Six-form high school
table of contents
the six-form high school (until 1964 middle school) is a resuming school form in the context of the three-membered educational system in Germany. It begins with that5. and/or. 7. Class and becomes after the 10. Class with the middle ripe one finally.
Due to the culture sovereignty of the countries each Land of the Federal Republic has its own laws within the range of the public education and thus also different guidelines for six-form high schools.
The six-form high school is to prepare the pupils for it, afterthe conclusion in the 10. To begin class a professional training and/or. to visit resuming schools. Accordingly instruction is also often practice-oriented. Thus it gives starting from the 7. Class the possibility of selecting between different profiles depending upon Land of the Federal Republic. The profiles orient themselves usually at onemathematical-scientific-technical branch, an economic adjustment or the range social welfare matters and/or. second foreign language. Which fields and auxiliary offers (e.g. second foreign language) to be offered, hangs of the respective Land of the Federal Republic and if necessary. also of the school off.
In Baden-Wuerttemberg visit approximately 1/3 of the pupils and pupils the six-form high school ofClass 5-10. Approx. 33% of the pupils and pupils visit a vocational High School in the connection and acquire so the Abitur. A characteristic of the six-form high school of Baden-Wuerttemberg are the fan groups EEC (geography, restaurant economics, community customer) and NWA (scientific working: Physics, biology, chemistry). In class 7 can between thatSubjects “technology”, “humans and environment” or “French” to be selected.
At the Bavarian six-form high school e.g. if the third branch covers the emphasis French and can, if appropriate instructors are present, to be supplemented in the musi-CH-arranging, in the house-economical or within the social range.
In the Saarland some years ago those becameSix-form high school with the hauptschule folded up. The new school form is now the extended six-form high school, in that the pupils in the classes 5 and 6 common, and starting from the 7. Class into different branches to be divided (branch to main graduation and branch to middle education-ripe).
Bremen seized2004 the main and six-form high schools to the secondary level school together. In the 5. and 6. All pupils are informed together to class. Starting from the 7. Class becomes mathematics and English, starting from the 8. Class also German achievement in two different groups gives. Starting from the 9. Class those becomePupil classified under conclusion-referred profile classes.
In the school year 2003/2004 there were in Germany 2980 six-form high schools with 1.30 million pupils.
history of the material education
roots of the material education are already in the early Middle Ages: Walahfrid Strabo (808 - 849), Benedektinerabt on the island Reichenau, wrote in its garden poem (Hortulus), like the experience throughthe hands work to be increased can.
Further roots of in former times material education beginnings one meets at the Renaissance - paedagogues such as Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469 - 1536), Thomas More (1478 - 1535) and J.L.Vives (1492 - 1540), those beside „the Sprachbemeisterung “those„Sachbemeisterung “set.
But those again to a pure verbal school of pushing forces of the reformation time cut these efforts off. Höfi life became exemplary. The aristocracy did not see however its goals of the education with the latin schools fulfilled and it developed the knight academies. They were the gate to a modern material education.
Parallel to it the efforts of individual paedagogues stood around the material education. Wolfgang Ratke (Ratichius) (1571 - 1635) the introduction of the native language to instruction and the separation of latin demanded. Johann Amos Comenius (1592 -1670) built the demand to teach the words only in connection with the things. In „the trivial school “ of the Joh. Raue (1610 - 1679) became already in subjects such as geometry; Stenography, Realien, biology etc. taught.
For Joh. Joachim cup (1635? -1682) had the school the task to create over education and teachings an arranged state structure. Its ideal was relating to crafts educated a scholar, „the useful taught “scientist.
In 18. Jh. erstarkte the middle class and the call after the material-forming schools became again louder. The schooleducationaland schoolorganizational overall systems disintegrated. A new epoch of the material education began, at whose end the Erstarken of the middle school form stood. First however the switching of material education contents was still the task of individual material paedagogues:
For the Pietisten August Hermann Francke (1663 - 1727) was thatRealism quite methodically coined/shaped. Nature showed the size and omnipotence of God. Practical instructions had primarily the goal, for the maintenance of its Franck' institutes in resound (Saale) to contribute. 1698 created Francke in resound the Francke donations designated after it, one to social mechanism existing today.
of the Hallenser minister Christoph Semler (1669 - 1740) created 1707 its „mathematical and mechanical six-form high school “. The idea was it to illustrate instruction and train techniques, those for the later life and the occupation appeared necessary.After a failure it created it 1738 again. The second attempt ended two years later with Semlers death. Semlers school was first, which carried the name „six-form high school “. It remained however over the entire time of their existence only an auxiliary school to „the Teut school “.
Outthe Teut school, whose verbalism he criticized, the reform-oriented pietistische theologian Johann Julius Hecker (1707 1768) out developed a specialized class system (ajar against of Joh. Gottfried large created differentiated material distribution depending upon the career aspirations of the pupils) in its „economic-mathematical six-form high school “in Berlin of 1747. Hecker is considered as a founder of the original practice-oriented six-form high school, for which he let a school garden and which attached it 1748 the first Prussian teacher seminar put on.
So much the material paedagogues also strove, their trouble alone were not enough not to satisfy the education formation of the middle class. Developedthe citizen schools and under adding the subject latin the higher citizen school. The higher citizen school divided into around 1860 into the six-form high school 1. Order (from that about twenty years later the material High School arose) and the six-form high school 2. Order, which became the upper six-form high school. Bothnew school forms became on an equal footing with beginning of the new century the High Schools.
The branch to the today's six-form high schools ran however differently: From a conglomerate of centralforming schools (higher daughter and Knabenschulen, city schools, citizen schools and Rektoratschulen) 1872 its own, nature-certain middle school arose. Over three re-organizations away heldit itself also over the 2. World war away and could take up their enterprise after its completion relatively fast again. Depending upon Land of the Federal Republic the middle school in six-form high schools were renamed sooner or later, because those felt parents shank in the name „middle school “somewhat disparaging. The term „middle school “designatedso not only a school type, but allegedly also a quality.
the term six-form high school becomes since that 18. Century name for a occupation-referred school type used, was for the first time legally embodied in the political school condition 1805 and as 3-jährige institute for buyers, camera lists, farmersand “artist of higher kind” defines.1849 were planned to generally create one screen end 6-klassige six-form high school. It stepped only 1868 as prototype of a higher school without latin with living foreign languages and stress of the mathematical-scientific training in competition as the High School. First six-form high schools were 7-klassig. 1927 received itadditional 8. Class and thus became the six-form high school the High School an equivalent school type, which is led since 1962 as material High School, an alternative to the human High School. It gives for some time in some Lands of the Federal Republic (e.g. into the Steiermark) also the school attempt six-form high school, as integrated parta hauptschule. It takes six years and puts on learning foreign languages, project instruction, switching of EDP - knowledge and intensive occupation preparation a large value.
See also: Educational system in Austria
the six-form high school is in Switzerland an upper stage school (Germany: Hauptschule).In most cantons the six-form high school is the upper stage school for scholastically weaker to average pupils, after it the basic level, the five to six years lasting primary school (Germany: Primary school) visited.
Completing of a Matura and mostly also visiting resuming schools remains refused for junior high school students.In addition the attendance of a secondary level school or a district school is mostly presupposed. These are mostly forced to begin occupation teachings or a Anlehre.
See also: Educational system in Switzerland
Principality of Liechtenstein
the six-form high school is in the Principality of Liechtenstein a secondary level school (Switzerland: Upper stage school). ThoseSix-form high school in Liechtenstein is the school for pupils on higher level.
After completing the six-form high school a far study is generally possible.
See also: Educational system of Liechtenstein
Saldern, Matthias of (2002). Bildungsgang six-form high school. High close honours: Cutter.