Table of contents
Reggae developed to endthe 1960er years under the influence of US-American music directions such as Soul, R&B, Country and jazz, which became to receive in Jamaica over the radio, from its direct forerunners Mento, Ska and Rocksteady. It developed since then tooone of the most important directions of the popular music. The original meaning of the word “Reggae” is unclear. The first Reggae title, in which this word occurs, was “DO the Reggay” (1968) from Toots and the of May valley, the first Song, which as actualReggae Song applies, is meanwhile “People funny boy” (1968) from Lee “Scratch” Perry. The typical Grundrhytmus of the Reggaes developed, when with first own productions of the Ska US-American R&B pieces were gecovert and supported with a strong stress of the second and fourth clock part.In the transition from Ska to Rocksteady and then to Reggae this minimalistic Grundrhytmus was slowed down in each case. Reggae and its forerunners developed primarily as dance music, whose spreading mainly through so mentioned of “sound system “was advanced, mobile discotheques. Operator of these sound systemsas for example Clement “Sir Coxsone” Dodd, Arthur “Duke” Reid or Cecil” Prince Buster “Campbell belonged to the first producers of independent Jamaican dance music. As the first large and piercing international success - v.a. into the British Charts - appliesthe 1968 by the moon Dekker brought in “The Israeli width unit “, with Nr.1-Platzierungen among other things in Germany and England: the first actual world hit of the Reggaes.
livelyby the most important Reggaemusiker and Jamaican national hero Bob Marley linked numerous musicians the music with at this time the already existing, although not yet extremely far spread religion of the Rastafari. The classical Reggae of the 1970er years becomes nowadaysoften as “root Reggae “designates. It is developed from different influences, as Ska and Rocksteady or the early Pop Reggae, which came first mainly from Great Britain. Naturally also African influences played a role. Parallel to it one developed in Great Britaineigene Form des Reggae, die Einflüsse aus anderen Musikformen wiePunk, New Wave oder Pop integrierte und säkulärer war als der jamaikanische Stil (dazu gehören Gruppen wie The Police, The Clash, The Jam oder The Specials).
Meanwhile a great many different forms of the Reggae developed: Beside the original root Reggae e.g. also DJ-Reggae, thank-resound or Ragga (affects of the HipHop). The singers often use speech singing, the so-called Toasting in the more modern forms. This developed again itselffrom the Scat, a kind of singing of the jazz, which as a forerunner of the RAP is considered. Importantly also the Dub is - Reggae, an often very minimalistic variant, which is characterised by strong use of Studioeffekten and nearly complete renouncement of singing.
one sings in the Jamaican Reggae often also in the Patois so mentioned (actually: Jamaica Kreolisch), a Kreolsprache with numerous word new creations, which is based on the English. Thus also a very flexible kind develops to Reimen: If itself the textaccordingly straight no suitable Reim finds, a new word is often invented (however not arbitrary, but always generally speaking context, in which the Reggae stands).
characteristic of the Reggae is the Offbeat - Phrasierung, with eitherthe guitar or the key board, now and then also the Bläser, in which in most other music directions unbetonten second and fourth cycle time play. Contrary to the Ska, where instead of the 2/4-Betonung rather Offbeats are used, which “and” - Zählzeiten stress,the Reggae is usually more slowly and less dominated by Bläser.
The instrumenting of most (classical) Reggaebands consists of Drumset, E-bass, E-guitar, key board and singing. Often Blechbläser and Perkussion are added. With the newer style directionsthe Reggae (thank-resound, Ragga, Reggaeton) more frequently electronics is used in the form of computers and Samplern. The Schlagzeug is usually strongly stressed, synthetically produced and more oriented at the skirt and sound of discotheque.
particularly importantly in the Klangbild of a Reggaesongs is always the bass run, which forms the counterweight to the Offbeats and often describes the actual topic of the piece. As legendary rain giving ASSists Aston are considered bar-saved and to Robbie Shakespeare.
The Schlagzeug is characterised mainly by two special styles:
- One drop:
- The Schlagzeug stresses the third cycle time with the Bassdrum, the other cycle times by Rieselschlag of the rear Hats is filled; at the beginning of a Strophe or Refrains becomes sometimesalso the first cycle time with the Bassdrum stresses, in order to announce the new Strophe or the Refrain as it were. Various Kurzsoli (v.a. in the Intro or partially also on the fourth cycle time) occur.
- The Schlagzeug stresses all four cycle times alsothe Bassdrum, which third cycle time at the same time stressed with the Snare drum, in place of the rieselnden rear Hats. Otherwise characteristics resemble as in the One drop. The skirt R-S style developed for in the middle of the 1970er - years and probably became from the arising popular discotheque music affected.
play E-guitar with the Reggae mainly rhythmic company, whereby the stress of the Offbeats is the center of attention also here.Now and then simply the bass run is doubled. “Austoben” may do itself the guitarists then in partially. expanded Soli.
Guitarists worth mentioning in the world of the Reggae e.g. are. Aluminium Anderson one (Leadgitarrist with The Wailers), Peter Tosh, Black Uhuru, Earl “Chinna” Smith, Ben Harper, junior Marvin, Ernest Ranglin, Donald Kinsey u.n.v.m.
to be used mainly piano and sound of organ, now and then also key board sounds. The Keyboarder accompanies predominantly rhythmic together with the guitar,naturally likewise with stress of the Offbeats. Two variations are very usual: On the one hand the stress of the second and fourth Zählzeit, on the other hand this stress supplements Zählzeiten around “and” -. Keyboard Solis are relatively rare, organ Solis occur more frequently. It is not uncommon,that in a Reggaeband two Keyboarder play.
There are famous key men (or key women) in this music style few. To call would be Monty Alexander, which is actually a jazz musician, but plays that also again and again as born Jamaikaner Reggae and thenReggae with jazz connects. The moreover Earl “Wya” Lindo and Tyrone Downie would be to call (both with The Wailers) as well as Ian Wynter and Berne pool of broadcasting corporations “Tooter” Harvey.
Reggae in Germany
There is one for some time ever more largely becoming municipality of German Reggae artists, who write the text partly also on German. At present most successful German artists are Seeed (thank-resound/Hip Hop) and Gentleman (root), whereby latter its texts constantly on Jamaican ( Patois) arranges English.
Dave Barker - Derrick Morgan - The Upsetters - Justin Hinds - Jimmy Cliff - the moon Dekker - Dennis Brown - Dandy Livingstone - Johnny Nash - Lee Perry - Lloyd Charmers - Toots & The of May valley - Peter Tosh - max of Romeo - Prince Buster - The Pyramids - The Ethiopians - The Heptones - The melody to - The Viceroys - the Ernest Ranglin - The Pioneers - Laurel Aitken
Abyssinians - alpha Blondy - Beres Hammond - Bob Marley - Black Uhuru - Bunny Wailer - Burning Spear - Chuck Fender - Damian Marley - Delroy Wilson - Don Carlo - nice Silk - Gladiators - Gregory Isaacs - Groundation - Israel vibration - Iqulah - I Threes - I-Wayne - Ijahman Levi - sudden Cure - Jamaica dad Curvin - Jimmy Cliff - John gets - Johnny Nash - junior Kelly - junior Delgado - L.M.S. - Luciano - Ken Boothe - max of Romeo - Michael prophet - Misty in roots - Mikey Dread - Morgan Heritage - Mykal rose - Peter Tosh - Prezident Brown - Richie Spice - Rico Rodriguez - Sugar_Minott - Tony Rebel - Third World - Toots & The of May valley - Bushman - Warrior King - Wayne Jarrett - Ziggy Marley
alpha Blondy (the Ivory Coast) - Free RK load (South African group) - Lucky Dube (rep. South Africa) - Sonny Okusun (Nigeria) - smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Siluma (rep. South Africa) - Tiken suddenly Fakoly (the Ivory Coast) - Isaac Haile Selassie (Ethiopia)
January Delay - Ganjaman - Gentleman - P.R. Kantate - Nattyflo - Nosliw - Patrice - Seeed - Benjie - Silly Walks Movement - SAM Ragga volume - mono & Nikitaman - Mellow Mark - Jahcoustix - Martin Jondo - Dr ring thing - D-Fleming - Pow Pow Movement - Headcornerstone - Lazy Youth - Hans Söllner - Sentinel (sound system)
see under Dub (music)
see the respective articles
acquaintance Reggae festival
in the German-speaking countries
- Steve Barrow: The Rough Guide ton of Reggae. 2. Edition, Rough Guides Limited 2001, ISBN 1-85828-558-5
- René Wynands: DO The Reggae. Reggae from Pocomania to Ragga and the myth Bob Marley. Pieper publishing house and bulkhead, 1995 ISBN 3-492-18409-X (Pieper), ISBN 3-7957-8409-3 (bulkhead).
Pdf version freely downloadable under www.oktober.de/reggae
- Rainer roasting fish: The large Reggae encyclopedia; Rastas,Riddims, root and Reggae: From the Ska to thank-resound - the music, which came from Jamaica. Publishing house Schwarzkopf + Schwarzkopf, Berlin 2003 ISBN 3-89602-516-3
- Lloyd Bradley: Bass Culture - the triumphant advance of the Reggae. Group of publishing houses cook/Hannibal, yards 2000, ISBN 3-85445-209-8
- Colin Larkin (Hrsg.):The Guinness Who´s Who OF Reggae. Guinness Publishing, Enfield, Middx 1994, ISBN 0-85112-734-7
- Wolfgang Kunz: Reggae - cult, criticism and commerce. Broad head & Härtel, Wiesbaden 1986, ISBN 3-7651-0218-0
- Udo Vieth/Michael Carpenter: REGGAE musician, Rastas and Jamaica. Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 1981, ISBN 3-596-22965-0
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Reggae - quotations|
|Wiktionary: Reggae - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- reggaenode.de - oldest (since 1994), large German Reggaeportal
- riddim.de - largest German magazine to the topic; withForum
- dancehallmusic.de - very active German Site with large on-line Community
- RootsOuttaControl.de - English-German magazine over literature, music and politics, mainly Reggae and Jamaica
- zeit.de/musik - large category overview with many hearing examples
- Roots-Archives.com - English language Diskographie of the classical Reggaemusik. Emphasis: Difference ore listingby long playing records, artist allocations, Coverabbildungen
- niceup.com - oldest Reggaeportal, English
- raggakings.net - large European Reggae radio
- Bigvibez.com - Austrian Reggae and thank resounding Web radio
- reggae.ch - swissreggaeunity