Reflex (physiology)

a reflex exists in a neurally obtained, rapid and homogeneous reaction of an organism to a certain attraction.

Reflexes can be by the simple reflex elbow up to reflex circles of “higher” kind differently complex as well as innately or acquired; in the latter case becomes also from learned,acquired, conditioned or conditioned reflexes talked. Innate or absolute reflexes represent biologically präformierte reaction types. They are pointed as evolutionary adaptation effects to living conditions.

Reflexes make a life in a on a long-term basis constant environment for organisms possible: by an automatic, schematic or stereotyped reaction stopped to such living conditions,under continuous circumstances is sufficient to live and to descendants witness up to sex-ripe.

for peculiarities of reflexes

a condition for the occurrence of reflexes the ability of an organism perceptions is to be made, these automatic “processes” and in an identical interaction ofSensory organs to develop nerves and muscles on specific attractions or stimuli attraction-adequate reactions which make possible or secure their own life for it.

Genetically embodied and reflektorisch coming reaction types is thereby quasi evolutionary “tested” reaction types; they are formed only with organisms, with those them itselfregarding long-term constant life operations as effective for the own life proved. With innate reflexes adjustment achievements and survivabilities are to an organism at the disposal, which does not have to only learn it.

reflex forms

behavior biologists differentiate between the following kinds of reflex:

  • Absolute, unkonditionierte or innate reflexes: they are trained either already with birth of an organism fully or develop in run its development up to sex-ripe and the growth end (maturing); for so reaction natures biologically put on it is typical that each individual of a kind identical reactions and expirations of reaction uphomogeneous attraction constellations shows, which vary only in the respective intensity such as speed or violence (can).
  • Caused or conditioned reflexes: thus reflex-like reaction types are called, which must be learned only; therefore also learned or acquired reflexes so mentioned are only individually developed. Can alsoviszerale reactions to be learned ; for the study of this phenomenon particularly the Russian scientist Iwan Petrowitsch Pawlow (1849 - 1936) strove. Example of it is its famous dog experiment: , Always then, if they got fodder set forward, at the same time a bell clay/tone was brought to some dogs to hearing.After some time the dogs began to produce digesting secretions also if they heard only the bell clay/tone. The connection of feeding and bell clay/tone had obviously remembered with the dogs; one speaks in such cases also of the fact that feeding and bell clay/tone associated themselves and this kind of learning calls classical conditioning. How in the behavioristischen learning research particularly accomplished in the USA it was then shown all life natures capable of it can train an immense number of reaction types, a knowledge by such associative coinage learning that for Tierdressuren talented humans howeveralways and purposefully used. Also within this framework operante conditioning particularly examined been based on such coinage learning: if the effects of own activities remember to an adaptive life nature and are possible it by trying (trial and error out) to develop reaction types impressive (RH).On the other hand capable life natures of others can learn the same group only for the imitation learning or copying; to intentional, purposeful and organized theories and learning in the form of training and independent learning or training only humans seem to be capable - and of learningby teachings only sufficiently more intelligently…
  • Self-reflexes: thus reflexes are called, if the reflex answer takes place in the same range, in which also the adequate (release) attraction due to it were noticed. Above all protection reflexes belong to. An example is the well-known kneeling or Patellarsehnenreflex, alsoa short impact scarcely below the knee on the chord of the relaxed Musculus quadriceps femoris to be released can. Stretch receptors in the chord and the muscle lively and over to back Marks the pulling reflex elbow a contraction of the quadriceps are reached by the impact, to oneeasy elevation of the Unterschenkels leads. The sense of such muscular reflexes consists of keeping upright or repairing with impacts from the outside or sudden change of situation by counterregulation the respective attitude: with a short footstep from the rear into the knee throat (sudden diffraction and thus stretch of theMusculus quadriceps femoris) can contribute the Patellarsehnenreflex for example to it a fall to prevent; similarly it behaves with the Stolpern. A further example is the sneezing reflex. - Important self-reflexes this list contains of the self-reflexes.
  • Foreign reflexes: thus reflexes are called, if reflektorische reactions in othersPortions of the organism take place as the provoked. An example is the Kornealreflex: If the cornea/callosity of the eye is provoked approximately by a draft of air, the lid is reflektorisch closed. Provoking follows in a place, which cannot for lack of muscles themselves react; and the eyelid muscles,to the protection of the cornea/callosity one activates, for his part one did not provoke. Important foreign reflexes this list contains of the foreign reflexes.
  • Coordinated reflex movements: of such one speaks, if on an attraction a more or less large group is activated by muscles (possibly. under inclusion of the activationfurther organs such as glands or heart and intestine and release of other vegetative reactions). Here belong for example the suction reflex and the grab reflex of the baby, two reflexes, which besides after some time no more or only under pathological conditions still or again be released cannot. Forwardseverything exist however all reactions by feel, thus those generally briefly, but always in the Plural of feelings so mentioned in reflektorisch coming high-grade coordinated reflex movements, however because of exactly this complexity within certain framework also consciously influenceable or controllable and/or. “are controllable”.
  • Earlychildlike or primitive reflexes see under earlychildlike reflex.


The speech way of atavistischen reflexes originates not from the behavior research, but seems rather a replacement for the expression “more primitively” reflex and generally a jargonful name for situationsinadäquates reaction to be - approximately by involution on cultural for overcomeor generic term-oil, possibly also behaviors held typical for children among other things


See also:

 

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