with the term recycling [ɹɪˈsaɪklɪŋ] and/or. Rezyklierung is designated the procedure, with which from waste a secondary raw material becomes. The legal defaults are laid down in Germany in the cycle economic and waste law. European Union far today politically intended in principle following are after priorities listed goals:
- Waste avoidance, for thisheard among other things also the prohibition of environmentally hazardous materials like e.g.PCB, FCKW etc.
- Re-use, i.e. a renewed use of the property like e.g. Pledge bottle, Second hand use etc.
- Recycling by material utilization; defined waste material stream or parts of it are won for other purposes than secondary raw material.In addition industrially today predominantly mechanical or biological procedures are used.
- Recycling by energetic utilization; the materials are burned or guest, however with the exclusive goal of the power production.
- Other forms of the utilization.
Recycling therefore contains the points 3) and 4) of the above list.
Table of contents
thoseNature knows the recycling since its existence. Humans learned early that the apparently useless can be a valuable raw material. Particularly in the First and second World War the recycling of wastes was an important source of raw material. In former times were rag collecting tanks and dealers itself overthe a collecting, sorting and passing on wastes cared, today are it recycling specialists.
The recycling movement began 1987 in the USA, as which also over 3000 tons garbage applied loaded garbage cargo boat “Mobro 4000” from Islip (NY) after Morehead town center (numerical control). But beforeit its goal reached, spread rumors that it would have loaded medical wastes, so that Morehead town center forbade the discharge. The Mobro 4000 drove thereupon far direction the south to delete on the search for a place around its garbage charge. As allegedly also Mexico and Belizeasked, drove the discharge it unsuccessfully back to Islip, where the garbage was burned after long law case.
The long search for a customer for the garbage did not become a medium event, which aroused the wrong impression with environmentalists, it would give free dumping grounds in the USAmore, if not even more enough place for only one garbage cargo boat is.
But it does not concern in principle to avoid garbage the question, whether still capacities are present separate rather therefore, whether it are not more meaningful, if not possible to use it (= recyclen), andonly if this is not possible to deposit it. Thus it stands for 4 of the FRG in the cycle economic and waste law §.
- In the GDR end of the 40's the disposal enterprise SERO in Leipzig was created.
- 1991 developed due to periods running off in accordance with the packing regulation in Germany that Binary system Germany (the Green point).
the most economical form of the separation lies with the waste causer, before different wastes are mixed. Everafter the waste politics and the existing reutilizations isolating is regionally differently accomplished.
At the most frequent to be collected waste paper, waste glass (z. T. divided into knowing and tinted glass) and packing by dual the system Germany. Well likewise collecting and Kompostieren work bio waste, the battery recycling and the recycling of old cars on the autocemetery.
For the recycling of settlement wastes so far as sort-pure a separation of the waste as possible was necessary after groups of materials. In the meantime exists matured automated technical sorting equipment, which can separate settlement wastes also mixed sort clean. In the past yearsadmitted picture of the public collecting containers therefore will probably in the future change.
Since wastes do not only result with the consumer, but also in the economy, there is the necessity also there to seize wastes. Thus e.g. fall. large quantities building debris, wood remainders, art off remainders and Metallreste on.
Itadheres to today the rumor, the garbage separation is only one alibi device and everything to the end am together-thrown and burn. Even campers, whereby one would catch aluminum running out down. But otherwise become everything burns. This rumor is not correct, even if it is maintained that selbigesone know, because it was reread in the picture newspaper.
(Again) the utilization is divided into the material and energetic utilization. The materialUtilization is again into the material and rawmaterial utilization divided. Products of the material utilization were usually produced by physical procedures, z. B. Filters, separation, Metallseparation or Umschmelzen with plastics. The rawmaterial utilization finds main application with glass, various metals as well as paper. Everythingadmitted procedures for the rawmaterial utilization by chemical action (e.g. with plastics) so far either because of technical problems or because of their inefficiency failed.
Downcycling and Upcycling
a disadvantage from for example plastic are that the material no more the original quality and/or. Workability reaches,as before the recycling process. This devaluation is called also Downcycling, while with the Upcycling of waste materials of a process high-quality products can be made. Residual substances, which result during the recycling procedure, are called Spuckstoffe.
Besides it is to be also noted to prefer that the re-use of articles the recyclingis, since the energy spends is smaller.
The inclination of the plastic during the reprocessing to degradieren hangs off of the selected processing route and of the respective type of basic polymer as well as the content on additives, which can lower the thermal-oxidative dismantling of the molecule chains strongly. In some cases the used reachesPlastic quite the quality level of the original commodity. It depends here on the quality and sort purity of the collected old parts and the preparation process and the Nachadditivierung. Also total energy consumption during the reprocessing is often overrated. With any more than approximately 10 to 15 MJ/kg polymer (thermoplastic) is not with parts, which possess a single mass of more than 100g, the complete dressing feasible.
In this connection to Orginalliteratur from the years 1990 to 1997 as well as to the following sources one refers:
H. Kindler and. A. Nikles: Energy expenditure for the production of materials of plastics 70 (1980)S802 FF
Brandrup/Michaeli et old. : The utilization of plastics; Hans he publishing house 1995
VDI society development construction and selling: Recycling a challenge for the technical designer; VDI publishing house Duesseldorf 1991
K.Grefermann, K. Halk, K. - D. Knörndel: The recycling industry in Germany; ifo studies to the industrial branch Nr.58 ifoInstitut for economic research Munich 1998
DO Berlin SFB (carriage return character) 281 2003 ecological manufacturing
to ecology, economics and efficiency
paper to a very high percentage one recycelt. The more papers again-used, the fewer woods must on paper production one spendsbecome (and after the law of supply and demand the wood price with the assigned quantity waste paper sinks. For paper production become in the FRG at present approx. 40% of wood production assigned).
To a high portion made of waste paper e.g. are. Cardboard (up to 100%) andNewsprint (up to 80%).
Paper recycling is used thus in very large measure to the production of packing material and to the production of newsprint and such a thing. From it nearly all branches of industry, industrial concerns profit and in each case the consumers.
Only wood-producing enterprises wear by a high percentagePaper recycling lower conversions. Enterprises, the waste paper collect or use, it without paper recycling would not give.
At the end of April 2005 was the cost per ton waste paper between 50 to 80 euro (and with it on record level) (according to Hamburg evening papers)
- paper recycling is economically efficient therefore very.
With onesubstantial increase of the waste paper portion is however not to be counted, because the quality of the paper fibers with the number by the recycling process constantly decreases, and for high-quality paper only much waste paper limits to be used can.
- Paper recycling is ecologically efficient:
The energy expenditure with the production of recycling paperis clearly smaller (only approx. a third) as with the production again paper from wood (fresh fiber paper), consumption of water amounts to only 15%, the waters load amounts to only about 5%.
The paper processing causes the highest industriellen water consumption in Germany.
Recycling paper stands with many inCall to have a bottom quality than fresh fiber paper which for many inferior sorts (e.g. Newsprint, which usually contains a recycling portion) reliably applies. However are today also hochqualtiatives recycelte types of paper, e.g. Copying papers, available, those in their manufacturing properties with fresh fiber paper comparably are and itself alsowith respect to the white degree only minimum of this differentiate.
glass is manufactured made of quartz sand. It constitutes 12% of the earth's crust , is thus more than plentifully present. A problem is here the separation of different colors, otherwise it is relatively efficient.
- Glass recycling is economically better than its utilization, since it is to transport and be prepared very favorably.
- Glass recycling is ecologically worse than its utilization, since the melting point of pure quartz is at 1700 °C.
the utilization of glass is meaningful only with standardized bottles.Transport is more difficult, otherwise it is relatively efficient.
- Re-use of glass is economically worse than glass recycling, since transport and cleaning are more difficult.
- Re-use of glass is ecologically better than glass recycling, since hardly wastes or pollutants develop.
One can balance thus economics and ecology hereor waste glass also simply only deposit to manufacture there it from the efficiency hardly a difference meant simply new glass.
there plastic bottles easier and more stable than Glasflaschen are, is also more efficient and thus also its transport their recycling. Nevertheless those landmost plastic bottles in the “yellow bag “(dual system Germany), where they can be recycelt only with high expenditure and quality loss.
- Economically the Recyceln of plastics is very inefficient and complex.
- Ecologically the Recyceln is on plastics above all dependent on the kind of the plastic, on the average because of the high energy expenditure however rather bad.
Hereutilization is meaningful and efficient, to the efficient recycling is missing to a large extent still the technology.
In the years 1990 to 2000 particularly in the German-speaking countries a great many preparation techniques for plastics were developed and tested. Hauptproblem with material recycling of thermoplastics lies today no longer inthe preparation technology separate further in the enormous difficulty to produce suitable sort-pure junk parliamentary groups in sufficient quantity economicalally justifiablely. Even if the ecological balance of the utilization of sort-pure parliamentary groups of used, technical thermoplastics positively precipitates, then economic balance is positive only under closely circumscribed basic conditions. With rising crude oil prices ofover 60 USD/Barrel the chance grows that in individual cases automated procedures can amortize.
aluminum is the most frequentexisting metal of the earth's crust. It occurs however only in strongly bound form. With aluminum the recycling efficiency is very well, there itsubstantially more with difficulty new aluminum (by fusion electrolysis) is to be won, than pure aluminum to melt (melting point 660 °C).
- Aluminum recycling is both economic and ecologically very meaningful. It is to be won very simply too recyceln and very heavily from aluminas.
- Aluminum recycling is purely economically regarded tomost profitable, while the recycling of other materials are usually subsidized or paid in advance (the Greens point) must.
see: Copper recycling
bio waste recycling
see: Bio waste
is the reintegration no longer genuzter surfaces into the economic circulation.
see: Surface recycling
- Heiko Doedens, Heinz Josef thorn shrubs: Developments with the systems of the separate collection. Garbage and waste 37 (6), S. 301 - 308 (2005), ISSN 0027-2957
Web on the left of
- Theatre Dimbeldu - fairy tales „the garbage crate “, recycling tinkering book, projects and actions
- BRT recycling - manufacturer from machines to the recycling with many interesting photos
- Greenpeace - paper recycling (in the pdf format)
- clean Germany. To the Psychopathologie of the disposal nature
- donation common cancelling system batteries
- Special Interest Wiki about Upcycling with practicalTipps and building guidances
- recycling tinkering production of useful and pretty things from wastes
- Umsonstökonomien as recycling beginning
- Scenarios and Strategies for at Extended producer Responsibility system From the Swedish Morphological Society