deer (Capreolus capreolus)
Order: Paarhufer (Artiodactyla)
subordination: Wiederkäuer (Ruminantia)
family: Deer (Cervidae)
Unterfamilie: Deceit deer (Odocoileinae)
kind: Capreolus
kind: Deer
scientific name
Capreolus capreolus
(Linnaeus, 1758)

the deer (Capreolus capreolus), toDistinction mentioned by the Siberian deer also European deer, is in Central Europe a most frequent representative of the deer. The deer is subject to the hunting right and the bowl game is assigned there.

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a head fuselage length of 100-140


and a Schulterhöhe of 60-90 cm reach literature of 8 Web on the left of [work on] characteristics. Male animals have an average weight from 20 to 30 kg, female weigh 10 to 15% less. In areas with particularly good Äsungsverhältnissen andsmall uneasiness also higher weights are reached.

Male animals carry antlers (also Gehörn called), which they throw off in the time from October to November. The new formation follows directly.
Capreolus capreolus in the summer skin
new antlers grows under a protecting and feeding phloem skin.

This becomesfor the conclusion of the annual antlers formation in May by sweeping at shrubs and young trees removes. The Gehörne consist of two bars, of which everyone can be trained as simple Spiess or two to three rungs exhibit can. The antlers weight is small with 200 gram inComparison to other deer.

The skin is in the summer strongly red-brown, in the winter grey brown or dark-brown. The skin of the Rehkitze is red-brown and exhibits a white dotting on the back. In the north of Germany between Rhine and Elbe regularly black deer occur.

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Habitat and spreading

Reh, Verbreitung
deer, spreading

the European deer occur in nearly completely Europe and small Asia . It is missing to the Peloponnes on the Mediterranean islands , on Ireland and north the polar circle.

Within this spreading area it settles the entire elevator range from the sea level to to thosealpine timber line. Rehwild prefers ranges with sufficient covering and Äsungsvielfalt, like Buschwerk and varied forest edge zones. Also the figure corresponds to this habitat. It is very well suitable for the easy a slips and loudless moving in the Buschwerk. But is missing the perseverance for long aligning, howit a steppe inhabitant needs.

The deer is very flexible and therefore a successful culture follower. Nearly tree and bushless areas of arable land it settled in the sixties particularly in South Germany the developed fast with an adapted way of life. Large groups (“jumps”) with pretty often more than20 individuals are all day long on in the winter nearly coverless, far away open, but by winter grain and intermediate seed äsungsreichen surface.

Lasting uneasiness works displacing. However the Rehwild differentiates strongly. Constant motor traffic is disturbing felt not as, why deer closely at the motorwaycalmly äsen. Irregular disturbances, in addition, the simultaneous occurrence of incompatible kinds of game, z. B. the Damwildes, affect unfavorably the population and the individual development of the animals.

In the southern dry areas of the circulation area and in the cold northern zones are the populationssmaller than in the moderately damp zones. In the climatically moderated regions with sufficient offer at Äsung and covering the population density is determined particularly by the Bejagung.


the winter deer unite way of life to family federations (called in the hunter language of jumps). Territorialitätthis is well-known also then only if she arranges the male Sexualhormon Testosteron to it, like e.g. only with supports, and. before the Brunft to in the middle of May, if those are again referred beginning as districts and also defended, and during the Brunft (sheet time). WithMark their districts use they smell glands at head and runs and also urine. Outside of these times live in particular older supports einzelgängerisch and do not defend their district not, are however relatively location faithful.

The mating time (Brunft, sheet time) takes place in our widths at the end of of July to at the beginning of of August.With deer there is the germ peace in such a way specified. The fertilized egg develops only starting from December and leads to the birth of the Kitze in the May of the following yearly. The female deer (Ricke) sets to two, rarely three Kitze, by three longitudinal rows the white marksare characterized.

Deer become sex ripe at the age of one and a half years. Their life-span covers in the wilderness ten to twelve, in shank up to seventeen years.


of deer are hunted in all European countries. Since the extermination of large Raubtiere (wolf, Luchs) in far parts of Europe the adults of animals have there no natural Fressfeinde. Despite substantial hunt distances the deer game existence grew in the last decades. While into the 1970er the number of the hunted animals was appropriate for years in Germany still between 600.000 to 700,000 pieces, became into thatlast years hunts about in each case 1.100.000 deer.

In older technical literature a population density is kind-compatibly regarded of 10 deer per 100 hectars than. Since deer of their secretness are because of however not computable, specialists got meanwhile off the denomination of concrete inventory numbers. The game damage caused by the Rehwild,in particular the verb eating damage in forest tapering, leads to the fact that on the part of the wood culture a strengthened Bejagung for lower existence are demanded. The annual minimum firing at Rehwild is determined and supervised in the Federal Republic of Germany by the lower hunt authorities.

One calls the male animals in the hunter language of supports,the female Ricken (in Bavaria, Austria and Switzerland also Geissen and/or. Swiss Geissen); one calls the young, to one year's deer sex-dependently Bockkitz or Rickenkitz (Geisskitz). The one year's female deer, which bore still no Kitz, is called narrow deer. The one year's male deer becomes Jahrlingor Jährlingsbock mentioned. A young Rehbock, whose hearing plant prognosticates a good development, is called also future support. The white mark at the back part of the deer is called in the hunter language mirror. The modern hunt orients itself strengthened at the respective biotope according to appearing correct numberthe occurring deer and thereby above all the food competition of the animals considers. The Trophäenjagd is to step in favor of a balanced age and sex distribution into the background. Bejagd becomes the Rehwild mainly with the single hunt. Kinds of hunt are here the luring game (Blatten), the pure Ansitzjagd and the Pirsch.Beyond that Rehwild is bejagt also with pressing hunts.


as supposed predecessors of the deer was constituted the kind Procapreolus, which lived in the Miozän approximately 10 million years ago. The European deer as kind exists for approximately three million year.

It puts Siberian

deer DNA analyses near that the Siberian deer (Capreolus pygargus) is its own kind. It unites those before as subspecies of the deer led Siberian one and Chinese deer. The Siberian deer is larger than the European kind and has stronger antlers, smallerEars and a pale skin color. Siberian and European deer separated as kinds roughly 3 million years ago.


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