Rice

of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see to rice (term clarifying).
Rice
Reisfeld im Issan, Thailand
rice field in the Issan, Thailand
systematics
Department: Bedecktsamer (Magnoliophyta)
class: Einkeimblättrige (Liliopsida)
subclass: Commelinaähnliche
(Commelinidae)
order: Sweet-grass-well-behaved (Poales)
family: Sweet grasses (Poaceae)
Kind: Rice
scientific name
Oryza
L.
Kinds
  • Oryza barthii
  • Oryza glaberrima
  • Oryza latifolia
  • Oryza longistaminata
  • Oryza punctata
  • Oryza rufipogon
  • Oryza sativa
    • Oryza sativa var. japonica

rice (of lat. risus) (Oryza) is planting a kind from the familythe sweet grasses (Poaceae) with broad sheets and Rispen are enough.

Table of contents

game forms and subspecies

Reis-Rispe
rice Rispe

rice has two game forms: Oryza rufipogon (one year's, classical game rice) and Oryza nivara (of several years). Both can cross among themselves and with domestiziertem rice, thereforeplead some researchers to combine it into a kind.

Savage rice seems naturally in humid areas the subtropical and to tropical climate zones of Asia, for example in Burma, Thailand, Laos and south China. Savage rice is also insouthern Korea, both Oryza rufipogon and verwilderter domestizierter short grain rice and crossings of game rice with long grain and short grain rice. Simple and frequent hybridizing makes the identification of the origin areas difficult. Savage rice (Oryza rufipogon) today still comes intonorthern Jiangxi and Hunan forwards and were found in the meantime also in the Jangtse valley, what makes a local cultivation possible (Crawford/Shen 1998, 858). In the early Neolithikum (Jungsteinzeit) the climate was however warmer and drier than today, thus was game rice probably not like thatfar northward spreads like today. One assumes however in the meantime nevertheless rice (Oryza japonica) in the Jangtse valley one domestiziert.

  • The most important Varietäten of Oryza sativa is:
    • Oryza sativa var. japonica, short grain rice, also sticking rice
    • Oryza sativa var. javanica
    • Oryza sativa var. indica, glaberrima
  • , African rice Oryza glutinosa
  • for example in China or Thailand one cultivates to long grain rice Oryza.

In such a way specified game rice Zizánia aquática does not belong to the kind of Oryza

Appearance and nutrient content

the culture rice can train stems up to 30. These are 50 to 160 cm high and carry a narrow over-hanging Rispe to in-bloody ear, which can contain 80 to 100 grains. From a Saatkorn can thereby nearly3000 Reiskörner develop.

Rice consists to approximately 76% of strength and to approximately 7 8% of protein. It contains 1.3% fat and 0.6% trace elements, above all phosphorus, in addition, iron and magnesium, butlittle sodium, calcium or potassium. Due to his poverty at sodium is suitable rice for the drainage of the body with predominance and blood high pressure. Rice contains the Vitamine B1 and B2, which are particularly in the upper layer of the grain, thosewhen polishing one sands off. Therefore it can come with the exclusive consumption from peeled rice to serious deficiency diseases (Beri Beri), which can lead up to death. The Vitamine A, B12, C and D are missing in the rice completely.

History of cultivation

rice was apparent domestiziert at several places of the world independently. That is supported also by genetic investigations.
Domestikationszentren:

  • Oryza sativa japonica
    • south China, in the valleys of the middle Yangtze and the Huai
    • south Asia
    • high countries of southwest China
  • Oryza sativa var. indica
    • north India, perhaps in the course valley
    • south India

the distinction of short and long grain rice is not always safe with burned grains, which constitute the main part of the archaeological finds. The identification of Oryza sativa is bound to the size of the grains andtherefore likewise often uncertainly. Game rice has a fragile spikelet fork (Rachis), for a long time and seals Grannen, the spikelet fork is found however rare. Cannot poll analytic be differentiated to rice by other grasses. Oryza sativa var. indica became probably independent of Oryzasativa japonica in south China and Hinterindien domestiziert. Whether its move another subspecies forward of Oryza rufipogon was than with Oryza japonica is still disputed, DNA analyses seem to point however on a common ancestor.

China

as center of the Reisdomestikationthe valleys of the Jangtse and Huai are usually accepted. In China it gives approx. 120 places of discovery with rice remainders. Most are younger than 5000 v. Chr., the majority is because of the middle Jangtse (between the three ravines and the delta of the Poyang Hu), the remainder in south China, some few in the valley of the yellow river (Huanghe).

use of game rice

game rice was found in the cave of Yuchan and in Xianrendong in the Jangtse valley (Higham/Lu 1998, 869). Probably forcedthat increasingly dry and cold climate of the outgoing Pleistozän the hunters and collecting tank of the Jangtse valley to an intensified use of game grasses, when fruits and Nüsse became more meager. At this time ceramic(s) was already used. From Hemudu (Zhejiang) originates inPot, the cooked rice contained and on approx. 7000 BP one dates.

In the cave of Diaotonghuan at the Jangtse (Jiangxi - province) became a Stratigrafie ergraben, which covers the late Pleistozän in the middle Holozän (Neolithikum). became those Phytolithen of rice already in layers of the outgoing Pleistozäns found. Savage rice was thus probably collected. Starting from 8000 v. Chr. the first, very rough ceramic(s) emerges, which is verziert with cord castings partly. From the appropriate layers Phytoliten, those originatethe morphology of domestizierten rice show. Reliable 14 C-data are missing however.

According to the theory of Zh.Zhao and colleagues (1998) already in the late Pleistozän game rice one collected. In a later phase the rice, starting from 7500 already goes Zhao et al. was teildomestiziert.of prevailing domestiziertem rice in the nutrition out. The isotope analysis of human bones from Xianrendong and Diaotonghuan seems to occupy the rice use in the early Holozän (MacNeish et al. 1997), however were doubted the dating of the bones (Crawford/Shen 1998, 862).Higham and Lu assume that since at the beginning of the Holozäns one cultivated to rice in the middle Jangtse valley, because the game occurrences could not cover the need of the local hunters and collecting tanks any longer.

Domestizierter rice

the dating of domestiziertemRice from the Jangtse area on 11500 BP (Spencer P.M. Harrington: Earliest Rice, Archaeological of institutes OF America) is regarded predominantly in the professional world with distrust, since here morphologic investigations of the grains were so far not submitted. Always is not the connectionthe very small grains with the finds from the environment face ore. AMS data of the grain grains themselves are most reliable. So far 14 C-data are not present , from those older than 7000 v. made of China. Chr. is. The oldest direct data lie between6000-7000 v. Chr. and originate from Pengtoushan (7775+90 BP, OxA-2210, a Reiskorn, which was embedded in ceramic(s)) in the Jangtse - valley and Jiahu in the Huai - valley (Henan, Peiligang culture)). In Pengtoushan tear roughly and seed cases one used, around ceramic(s) too magern.

In the damp soil settlement Bashidang, which belong to the Pengtoushan culture, were found unverkohlte remainders by over 15.000 Reiskörnern, which had kept under Luftabschluss in damp sediment. Allegedly it concerns an early form of the domestizierten rice. The appropriate layersdate between 8400-7700 BP. Perhaps wooden tappets were used to the Enthülsen by rice, in addition also wooden spades were found, which were perhaps used in the agriculture. Perhaps buildings of stakes, and ebenerdige houses indicates an established way of life eingetiefte. Also ceramic(s) becamemanufactured,

supposed domestizierter rice became in the Lijiacun culture, 7000-6000 v. Chr. ; in Hunan in the Yuchanyan culture (9000-8000 v. Chr.) used (Crawford/Shen 1998, 862).

In Jiahu Reiskörner in ceramic(s) and Phytolithen were found. An analysis of the people bones showed inOutweigh from C3-Pflanzen, to which also belongs to rice, in the nutrition (Juzhong/Xiangkun 1998, 898).

At the yellow river (Lijiacun) is proven domestizierter rice starting from 7000 BP. For south China is occupied domestizierter rice substantially later. Shixia in Guangdong, that so faroldest proof, dates on 4850-4600 BP.

Korea

usual one assumed the cultivated rice spread only starting from the Bronzezeit to Korea. In the meantime are however well-known from Kawaji, place of discovery 1 in South Korea rice remainder,with the radio carbon method to the end the 2. Millenium v. Chr. are dated (Crawford/Shen 1998, 862). In addition rice Phytolithen were found.

one

accepts Japan usual that the knowledge of the cultivation of rice over approx. 300 v. Chr. Japanreached, either over China or over Korea. In Okinawa is rice however only starting from 800 n. Chr. proven, therefore the knowledge of the cultivation of rice will have been taken over hardly directly from China. Rice Phytolithen are already well-known made of ceramic(s) of the middle Jomon phase.The oldest AMS data of Reiskörnern (1000-800 v. Chr.) originate however only from the late Jomon culture in the northern Honschu.

Thailand

the theory of a local Domestikation of rice at the gulf of Siam relied on the dating ofRice and human bone of the place of discovery of Khok Phanom in 7. Millenium, those was in the meantime taken back (Higham/Lu 1998, 873). Also the early data for Non NOC Tha and Ban Chiang could not be confirmed. So far are therebyfrom the Southeast Asiatic mainland does not admit early rice finds, what does not exclude a local Domestikation naturally.

India

rice was already used in India in the Mesolithikum as collecting plant. Finds of domestiziertem rice of the Vindhyaplateau in the northwest central India became between6000-5000 v. Chr. dated, these data are recognized however not by all researchers. From Chopanimando rice castings on ceramic containers originate. Rice cultivation in Taradih and Khairadih is since that 5. Millenium proven. In the eastern India ceramic(s) is, those with Druschresten ofRice gemagert is well-known, from Chirand. It probably dates in the 3. Millenium. From rank pure and Lothal, settlements of the Harappa culture, originate Topfscherben, which are with tear roughly gemagert allegedly. That is so far the only and uncertain proof for the Domestikationof rice in the Harappa culture. Safe proofs of Reis-Körnern from the Industal originate only from late 2. Millenium.

the USA

rice becomes since late 17. Since that time century in America cultivated and plays in many typically AmericanCourts an important role. Around the question, how the rice into the USA came, completely different stories climb. One of it tells of a Dutch ship, which was gebeutelt in such a way 1694 on the way to Madagascar by a storm thatit in the port of Charleston in South Carolina refuge to search had. The inhabitants Charlestons accepted the crew cordially and helped with the repair of the ship. Before drive on handed over the grateful captain to them as thank-beautifully a sample of its freight,admits as the “golden rice seed”. These valuable rice seeds were the Urkeime of the meanwhile famous tearing places “Carolina Golde”. South Carolina was cultivated so the first American Federal State, in the rice. To the American civil war the cultivation of rice shifted to Arkansas,California, Texas, Louis IANA, Mississippi, Missouri and Florida. Today the USA one are world-wide largest the rice export your: 14% of the rice on the world market originate from the USA. Arkansas, California and Louis IANA make thereby over 80% of the entire rice cultivated areas for thatThe USA and the total production from USA rice.

propagation

since 400 v. Chr. one cultivates to rice in Mesopotamien. Already the Romans knew rice, it from Egypt were probably imported. The Mauren brought rice to Europe. With thatArrived to Turks the rice at the Balkan Peninsula. To America came the rice with the Spaniards into late 17. , to Australia in 19. Century.

today's cultivation areas

Asia - in particular China, India and Southeast Asia - is the main cultivation area forRice. More than 90% of the yield are furnished there. Important cultivation areas lie also in the USA and in north Italy (Poebene). Since short also in the Magadinoebene in Switzerland one cultivates to rice. Further European rice producers are Portugal and Spain.

Cultivation of rice in Bangladesh
Reispflanze im Wasser, Südluzon/Philippinen
rice plant in the water, Südluzon/the Philippines
a female worker harvests the Reissetzlinge, Kambodscha
irrigation of rice fields between Hà Nội and Hoa Binh. For lack of electrical connections on the fields this work until today takes place manually.
Reisfelder nahe Angkor. Der Bewässerungsanbau wurde, aus Südchina kommend, etwa 3000 v. Chr. im Gebiet des heutigen Kambodscha eingeführt.
Rice fields close Angkor. The cultivation of irrigation became, coming made of south China, about 3000 v. Chr. introduced to the area of the today's Kambodscha.

cultivation of rice

rice can be cultivated as a function of the prevailing ecological system in four different kinds:

  • raindependent cultivation of mountain rice
  • raindependent cultivation of valley rice
  • cultivation of low water rice
  • cultivation of wet rice

one cultivates to drying rice drying rice particularly in regions with little precipitation or in the mountains. This kind of cultivation is aufwändig, because the weeds stature is not restrained by the water.

strewing seed procedure

in the strewing seed procedure does not becomeso much water necessarily, the yields are however substantially smaller than with water rice. In many asiatic countries becomes very estimated the drying rice despite his clearly higher price because of the more pronounced flavour. The mountain rice becomes at heights up to 2000 mcultivated.

cultivation of rice terrace

in Indonesia much spreads, in addition, z. B. assigned in Japan, in order to make there the cultivation of wet rice possible at (not to steep) hills or mountain-slopes.

cultivation of wet rice

80% of the world rice harvest become in the cultivation of wet riceproduced. Rice is originally no aquatic plant, but for thousands of years by breed and natural selection to the flooding of the fields adapted. Many weeds and soil-living parasits are prevented by the flow from growth, which the main reason for thatWater employment with the cultivation of rice is. Per kilogram rice between 3000 and 5000 litres flowing water are needed. If the water flows too fast, soil components become and nutrients abgeschwemmt, the water flows too slowly, forms for algae. In the low country cultivation of wet rice with irrigation can across wells to sinking ground-water level lead. The Chinese government approximately forbade the cultivation of rice therefore around Peking, since the ground-water level lowered itself there over up to three meters, which boom-ends economics handicapped.

Depending upon sort, kind of cultivation and - areathree harvests are possible per year between in and.

Cultivation of wet rice is very labor intensively, made possible however very many higher yields than the strewing seed procedure. The processing steps are:

  • Sowing into the relatively dry planting field (here it shows up that the rice no genuine aquatic plantis; directly in the water sown it does not go on)
  • mixing of the soil on the planned rice field with water, usually with plows behind water buffalos
  • shifting of the Setzlinge from the planting field into the rice field by hand
  • watering the field during growth andRipe time, further care is not necessary; Problems develop, if the water level rises during the rain time too strongly or if the monsoon rain precipitates too small.
  • In the irrigation ditches to that rice fields prosper in some world regions also small fish and crustaceans, those often thoseonly source of protein of the simple farmers represented. These were in the meantime exterminated by Pestizideinsatz however to a large extent.
  • after approximately four to six months dewatering of the fields and harvest with hand Sicheln or itself L rings, bundling of the plants and evacuation or threshing locally. The strawin the meantime usually on the fields one burns.

One assumes the cultivation of wet rice produces today 17% of methane in the terrestrial atmosphere. From the strong splash-down of the soil a nearly oxygen-free habitat for anaerobic , methane-producing bacteria results (Methanbildner). The methane output can be reduced, by letting the soil drain in the meantime.

machine cultivation

in south Europe and America is worthwhile itself the cultivation of rice only by use of machines. In the USA becomes the rice with the help ofof airplanes on easily flooded fields sown and then of the dried fields with combines harvested.

processing

  • after the harvest is dried and threshed the rice. This intermediate product is called Paddyreis.
  • In a rice mill the Spelzen becomeremoved, which constitute about 20% of the original weight. The grain is then only surrounded by the brownish Silberhäutchen and now cargo rice is called. Delivered in this condition most to Germany exported rice.
  • The rice one polishes,in order to remove the Silberhäutchen and the Keimling, then a large part of the mineral materials and Vitamine is lost . Exclusive consumption of polished rice leads Vitamin to the B1 - deficiency disease Beriberi.
  • In order to prevent the loss at Vitaminen, became into thatThe USA the Parboiled - procedure develops: With high steam pressure the Vitamine before polishing are in-pressed into the grain, so that a large part of the Vitamine remains.

knows

parasits with the storage the rice of rice beetles (Sitophilus oryzae)are struck, which belong to the family of the trunk beetles. The larvae of the beetles grow up in the Reiskörnern and eat them from the inside out up. The beetles continue to increase also in the packed rice.

With trunk beetle infestation are not only thoseattained full growth beetle in the rice, but gives also also Reiskörner with punctiform eating traces and Reiskörner scooped out from the inside. Since thereby an infestation with other parasits and microbes is probable, for example in Japan one recommends, to stricken rice for hygenic reasonsto destroy.

one

differentiates sorts for the trade between the two extremes long grain rice (also Brühreis, Patna: drying cooking Indian or javanesische tearing places) and round grain rice (also milk rice: sticky cooking Japanese tearing places). Long grain rice has usually a length of 6-8mm. The relationship from length to thickness is larger than 5:1. Central grain rice is long 5-6 mm with a thickness from 1,5 to 2.5 mm. Round grain rice is more briefly than 5 mm and often approx. 2 mm thickly.

The Chinese and Southeast AsiaticSorts stand usually between this two Poland. The plants Japanese rice are less coolingsensitive. So can rice in Japan even on Hokkaidō, which of the Siberian climate affected, are cultivated northernmost Hauptinsel.

Both with the long grain rice and with the round grain ricebetween a kind with translucent grain and one with cloudy grain one differentiates (however through foremen also nearly translucently will can). The strength in the translucent rice consists to 20% of amyl eye and to 80% of Amylopektin,in the cloudy rice nearly only from Amylopektin.

Feinschmecker differentiate between individual tearing places and use them for different courts. Thus for Risotto Arborio is preferably used and for Indian courts Basmati rice or smell rice. As speciality it gives from in such a way specifiedbiological cultivation since newer also red nature rice. Altogether there are world-wide more than hundredthousand tearing places, from which however many threaten to become extinct by the modern industrielle agriculture.

Arborio rice

Arborio-Reis
Arborio rice

Arborio (also Avorio) is tearing places,particularly in the Po-level of Italy one cultivates. It is characterised by a short, compact, oval grain. It is preferably used in Risotto.

bass in rice

this rice comes from Southeast Asia and is more inexpensive than Java- or Lombokreis. The grains resemble these sorts, can however, since they belong to the group of the semihard sorts, not so well drying be cooked. If one absorbs however this rice, then he can be used likewise well for the rice board.

Reifer US-Reis
Ripe US rice

Basmati rice

Basmati (means on Hindi “smell”). This concerns particularly aromatic, long-granular rice, which originally originates from India. He is cultivated at the foot of the Himalaja and is the typical company to a multiplicityof eastern courts.

From the marketed tearing places only 15 is of the Indian and authorities of Pakistan certified as Basmati.

Rangoon rice

this rice comes from Myanmar, has nearly the same characteristics as bass-enter and belonged toothe semihard sorts.

Java and Lombok rice

these sorts have for a long time and very thin grains, cook drying and pour very strongly.

Patna rice

of the Patna - rice is like Java and Lombokreis of good quality. The grainsare long, thin and transparent. It belonged to the “hard” group, is very good thus cooking drying and for the rice board to use.

Japan rice

Vollkornreis und schwarzer Naturreis aus Japan
full grain rice and black nature rice from Japan

this sort (Oryza sativa var. japonica)except in Japan also in Egypt, Spain and Italy one cultivates. It is more softly than long grain rice, and in the German-speaking countries particularly for rice mash is used; it is as “milk rice “in the trade. The grains are short andthickly, almost approximately.

In Japan this rice normally without salt in water one cooks and one eats with vegetable, fish and meat. It does not concern a supplement, since the rice as a central component of the meal one regards.

Due to the large north south expansion of the country and thus very different climatic conditions many different tearing places are cultivated. The probably most well-known are Koshihikari and Sasanishiki. The rice both one polishes (hakumai: 白米 or being May: 精米) asalso unpolished (towards May: 玄米) in the trade offered.

Beside the “normal” rice there are kinds of rice, which are cultivated for special purposes. Like that Mochigome ( 餅米) is the Japanese name for cloudy sticking rice, which is normally rammed, so thatand a tough, sticky mass develops, both for traditional sweets to be used can as for soup insert or roasted as meal.Sakamai (酒米) is a particularly largegranular and stärkehaltige kind of rice, which is used for the production of Sake, Japanese rice wine.Red ones and black nature rice are in Japan under the name Kodaimai (古代米) on the market, them however because of their high price the normal rice only are usually added.

  • Chigalon is cultivated for the 1960er years in the Camargue in France.Characteristically of the group the Oryza has these tearing places sativa japonica, round grain.
  • Inca has long and narrow grains, which correspond to the European standard for long grain rice.
  • Irat 285 has a langbärtiges grain and is so during the grain formation from birds protected.
  • Khao Youak is richly special at strength and belonged thereby to the sticky rice, that in the Japanese kitchen forthe preparation is used by Sushi.

sweet rice

of sweet rice, also Mochi rice mentioned, originally comes from Japan. It is particularly suitable for sweet foods.

  • Sort C belongs to the group Oryza globerrima. The sheet touched red, and therefore „red-winged rice “was called. <<<that is an O. japonica?>>>

Siam rice

Nordost Thailand: Jasminreis-Felder Anfang September
northeast Thailand: Jasmine rice fields at the beginning of of Septembers

of the Siam- Rice (also smell rice or jasmine rice) an excellent quality has. Siam rice one cultivates mainly in the north of Thailand, in addition, in Laos , Viet Nam and Italy. One calls it “smell rice”, because he smells when cooking pleasantly after jasmine and, in contrastto many other sorts, by a special cultivation method little self-taste has. The grains are small and suitable for the rice board well, since they likewise belong to the “hard” tearing places. With the rice from Thailand are the “golden” and/or “AAA”Quality the best and most expensive, the “break rice” (rice broken) is a more favorable, although somewhat worse quality.

Surinamese rice

since short in Europe this rice into the trade one brings. It is good from excellent quality and can drying to be cooked.

red nature rice

the red rice (also well-known as Camargue rice) is the designation tearing places. The red-brown outer skin of the grain comes off by the cultivation on tonhaltiger earth. The actual grain is white, thereforeis only untreatedly and unpeeled available as nature rice red rice. Originally this centralgranular rice originates from India and developed from the crossing of game rice and culture tearing places. In Europe becomes this rice since the 1980ern particularly in the French Camargue cultivated.

quality classes

in Germany one brings the long grain and round grain rice in the following quality classes into the trade:

  • Sharpening (Premiumqualität): max. 5% break rice
  • standard quality: max. 15% break rice
  • household quality: max. 25% break rice
  • household quality with increasedBreak portion: max. 40% break rice

break rice are the fragments resulting with the Absieben, therefore it is cheapest. It is mostly processed to rice flour and rice semolina. The more break rice one along-cooks, the more strength one sets free, which to a sticky cook resultleads. If granular rice one wishes, should be little break rice as contained as possible.

economic meaning

rice is for more than half of the earth population the most important Hauptnahrungsmittel. In individual countries of Asia about 80% place to rice. the entireFood. One cultivates to rice today in nearly all tropical and subtropical regions of the earth.

Rice mainly for the human nutrition used (92%), only about 4% as animal fodder, 3% become in the industry and 2% as seedsagain uses.

The most important rice producers were in the year 2004 the People's Republic of China (187 millions t), India (124 millions t), Indonesia (53 millions t), Bangladesh (38 millions t) and Viet Nam (35.5 millions t). Altogether world-wide 608.5 millions became t rice harvested(Statistics of the FAO, Febr. 2005).

The following table gives an overview of the 19 gössten producers of rice world-wide:

The largest rice producers world-wide (2004)
source: Trade paper the world in figures (2005)
rank country quantity
(in Tsd. t)
Country struggled Quantity
(in Tsd. t)
1 China 186.730 The 11 USA 10.228
2 India 124.400 12 Pakistan 7.570
3 Indonesia 53.500 13 South Korea 6.351
4 Bangladesh 37.910 14 Egypt 6.000
5 Viet Nam 35.500 15 Nigeria 4.952
6 Thailand 25.200 16 Kambodscha 4.710
7 Myanmar 23.000 17 Nepal 4.300
The 8 Philippines 14.200 18 Iran 3.400
9 Brazil 13.356 19 Madagascar 2.800
10 Japan 11.400 World 608,500

90% of the yield practically without each mechanization of sowing and harvest cultivated, 10% are high-mechanized,as for example sowing, fertilization and weed control by airplane take place (e.g. The USA).

Most important rice exporter is Thailand (more than 7 millions t). Rice sales is there state monopoly. The government buys up rice at fixed prices and licensed the export. The export duties finance nationally promotedIrrigation projects and the outdoor exposure tests for the improvement of the cultivation methods, the fertilization and the disease preventing.

The small rice farmers form the backbone of production and are usually also owners of the cultivated country. The farm work is accomplished jointly within the village.

European Union

after a resolution of the Council of Europe from July 2004 the import duties for cargo rice 65 /t €and for polished rice 175 /t €amount to. These tariffs, which amounted to so far the two to three-way ones, are to be sufficient according to opinion of the European Union, around the EuropeanRice farmers forwards approve of asiatic imported goods to protect, at the same time in addition, the World Trade Organization - rules to keep.

breeding and research

of scientists from ten countries under the guidance of Japan of operated research project (“internationally Rice Genom Sequencing Project”) succeeded it,to decipher the gene code rice. Afterwards the Genom exists out approx. 400 million DNA - components with more than 37,500 genes (more genes, than humans possesses). Thus the breed would know the plants arranged by rice more productively and resistant approximatelyParasits, dry periods or a high Salzgehalt in the soil to be made.

In order to ensure the nutrition of the increasing population of world, world-wide rice production would have to be increased in the next 20 years by 30 per cent.

rice courts

Sushi
of Sake barrels in the ItsukushimaShrine, prefecture Hiroshima, Japan

jasmine rice (smell rice) is absorbed and handed without further spices to asiatic meals or processed ferment-closely to courts such as Nasi. Since cooking rice requires a good Timing, one can itself for it also an electrical Serve of rice digester.

Sticking rice one lands on water a few hours, one absorbs after it and one forms to small Bällchen and one eats with vegetable, salad and meat with the fingers. Sticking rice must be absorbed, since it disintegrates perfectly when normal cooking to Schleim.

For Sushithe rice with vinegar one acidifies and one cools fast. It is served with raw fish and sea fruits and rubbed green Meerrettich (Wasabi).

In east and Southeast Asiatic countries is the rice soup, for those the rice with much waterand together with different added one cooks, often part of the breakfast. The Thai variant is called Kao Tom and eaten for breakfast or as small lunch before the sleeping going. It is moderates as it with meals in the Thai kitchenis often usual and usually with fresh spring bulbs, sometimes garlic also roasted, one garniert. Kao Tom Gai marks a rice soup with chicken meat, Kao Tom Gung that one with shrimps.

Risotto is a north Italian rice court, which is prepared in many variations.Round grain rice one angedünstet with bulbs and fat and one refines in Brühe, until the court sämig, which Reiskörner are however still bissfest. Long grain rice is suitable, however for Riz Casimir one uses for Risotto hardly.

Paella is a Spanish rice court, inas Spanish national court is considered to German-speaking countries (rather to injustice). It contains rice, which is colored yellow with Safran, different vegetables such as tomatoes, Paprika, beans and chicken and rabbit meat with bones; Sea fruits are today likewise like, do not belong however not into onetraditional Paella.

beverages

rice wine is particularly in Japan as Sake likes. Besides from rice also beer is brewed. In Japan Sake is processed to high-per cent beverages such as Shōchū. Arrak is in south India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, particularly in Java, manufactured Branntwein from vergorener rice maische.

Also vinegar is made of rice. Results in polished rice a bright, not polished rice a dark vinegar. Rice vinegar contains usually less acid than European vinegar places.

Similarlythe more well-known Sojamilch is made of rice also rice milk.

other use

in Japan, and still more frequent in Korea, the rice flour, which develops when polishing, becomes (nuka: 糠; actually the particularly nutrient-rich outer zones) with saltand Chili transferred and for inserting vegetable uses. By the Milchsäuregärung developing thereby the vegetable gets an unmistakable taste. Rice flour can be processed too also rice paper, and as edible packing material of food, in particular sweets is used.

Becomes tear rawManufacturing used by footwear, luggage saddles and brooms. Also one can use it as simple paper (for example for cigarettes and exotic lamps) as well as Viehfutter to begin.

rice and culture

rice a central role in asiatic countries plays andentrance into the religion and language of the respective countries found. In Thailand it was custom to make with the beginning of the meal before the rice a “Wai” (greeting, honour testifying).

The custom to throw the Brautpaar with rice originates from Indiaand fertility is to cause. In Europe in former times with wheat one threw.

there not only

a word for rice, but different designations, depending upon its processing level are designations of rice in many asiatic languages.

In Indonesia for examplethe cooked rice is called “nasi”, that ungekochte, but peeled rice “beras”.

Rice on Japanese 5 Yen - coin.

In Japan the rice plants ine ( 稲) are called, it grow on a rice field (tanbo 田んぼ). Not peeled rice the yet is called momi (籾),the peeled rice kome (米). Cooked rice is gohan (ご飯 - or somewhat less elegantly meshi: 飯), which also the general word for meals is. Rice soup, which is cooked with much water, is called kayu (粥).

literature

  • P. Anping, Notes on new advancements and revelations into the agricultural archaeology OF early rice domestication into the Dongting Lake region. Antiquity 72, 1998, 878-885.
  • Gary W. Crawford/Chen Shen, The origins OF rice agriculture: recent progresses in East Asia.Antiquity 72/4, 1998, 858-866.
  • Dorian filler, on agricultural perspective on Dravidian historical linguistics: archaeological crop packages, live stick and Dravidian crop vocabulary. In: Peter Bellwood/Colin Renfrew, Examining the farming/LANGUAGE dispersal hypothesis (Cambridge 2002) 191-213.
  • Ian Glover/Charles Higham, new one evidence forearly rice cultivation in South, Southeast and East Asia. In: Don R. Harris (Hrsg.), The origins and spread OF agriculture and pastoralism in Eurasia (London 1996) 413-441.
  • Charles Higham, The transition ton rice cultivation in Southeast Asia. In: T. D.Price/Ann Gebauer (Hrsg.), load hunters, roofridge farmers (Santa Fe 1995) 127-156.
  • Charles Higham/Tracey Lu, The origins and dispersal OF rice. Antiquity 72/4, 1998, 867-877.
  • Charles Higham, LANGUAGEs and Farming this by as: Austroasiatic LANGUAGEs and Rice cultivation. In: Peter Bellwood/Colin Renfrew, Examiningthe farming/LANGUAGE dispersal hypothesis (Cambridge 2002) 223-232.
  • F. H. King: 4000 years agriculture in China, Korea and Japan. Munich 1984 ISBN 3922201059
  • Zh. Juzhong/W. Xiangkun, Notes on the recent discovery OF ancient cultivierted rice RK Jiahu, Henan Province. Antiquity72/4, 1998, 897-901.
  • MacNeish et al., Second annual report OF the Sino American Jiangxi origin OF Rice project (SAJOR) (Andover, the USA 1997).
  • Internationally Rice Genome Sequencing Project, The map based sequence OF the rice genome. Nature 436, 793-800 (11 August 2005) (On-line text)

see also

Wiktionary: Rice - word origin, synonyms and translations

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Commons: Rice - pictures, videos and/or audio files
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