Reinkarnation

the term Reinkarnation /ˌreːɪnkarnaˈtsɪ̯oːn/(Latin remeat becoming) designates the idea that the human soul becomes born after death (Exkarnation) on this earth or other existence ranges again than feeling nature (inkarniert). This concept becomes also as Wiedergeburt, Soul migration, Transmigration or Metempsychose designate. The except-physical experience stands in close relationship with the term Reinkarnation. In some, but by any means all Reinkarnationslehren also the term of the Karma thereby does not stand in a close relationship.

The conception of a new lifeafter death is common (in connection with animistischen and/or gnostischen conceptions) in many cultures and religious teachings: in the Greece of the antique ones, in the Roman emperor cult, in the Manichäismus and further gnostischen currents, in the Jewish Kabbala, in the Mystik of the Islam and in the modern Esoterik. A systematic reflection experienced the Reinkarnationslehre above all however in the eastern religions Hinduismus, Jainismus and Buddhismus as well as in often verfremdeter way in various new Age religions.

A symbol of the Wiedergeburtis the wheel of the life.

Table of contents

Hinduismus

in the Hinduismus developed the Reinkarnationslehre (Sanskrit: punarbhava = steady) only after the end of the vedischen time and with the arising of the literature of the Upanishaden (starting from 700v.Chr.). The classical Ausformulierung of the hinduistischen Reinkarnationslehre of the cycle of the Wiedergeburten (SAM era) is contained in of the Bhagavadgita.

After hinduistischer conception humans are a unsterbliche soul (Atman), itself after the death of the body in oneagain in feature stepping natures - this can also animals be - again embodies. The quality of the Wiedergeburt or soul migration depends on in/the Vorexistenz/en worked acts (Karma). ” Like one, like one changes, such actsbecomes it. From good action property, from bad action develops bad develops “, teaches the Upanishaden. Karma (the act) is linked with the conception to a moral world order (Dharma), whereby all actions in accordance with the principle of a cause and effectthe condition for the future Wiedergeburt represent. Each nature exists due to its Tatenpotenzials collected in earlier existence forms, which causes thus the total result of each existence. Therefore death is not the conclusion of the life, but only the transition tooa new existence form. Received, the eternal and constant nature core of humans justified by the Atman (eternal soul) remains. The Jiva - that is the Atman (eternal soul) together with reason, feelings and desires, which always on the new manifests itself. Wherethe Jiva (individual soul) to the death of the body goes, over it offers hinduistische writings no clear reports. But as in all cultures there is the term of sky and hell also with the Hindus. The writings describe different skies,where the Jiva with good Karma can be one while in celestial joys; the mythology paints just as pictures out from terrible hells, in which it experiences large wrong until its bad Karma is used up. But the stay is in both cases not eternally: To some time the individual returns on earth, in order again and again to be born - up to the final release, Moksha. This cycle of the Wiedergeburten is considered as law of nature, categories such as punishmentor do not apply for reward here.

During some hinduistische directions the law of the Karma, according to which the individual is responsible for its release excluding even, when inexorably regards, trusts other Hindus on God grace, which Karma destroy and which individual errettencan (see.Bhakti). This göttliche assistance is a main topic in hinduistischen prayers.

The goal of the Hindu consists of it overcoming the eternal and cycle of and passing (SAM era), connected with constant wrong experiences. The tradition knowsthree classical ways by the release, mentioned (Mukti or Moksha), to be attained and with it connected the withdrawal from the birth cycle SAM era knows: In addition the way of the knowledge Jnana Yoga, the way of the act belong Karma Yoga, the way of the God love Bhakti Yoga. Many philosophers (about Swami Vivekananda) count still another fourth way to it, Raja Yoga, which “Königsyoga” is connected with Yogaübungen and Meditation.

Buddhismus

in the Buddhismus (about 500 developedv.Chr.) Karma is those the natures inherent ability to purposeful, intentionful acting (“I call the intention Karma, it monks”, Buddha), in addition, the principle of a cause and effect. On individual level Karma act, acting, working, and its consequences means inthis and following life. Each positive or negative experience is due to an earlier positive or negative act - than physical, linguistic and mental expression - and leads for its part again to positive or negative effects, changed thus the Karma. ThisIn addition, effects are not coincidental, are subject no higher (göttlichen) dictation as for instance adding, retaliation etc.

Particularly in the question of the Reinkarnation the Buddhismus goes fundamentally different ways than the Hinduismus. In refusal of a created, individual soul that knowsBuddhismus no transition of a mental substance of the one on the other existence, no Transmigration, no migration of the soul. Wiedergeburt understood as a continuity of the spirit processes, as continuation of the mental forces extinct yet when dying an individual, thoseitself in one again in feature stepping existence on the new reaktualisieren.

The cause of the Wiedergeburt is appropriate for implementation in desiring after after sense satisfaction, in the impulse its and. Is given, like causing impulse forces thus pushing after realization so long are present. Therethis desiring in the Buddhismus is equated with suffering, tries one, to break through this sorrowful existence cycle (samsâra ). In addition the “eightfold path “leads. A goal is the condition of the Nirvana, the end of all suffering and the conclusionthe Wiedergeburten.

In the Tibetan Buddhismus again the tradition of the conscious Wiedergeburt developed. Here some years for the death of a clergyman with a set of tantrischen practices for the child one searches, in whom this is to have reinkarniert itself.The momentary Dalai Lama is regarded as its four tenth Wiedergeburt.

The standing for antique Greece and

Rome at the beginning of the classical antique ones, around 800 v. Chr. wrote Epen of Homer -- the Ilias and the odyssey-- knows still no Reinkarnationslehre.Well-known representatives of the Reinkarnationstheorie within Greek philosophy were Pythagoras (around 600 v.Chr.), Empedokles and Platon (both 5. Jh. v.Chr.). They all taught that the unsterbliche soul had to reinkarnieren itself, are it due to an internal necessity or for the purpose of theirmoral Läuterung in a new existence form, which covers also the animal world or the plant world. With Platon however only the moral criterion played a role. After its view one is again-born alone due to earlier behavior.

In the following currents of the Neuplatonismus and the Neupythagoreismus lived on the Reinkarnationsgedanke, but separated the spirit at the question, whether the Einkörperung was to be understood into animals literally (Plotin) or metaphorically (Porphyrius), dieweil the moral motive stated by Platon forwardseverything of Plutarch and Romans the Vergil one represented.

Judentum

of the Reinkarnationsgedanke does not occur in the orthodox Judentum, it is neither to agreement nor refusal. The Judentum never developed a clear conception over the happening after death. It haveitself rather substantially two Lehrmeinungen developed, which refer to an indefinite quantity of references in the Tanach.

  1. The one Lehrmeinung accepts the Auferstehung of the dead ones, D. h. humans die with body and soul, but become in the messianischenTime revives and physical up-purchased (Daniel 12,2; Sanhedrin 10.1), i.e. reinkarniert. This view of a Auferstehung of the dead ones developed itself in the nachexilischen Judentum. In the Jewish Apokalyptik became this conception a Auferstehung in connection with a court of God overthe world developed. Hereby a physical Auferstehung was meant the physical Auferstehung of all humans or the physical Auferstehung of humans after Jewish terms, who are enclosed - either in the federation of Israel with God. The fate of individual humans steppedin this collective view back, was however at the same time with enclosed. At present Jesu affirmed the Pharisäertum the faith in a Auferstehung; the dominant Priestertum - predominant from the group of the Sadduzäer - rejected it.
  2. The other Lehrmeinung assumes,that the pure soul, unbefleckt by birth, returns again purely life and death, to God. It goes from the immortality of the soul out and of it that this lives on after death independently of the body (152b, Proverbien 12.28 T/plate-asked).
  3. Further gaveit a blending of these two Lehrmeinungen; here it was accepted that the soul lives on after the death of humans up to the messianischen time and finally unites again with in person up-arising body.

In the Kabbala, the Jewish Mystik,the reembodiment is a göttliche punishment. This serves to supply the soul in a new body the perfection. In parts of the Chassidismus and other currents within the orthodox Judentums today at the edge of the teachings also variants of the Reinkarnation will represent.

Islam

within Islam forms the Reinkarnationslehre alone with the small minority of the glands a central role. Because of their very special teachings it is however disputed whether they can be regarded at all still as Muslims. After the theory of the glandsthere is a Reinkarnation of humans only again as humans, not as animals.

Christianity

the Christian concepts of Wiedergeburt and Auferstehung, which is taught by all Christian main directions, are completely different from the concept of the Reinkarnation. It admitted howeverall times individual Christian groups of fragments or persons, which represented the concept of the soul migration in their teachings. To them for instance the antique Gnosis belonged, some speculates also upon such a view with the medieval Katharern.

The Synode of Konstantinopel(543) Origenes condemned the philosopher as Ketzer. One specified: SI quis dicit aut sentit, praeexistere hominum animas [...] demissasque eats in corpora supplicii causa: anathema sit. (Translation: Who says or thinks, the souls of humans would have präexistiert [...] andto the punishment into the bodies (down there), is a Verfluchter was sent to that., see. Anathema). This decision was confirmed to 5 by Pope Vigilius and on that. ökumenischen council of Konstantinopel (553) on operation emperor Justinians affirms again.

On thatCouncil of Braga (in Portugal) was condemned the Präexistenzlehre Priscillians with the following words: SI quis animas humanas dicit prius into caelesti habitatione peccasse et per hoc in corpora humana in terra deiectas, sicut Priscillianus dixit, anathema sit. (Translation: Ifwho says, the human souls would have gesündigt in former times in their himmlischen dwelling and for it on earth into human bodies were thrown, as Priscillian said, then are he a Verfehmter.)

The consequence of these decisions was that the Reinkarnationslehrein the Christianity as the Christian teachings contradicting one festzementiert.

Other Reinkarnationslehren

Theosophie

in the Theosophie was combined first by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky the Reinkarnation of the eastern religions with the concept of the evolution - the single soul develops from livesto lives further and ascends to ever higher its conditions, whereby no backward steps separate it, contrary to the Hinduismus and Buddhismus, at the most stop give. Likewise contrary to the traditional eastern religions the goal of the advancement is usual a perfectionthe individual, who remains an individual and not in the Brahma or Nirwana comes up.

This concept was taken over, with easy modifications, by most newer directions of the Esoterik, e.g. of the Anthroposophie, the anthroposophisch inspired Christian community, the rose cruisers, Eckankar and in the new Age just like of some (not all) representatives of Wicca and Okkultismus.

The concept

of the Reinkarnation many directions will represent Esoterik and new Age in the Esoterik and in the new Age, although in differentDevelopments. Thus Thorwald Dethlefsen developed the residents of Munich school of the Reinkarnationstherapie.

In certain new Age - circles it is maintained that the early Christianity believed in Reinkarnation. The arguments, which are specified, are specific interpretations of Bible places (Mt 11.14, Mt17,12f, Joh 9,1ff., the trailer shank of individual church fathers (e.g. Origenes), or the conspiracy theory, the Pope or a council erased all original referring to a Reinkarnationslehre from all Bibles. All arguments can be easily disproved: Origines did not represent Reinkarnationslehre,separate the concept of the Präexistenz of the soul clearly differentiated from it, the repayment of all Bible places from the innumerable not until today discovered historical Bible texts was at that time completely impossible the church.

Scientifically oriented Reinkarnationslehren

this kind of Reinkarnationslehren can neither as religious noresoterisch to be designated. They proceed from the theory of the eternal return, as we find them in philosophy with Friedrich Nietz or in physics with Henri Poincaré, have thus philosophical and scientific bases.

Today's theories of this kind trywith realizations of the natural science in agreement to stand and derive an objective necessity from Reinkarnation from physical and mathematical regularities, particularly from the limitness of the combination options of material systems as well as the exchangeability of identical material systems (consider thereby the relationshipof relevance and prevarication and/or. the dialectic of identity and difference). They proceed from an infinity of the space and the time, whereby also the Big Bang theory is not ignored.

Contrary to all other well-known Reinkarnationslehren becomes herenot proceeded from continuing the soul after death and their transition to a new body. Rather each soul is to completely again come out after death, as soon as the conditions fundamental for it are present. One finds thoughts of this direction of Reinkarnationslehrenfor example with franc J. Tipler (the USA) or Rumen Bacharow (Germany).

Totalitarian religious groups

in some in a totalitarian manner aligned groups like the universal life or Scientology sect Reinkarnation is likewise taught. The religious ascent to higher its conditions is thereby allegedly only withinthe respective group possible; outside of the combination threaten a “hell of the eternal descent”.

To Reinkarnationsforschung

see major items: Reinkarnationsforschung

Reinkarnationsforschung understands itself as Parawissenschaft to answer tried scientifically the question about the existence from Reinkarnationen to. In addition cases are examined, inthose maintain humans to remember earlier lives. The underlying independent conception of Reinkarnation differs thereby strongly from hinduistischen and buddhistischen concepts, which plan usually no memory of past.

Literature

  • Perry Schmidt Leukel (Hrsg.): The idea of the Reinkarnation inEast and west. With contributions of numerous scientists. Munich 1996
  • Helmut Zander: History of the soul migration in Europe. Alternative religious traditions from the antique one to today. Darmstadt 1999
  • Rumen Bacharow: The Reinkarnation as logical necessity. To Leipzig 2004

see also

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Wiedergeburt - quotations
Wiktionary: Reinkarnation - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikibooks: Reinkarnation - learning and teaching materials
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)