dummett and Donald Davidson to be called are. In its muchdiscussed neopragmatischen beginning comes smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Rorty to the view, which realism - debate is in the long run useless and instead of this question rather concrete scientific topics to be worked on should.

reality term in the science generally

over their self understanding tooare sufficient, require the natural sciences a reality term, which subordinates Entitäten and the possibility of measurements as true, since otherwise regularities would not be not executable to observe and prognoses. However the possibility of the views from a strict metaphysical realism is enough toto the aspect that the objects of the science are abstractions. With statements of the science about the reality it is today hardly still disputed that

  • she translates the reality into symbols (mathematical indications and a theory language) and
  • the scientific data due tofrom theories develop (theory-load are) and are interpreted.

Accordingly one can speak of the the subject of the natural sciences likewise of possible nature, as philosophy speaks of possible worlds.

A special kind of play is the so-called. Science realism, also not observable circumstances howNeutrons or X-ray as something material regards, because these theoretical articles have empirically examinable effects. A prominent representative of the Entitätsrealismus is Ian Hacking, which does not award however theories an independent reality.

The scientific everyday life (research, publications, teachings) is limited nowadayson the application of a number of proven methods. Questions about the reality purchase arise only in few exposed places like for example with climatic models or the Big Bang theory.

the problem of the reality in quantum mechanics

with the interpretation that Quantum mechanics placed itself the problem to define the term “reality” intensified. A cause is that the objects which can be observed present themselves depending upon experiment differently, once as particle, once as light wave. This led Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen to the following criterionthe physical reality:

If one can predict the value physical dimension with security (is called with the probability 1), without disturbing a system thereby in any way, then there is an element of the physical reality, this physicalSize corresponds.

Although this definition sounds very careful, it seems to lead to problems, if z. B. the results of the EPR experiments to be explained are.

literature

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