a religion definition does not find general acknowledgment in the different sciences. In the religion science for example many different definitions exist next to each other. In the following some general rewritings are given for approximation to the topic and relevant scientific beginnings are represented, before the termin its historical development and today's use one problematisiert.
Religion a system embodied in larger subpopulations is often called of conceptions over the existence of conditions beyond the sinnlich experience-cash. Religious humans arrange their life after a sense-giving whole one.
This world explanation developed in very long traditions and/or. Guidance for the life accomplishment is summarized in the western world due to Christian traditions frequently with the short formula „faith “. Here it concerns the mostly institutionalized and organized faith in oneor several personal or also impersonal transcendental naturenesses (z. B. a divinity, spirit and ancestors) and/or principles (z. B. Dao, Dhamma) and/or other conceptions, like e.g. Nirvana and the other world.
However the western beginning of one seizesDefinition with the help of the term „faith “not all religions, since this term in some religions not or hardly existed and so that the actual characteristic of this religion cannot be.
A further problem represents the definition of a community than religion.Some religions are based on philosophical systems, with others are very much pronounced political orientation or the Spiritualität. A clear demarcation is impossible, overlaps is in almost all religions and in particular with the Rezeption by individual humans. Most religionswelfare teachings, symbol systems and rituals are too own. Before this background popular organizations are made.
Etymologie and term
religio had in latin the most different meanings: “God fear “,” Frömmigkeit “, “holyness”, in addition, “consideration”, “doubts”,” scruples“,” conscientiousness “or” but faith “. The further Etymologie of the term is not clarified with security. religare meant in latin “tie up, back-bind” and also “hold, to something fasten”. The term religio is not a term of old-Roman religion. Thoseearliest vouchers are rather only in the comedies of the Plautus (approx. 250-184 v. Chr.) and in the political speeches of the Cato (234-149 v. Chr.).
To Cicero (De Natura Deorum 2, 72) goes religio back on relegere, what literally“again roll up”, in the transferred sense “consider, eight give” meant. Cicero thought of the temple cult which it applied to consider carefully.Lactantius (Divinae Institutiones 4, 28) leads the word back on religare: “on, back-bind”. Possible original meanings of “religion”“pious doubt” or the “back connection” is therefore at one of Gläubigen on and/or. noticed universal göttlichen origin or to other higher.
religion and Religiosität
the term religio and/or. religiosus became in the Middle Ages particularly for the medal conditionsused. This meaning has the term until today in the Roman-catholic church right. In the Middle Ages and in the early modern times the designations of fides (faith) were common, lex (law) and secta (direction, a party ) for the word “religion”. The today's term “religion” became onlyafter the reformation imported. Among them one understood first teachings, which should be depending upon view, either correct or wrong. In the clearing-up then a abstrakterer religion term developed, to which the present definition beginnings decrease/go back.
In German the terms are religionto differentiate and Religiosität. The term religion becomes since end 18. Jh. used. Religion designates accordingly a system - thus the outward, structural one, joint one -, while Religiosität is related to the subjective-individual, in particular on experiencing the particular.
important with the view of the origin of the word are the critical observation its (ideological) use. Apart from these etymologischen uncertainties is the termalso today still problematic. With the European “discovery” so far in the old person in such a way specified world of unknown quantity cultures was applied the term to circumstances, which have similarities with the European religion concept (for example the God admiration), in certain respects in addition,are very opposite (for example the Ausschliesslichkeitsanspruch). This difference exists also to the eastern religions, which z. B. by the translations of the word religion in the respective language to recognize is.
A consequence is that today many different religionsand and is investigated, however one admits religion forms on all religious communities and - form definition which can be used is probably pending and - because of the heterogeneous theory systems - will also in the future not exist.
scientific beginnings for the definition from religion
the religion sociology and religion science examine since approx. 100 years on empirical and theoretical basis religions as social phenomena. There are different views over definition and function of religion. In both sciences could one so far on a scientific definition, which describes, what distinguishing features of religions are and when a world view is called religion, not to agree. Nevertheless there were promising beginnings, to which the further research can tie.
after Karl Marx and. A. religions are originally coupled to a university-lateral social practice. Therefore hunter is to differentiate between Nomaden and field farmer religions (as basal religions). Only the successors of the two latter religions developed with the Neolithikum had still substantial influence on thosetoday's religions of Europe.
Erich pious formed a far, socialpsychological definition of religion as each system of thinking and acting divided of a group, which offer and an object of the devotion to the individual framework of orientation.
- contributes religion-sociological beginnings after Émile Durkheim, founder of the sociology to strengthening social structures in addition, to the stabilization of the particular. Its religion term is thus more functionalistic. In accordance with Durkheim the religion is a solidary system, itself upConvictions and practices refers, which contain holy things and in a moral community as for example the church, everything unite, which belongs to these. From it three aspects of religion, the faith convictions (myths) result, the practices (rites) andthe community, to which these are related. Durkheim calls the faith an element of the power, which exercises the society over its members under other factors.
- Ferdinand sound-sneeze differentiates between end 19. Jh. between “society” and “community”. Itstresses the sense pin end function of religion as typically “joint” and investigates its symbol systems. Religious communities - like other traditional communities - therefore serve the cultural connection of the individual. They lose in favor of the coinage by the society in the modern trend onMeaning for the particular. As church, i.e. as institution, they keep however high social influence. Loud sound-sneeze (“spirit of the modern times “) follows at present one age the community one age of the society. The function of the religion in the first becomesnow of the public opinion more and more taken over.
- Max weber, itself at the beginning 20. Century with the phenomenon “religion” from sociological view concerned in detail, differentiated between religion and magic. By religion he understands a durable, ethicalallyfounded system with full-time functionaries, who manage regulated teachings represented, an organized community and aim at social influence. Magic against it is after weber only at short notice effectively, bound at individual Magier or Zauberer, those as charismatische personalities allegedly forces of nature defeats andown moral conceptions develop. This demarcation understands webers as ideal typical. Pure forms are rare, overlaps and transitions are stated.
- after Clifford Geertz (1973) is religion a cultural-created symbol system, which tries, durable tendencies and motivations in humansto create, by formulating a general its order. These created conceptions are surrounded with such an convincing effect (“aura of Faktizität”) that these tendencies and motivations appear material. Such “holy” symbol systems have the function, the Ethos - that meansmoral self-confident its a culture - with the picture, which has this culture of the reality to connect with their ideas on organization. The conception of the world becomes the image of the actual conditions of a way of life. The religious symbol systems cause an agreement betweena certain life-style and a certain Metaphysik, which support each other. Religion therefore co-ordinates human actions with a presented cosmic order. The ethical and aesthetic preferences of the culture are objektiviert thereby and to appear as necessity, which of a certainStructure of the world is produced. The faith conceptions of the religions remain limited accordingly not to their metaphysical connections, but produce systems of general ideas, with which intellectual, emotional or moral experiences can be expressed meaningfully. There thus a transferability of symbol system andCulture process is present, does not only offer to religions world explanation models, but arranges also social and psychological processes. Variety of different tendencies and motivations is produced by the different religions, so that it is not possible, the importantness of religion in more ethical or more functionallyTo specify regard.
- Jacques Waardenburg calls the definition of religion “faith” as a product of western tradition. This term applies therefore not to the conceptions of other cultures and is rather unsuitable for the description of religions. Religions can after itsView as meaning meanings with underlying basic intentions for humans to be regarded.
- The Irish-British religion scientist Ninian Smart sketches a multi-dimensional model of religion and differentiates thereby seven dimensions: 1. the practical and ritual, 2. the experience-moderate and emotional, 3. the narrative ormythische, 4. the doktrinale and philosophical, 5. the ethical and legal, 6. the social and institutionale and 7. the material dimension (z. B. sakrale buildings).
phenomena and religion-specific conceptualness
around religions to describe, have humans, itselfwith religion (EN) busy, criteria and terms for found phenomena production. Many of these terms are even products of religious aspects and thus problematic for describing religious phenomena, there them often religious interpretations of the respective object are and at the most one cutout of theactual phenomenon to show can. Like that is z. B. the term “prayer” more like a Christian and describes a Christian practice, which cannot be applied to things such as Meditation or sinking, although this happens again and again. It gives nevertheless in many religionssimilar concepts, which can be compared with one another and placed each other opposite, whereby arranging and describing religions become only possible.
Theismus and atheism
religions, to those, Are designated as monotheistisch, religions, which believe in the existence of several Gods, believe existence of an individual God, when polytheistisch, religions, which see the Göttliche in the entire world, as pantheistisch, religions itself not on in or severaltranscendental natures refer as atheistisch, although the atheism is not as such a religion. There are atheistische religions nevertheless such as z. B. the Theravada - Buddhismus.
Also some atheistische world views have reminding ideologically coined/shaped forms to religious rituals. One thinks z.B. at the marching-up and celebrations of communist states or to the socialist Jugendweihen. Fascism and/or. National socialism carries likewise the courses of a extremistic religious system. An example is the quasi- Göttlichen admiration of the leader. Newer research for the emergence of the national socialismdedicate special attention to this topic. The thesis that apparently not-religious systems avail themselves of religious forms, is scientifically discussed (see also: Political religion). Further categories for the designation of (less far spread) religions are indigene and animistische religions.
Creation myths and cosmology
frequent arrange a conception for religions, like the world developed, a creation history and a picture of the last things, a Eschatologie. In addition the main question always belongs, what happens with humans after death. Topics how Reinkarnation, Nirwana, eternity, the other world, sky or hell, and which will happen in the long run with the world (world fall, Apokalypse, Ragnarök, realm of God), is in many religions central.
Most religions know priests, Prediger, clergyman, monks, nuns, Magier, Druiden or Schamanen, who deliver the religion, teach, their rituals to implement and between humans and divinity obtain. Some religions speak individual these humanssupernatural characteristics too. In many religions these persons are actively, independent in others within a formal organization. They are paid or to practice their activity free of charge out. In some religions the religious rituals are accomplished or led by the family head. Existalso religions, in which there is no authorized mediator between the supernatural one and humans.
Spiritualität and rituals
frequent maintain religions and denominations their own kind of Spiritualität. Spiritualität - in particular in the Christianity - is thatreligious experiencing, contrary to the dogma TIC, which represents the determined theory of a religion. The ritual however is by the religion formalized Spiritualität. In the today's western linguistic usage Spiritualität is called mental search for God or another transcendental purchase,whether within the framework of specific religions or beyond of it. In some religions are currents, whose trailer finds the meeting with the Transzendenz or to the Göttlichen in mystischen experiences.
To religious rites among other things prayer , Meditation , service belongs, religious Ekstase, victims, Liturgie, Prozessionen and Wallfahrten. Besides there is lived Frömmigkeit in the everyday life such as alms gives, to mercy or Askese.
Schismen and Synkretismen
due to their ideological moments have religions the latentTendency for splitting. Subreligionen often resulted from the separation of a group from the original religious community.
The term Synkretismus describes the simultaneous exercising of practices of different religions. In the classical sense it is the attempt to unite similar religions (again) orto initiate the creation of a new religion from different predecessors.
Since the clearing-up - particularly in the western culture area - between institutionalized religion and personal attitude to the transcendental one one differentiates.
In addition beginnings come, to those since the 1980er years postmodernismGroups or individuals ideas, rituals etc. arrange again from religions and other world views and to their needs cut. This eklektizistische procedure is called by representatives of traditional religions occasionally „Patchwork religion “or „supermarket of the world views “.
in figuresHumans have the need to experience how many “Gläubige” profess themselves to a religion. Although statistics emerge again and again, the source situation is mostly questionable. Also there are not religions like the Christianity or the Buddhismus (one compares the “Christianity” inSouth America and Scandinavia). Therefore it should be always noted that such statistics in the best case state only something over the number of members of a religious community (similar a club membership) and over the ideology of the statistics-public. Beyond that there are very different developmentsthe affiliation to a religious community. For example to the Judentum frequently also those are counted, which call themselves as Atheisten, to the Christianity in Germany all church tax payers, even if they are not gläubig.
statistics A religionsthe world - associated one (source: adherents.com)
- Christianity (2.1 billion)
- Islam (1.3 billion)
- Hinduismus (900 million)
- traditional one Chinese religions (394 million)
- Buddhismus (376 million)
- Nichtafrikani Indigene religions (300 million)
- traditional African religions (100 million)
- Sikhismus (23 million)
- mirror-image guessingism (15 million)
- Judentum (14 million)
- Baha'i (7 million)
- Jainismus (4.2 million)
- atheism, Nichtreligiöse (1.1 billion)
statistics B - religions of the world - associated one (Source: David B. Bar-saved)
- Islam (1.313 billion)
- catholic church (1.119 billion)
- Hinduismus (870 million)
- Nichtreligiös(769 million)
- independent one Christian churches (427 million)
- traditional one Chinese religions (405 million)
- Protestant churches (376 million)
- orthodox churches (220 million)
- Anglikani Christians (80 million)
- Buddhismus (379 million)
- Sikhismus (25 million)
- Judentum (15 million)
- Ethnoreligionen (256 million)
- atheism (152 million)
- African one Religions (100 million)
- new religions (108 million)
conditions in the middle of 2005, population of world: 6,454 billion.
Statistics C - Religions in Germany - associated one (source: REMID conditions: 12/2004)
- Catholic church (26.46 million)
- Evangelist regional churches (26.21 million)
- atheism, Nichtreligiöse (23.4 million)
- Islam (entire: 3,3Millions)
- Neuapostoli church (0.38 million)
- Buddhismus (entire: 0,21 million)
- Judentum (entire: 0,189 million)
- Hinduismus (entire: 0,092 million)
religion and ethics
Most old religions had at the same time the requirement human living together by laws to regulate (10 requirements). Most religions of the present have an ethical value system, whose observance they demand. This system covers conceptions over it,which correctly and wrongly and which good and bad is, as a member of the respective religion has to act and partly think. Always thus an underlying view is over the world, the nature and the position of humansin addition in it. Although these conceptions change themselves historically, similar moral principles stand behind such religious obligations in nearly all religions. These are society and partially politics that with one another conflict-poor the members of the religious community to regulate, are to positively affect andhumans individually to the respective religious goal more near bring. Partially they offer a moral framework, which can stabilize it psychologically and physically for the particular.
In some religions these moral laws of the respective excessive quantity are after directly the religion founderpossess brought by the appropriate divinity its and thus highest authority. After this conception also lay rulers these ethical requirements must bend themselves. Obediently partly under menace by this-lateral or jenseitigen punishments one demands or than only way to Welfare represented.
Frequently still further rules , which exist not directly from the founder of the religion come, but are derived from the holy writings and other Tradierungen of the respective religion (z. B. Talmud, Sunna). Some these standards lost inAnd were adapted to run of the historical development for many Gläubige their sense in some cases the very different value systems of the appropriate time.
ethics in the Judentum and Christianity
the lived ethics of Judentum and Christianity differs underother one thereby whether the respective religion with far individual a scope of action and thinking is laid out, traditionally or fundamentalist. Also within the individual religions there are frequently different schools, which lay out and use the respective moral teachings differently. Thus there was z.B. in the Christianity currents, which “banish” old persons the will due to the divinity working very violent therein wanted.
Judentum and Christianity connects in its ethical systems for example the thought to an end time. This linear understanding of time means that the Gläubigenin the this life according to the rules demanded by their divinity live, in order to receive the wages for it in a later time; although the divinity can work also in the this life. However the göttliche grace for decisive just as often becomes in the protest anti-mashindependently held and also partly of the observance of moral postulates. The Judentum is less beyond-referred however more order-rich than the Christianity, which itself and. A. in the Hebrew word for religion, i.e. Torah (law), reflects. Similarly as in the Hinduismus there are exact instructions,as the ways of acting of the member in the group to be are. In the Christian religions are by the relating of their founder and the again-Platonic influences far fewer guidelines given - for example the ten requirements.
ethics in the Islam
The ethics in the Islam is similar as bound in the Judentum very strongly to requirements for individual situations. The Koran gives exact instructions for the actions of the particular in the group. For the Islam a collective responsibility for property is importantand bad. This becomes for example clear in the instruction aluminium-amr bil ma'ruf wa n-nahi on aluminium-munkar (property to instruct and the bad forbid). In consequence the danger of an absolute command authority of the community exists (see also Hisba). The Islam goesin its main directions Sunna and Schia of the Prädestination (predetermination) out, which grant only limited scope of action to the individual.
ethics with the “eastern religions”
religions like the Buddhismus, the Hinduismus or also the Daoismus place just as ethicalRequirements, like among other things the overcoming of hate, greed, lie as well as particularly non-violence. The rules at one are accepted cosmic regularity and/or. a world principle aligned (z. B. Dharma in the Hinduismus and in the Buddhismus, Dao in the Daoismus). This cosmicWorld principle contains ethical defaults for each individual. By the trailers one expects to recognize and accordingly act the regularities of the existence. Thus z exist. B. Prohibitionprohibition prohibitions, which refer partly also to animals.
Deviating behavior becomes in such religionsless sanctioned by the religious community, but is above all negative consequences for the individual z. B. in one of the next existences pull (in the Hinduismus, Buddhismus, Jainismus within the conception of Karma and Wiedergeburt, SAM era); in the Daoismus andChinese Buddhismus expresses itself these consequences z. B. within the daoistischen and/or. buddhistischen “hell”, where cruel punishments wait for Missetäter. The popular acceptance that “eastern religions” are inclined less under their ethics to force, cannot be confirmed scientifically, thereForce rather of the respective ruling powers, when from the religious authorities proceeds. But, religiously motivated force, like we it from the crusade, Conquista, Missionierungs history in the Christian culture area or also in the context of the Islamic expansion know, steps in the culture area more eastReligions clearly more rarely up.
See also: Ethics with
cultures, which are named
often also the problematic terms of “nature peoples” or “master cultures”, frequently moral systems exhibit Buddhisti ethics [work on], which are to protect the community. There onlyby a functioning social consciousness surviving the group secured will can, is located a per-social behavior in the center of the verbally passed on behaviors. These “nature religions” contain further rituals for the influence of their Gods and/or. Forces of nature.
religion after the clearing-up
onethe largest achievements of the science is not to make impossible it for intelligent people to be religious but it them at least to make possible, to be not religious. Behind it we should not drop back. Steven vineyard,
the clearing-up brings a change of theReligion understanding: One understood the public admiration of the Gods in the before-modern societies by religion (lat. religio) or God, then the religion shifts now in the private. It becomes the Religiosität, the internal attitude of the pious individual.
As Vordenker of this attitudeapplies the theologian Schleiermacher, which wrote in its book concerning the religion (1799):Religion is not Metaphysik and moral, but looking at and feeling.
Since then actual contrary to the premature and before-modern Christian societies, in those all rangeshuman life under the authority of the religion stood - a tendency noticeably, which separates increasingly ranges of the society from the former rule range of the religion. For example nature and Geisteswissenschaften stress authority in questions connected with the idea of a natural fundamental rightto evolution or ethics right - ranges, those before the religion been subordinate. This development is called secularization. Attempts at explanation for this phenomenon often refer to the Industrielle revolution, the gradual overcoming of the Ständestaates and the associated economic,social, cultural and legal change.
Ludwig fire brook explains 1841 religion as unconscious self-confident its of humans. [...] humans article light in the religion its own secret nature. (The nature of the Christenthums.Leipzig: TIG and, 1841: First Theil) therefore regards thatreligious humans of everything that it considers truely, correct and good, as independent features outside of its. Humans can understand themselves these independent features as person in singular or majority with limited or unlimited effective range and therefore its termsof the protection, correct one and good one as range Gods or only God or without Personifikation as forces, powers, designate effects, according-to-law operational sequence or similarly determine. As he does, depends on regional development and excessive quantity. Logically fire brook does not recognize religion any longerwhen world interpreting, perhaps all humans obligating system, but as völkerkundliches Forschungsgebiet.
In Europe the Christianity lost in late 19. Century and in entire 20. Century regarding its Reputation, its social and political influence and its spreading at meaning. Sometraditionally Christian western countries register sinking Klerikernachwuchs, reduction of the monasteries and an increasing of church withdrawals or other forms of dissociation. In most European states 2005 more than 50% the inhabitant belonged to a Christian church in the year.
Particularlyin the area of the former GDR, whose government promoted the spreading of a atheistischen world view, and in France, where Napoleon arranged the locking and expropriation of monasteries and at the beginning 20. Century a strict separation from church and state was implemented, wentthe social influence of the churches back. Studies in the united kingdom occupy declining numbers of visitors in churches, synagogs and other religious mechanisms, although the churches rank here according to inquiries further among the reputierten public mechanisms. In Poland, Ireland, Spain and Italy appliesthe catholic church, to which more in each case than 80% the inhabitant belongs, as influential.
In most European countries the right to freedom of religion was legally embodied sooner or later. Before it also not-religious humans were in all rule into religious organizationsmerged, since a demonstrative prevention from the religion could lead to discriminations. This group sees at present fewer reasons to follow a religious community. During communism a religious orientation could lead to formal and informal disadvantages in some Eastern Bloc countries. In manyEuropean countries is it usually, at least still formally, to belong to a religion.
Parallel to the secularization it came both in the Evangelist and in the catholic area to a deepened and bewussteren participation in the church life on the part of a minority ofengaged and a frequently critical layman. Also young humans turn in the course of their sense search since end of the previous millenium more frequently again to the religion.
In response to the secularization in Europe the religion in the remaining world wins partially at influence.To the USA and Latin America for example empirical studies point that the religion is still an important factor. In Africa south the Christianity grew the seeing era in 20. Century of 8 to 335 million Gläubige. In that oftenconservative Arab world is still the Islam the coining/shaping element of the society. Also in China, despite nationally ordered atheism for many decades, the world religions count again about 100 million trailer.
positives and negative effects of religion
oftenthe controversy between proponents and opponents of a religion in form of a damage use analysis is delivered. However that states little over the logical value of religious messages. This should be considered in the following.
that many humans despiteClearing-up and modern religion criticism at its faith hold, have with positive experiences to do, which connect it with their religion.
Religions often postulate a reality beyond the physically perceptible one as well as a life after death. They make so a sense giving possible,as more founded one feels as a sense giving, which is limited as unsatisfactorily experienced world and the own number of deaths by. They offer frequently stable social structures to their trailers. Nearly all religions set one, for often radical, ethical standard. Some humansfear, without such religious foundation ethical standards were in practice strongly reduced (“without God everything is permitted. ”). These moral postulates are important, in order to protect the society and the particular even against destructive excesses.
Religious activities, like prayer orMeditation or also the sensory impressions and symbolism of religious ceremonies, lead with some humans to mirror-image-ritual feelings. Religious communities can offer inspiration to their members for sympathy, practical next love and moral self restriction.
All world religions and beyond that most smallerReligions, demand mercy of their members, i.e., they are to worry fürsorglich about other humans. Here it is to a large extent insignificant whether these belong to the own religious community or not. So e.g. is in the Islam. prescribed that everyone a firm portionits income for social purposes to donate is. Special assistance and welfare service become the members of the own religious community assign. A special aspect of the religion is the peace pin end, which particularly in the requirement that, in some religions postulated, enemy love expression finds. Everythingthese values and attitudes are represented in different way also in religiously not oriented groupings.
It can be observed that for example the Christianity in the past for the establishment of many large universities and schools, the structure of hospitals,the forerunners of the today's hospitals, which was responsible to distributing food and the creation of orphanages. Other religions and lay organizations have to show comparable achievements in the context of their cultures and in relation to their size and their wealth.
Research from Abraham Maslow after the Second World War showed that the survivors of the Holocaust were often those with strong religious convictions (not necessarily temple attendance etc.). The human psychology examined whether a religious or mirror-image-ritual personality coinage with longer life span and betterHealth is linked. Viele Menschen brauchen möglicherweise insbesondere religiöse Bindungen, weil diese verschiedene emotionale Bedürfnisse, wie das Bedürfnis, geliebt zu werden, das Bedürfnis, zu einer gleichförmigen Gruppe zu gehören, das Bedürfnis nach verständlichen Erklärungen oder das Bedürfnis nach Gerechtigkeit befriedigen.
Maslows of results did not prove in other connections than repeatable. The thesis of a correlation between religion and health and/or. Life span of an individual is scientifically disputed therefore. The special circumstance that Maslow had asked survivors of the Holocaust excluding, and thatReligion the primary criterion for choice for the research subjects was, could to a distortion of the results have led.
Religion can do also, so far it moral achievements - good acts - demands, beside assistance in individual cases, limited or comprehensive reforms and improvements of the legalor economic system of a society motivate.
the strongest form of negative effect represent wars and other acts of violence, which are justified with religious views. This worth Gläubige mostly as abuse of their religion, during religion critics of oneall religions immanent tendency to “Fanatismus and cruelty” go out.
In the west for example the Inquisition was accused to the Roman-catholic church. Other crimes in the name of the religion before Christian background are for example crusades, witch pursuit, Jew pursuit, violent one forms of the Missionierungas well as partly the support of dictatorships and the ambivalente role of the churches in the national socialism. The church and religion critic an abundance of historical material has Karl Heinz Deschner to this topic evaluated in its work put on on ten volumes crime film-alga-laminates the Christianity,commentated and for the layman prepares understandable.
In most democratically governed countries religions are more or less separated from the policy. If one the effects of a secularization in the direct comparison with a religiously bound system scientifically, D. h. empirically,examined, the pro and cons of both beginnings become clear. Here the problem of the definition treated above will play a role: because everything that is subsummiert under the term “religion”, does not have the same consequences, if political power is exercised. (see.for this the investigations max of weber to the different economic development in Protestant and catholic countries).
Where religious forces have too much influence on national and supranational political structures, they coin/shape either the force of the respective government or become from itcoined/shaped. The two cases cannot be differentiated always clearly:
- Since the Islamic revolution of 1979 became in Iran thousands of humans because of so-called crimes against the religion arrested, tortured and often even murdered. Women are systematically disadvantaged and alreadybecause of a disregard of clothing regulations punishes. Because of so-called moral misdemeanours they can be gesteinigt legally publicly. Homosexualität is considered as crime. Religious minorities like the Baha'i and political these simmering ducks are pursued criminally and by the so-called religion guards.
- In the Christian Namibia cameit into the 1990er years to acts of violence opposite homosexual ones, which were made responsible for a long-lasting Dürre by religious authorities however partly also from the government.
- In India there are occasionally excesses of Hindus above all opposite Muslims. Isolated it comes also to acts of violence opposite Christians. Thus the mobilization in a hinduistischen village 1999 burned the Christian director/conductor of a leprosy hospital as well as its sons of alive body in its car.
In addition it comes that religious authorities of all religionsoften issue regulations, which are to reglementieren the Privatsphäre for their Gläubigen. As in all world views, then there is a visible contradiction between theoretical requirement and practical conversion also in the religions. During misuse of power and other bad states in the Middle Ages and that, have they led early modern times frequently to religious renewal movements at present rather a break with the religion to the consequence.
Many religion critics regard religious instructions in the early childhood as means for adjustment at outdated standards. Education to religious Fanatismus becomes ofthese, in addition, of religiously oriented humans, frequently as brain laundry criticizes.
Some agree far with the Marxist aspect, according to which “religion is the Opium of the people”, thus power structures social economic to the passive acceptance and contribute. The criticism throws in particular Christiansforwards to bring by hope for a the other world in the this life no social changes more out. Indeed communist states developed differently than Christian states. Actually there were however Christian states, which remained in solidification, during otherslarge reforms experienced.
However some secularized forms require so little commitment of religion that they exert hardly influence on the life of their members. Many of it belong only formally to a religious community, which has effects on its everyday life life hardly. Only toocertain opportunities are taken up some religious “services”.
- primary sources:
- Klöckner, Michael and Tworuschka, Udo: Manual of the religions, Olzog publishing house, 2006, ISBN 3-7892-9900-6
- Cancik, stroke ore (Hrsg.), which religions of mankind, 36 Bde, Kohl hammer publishing house, Stuttgart, revised since 1979 sequentially.
- Weber, hard TIG, encyclopedia religion, Reinbek,2001, ISBN 3499606291
- Markus of jokes (Hrsg.): God and the world of the religions. 1. Aufl. Religion & culture publishing house, peppering castle 2003 ISBN 3933891140
- René greed pool of broadcasting corporations, the holy and the force, Fischer TB, ISBN 3596109701
- Erwin pale shrubs (Hrsg.): Bag encyclopediaReligion and theology, 5 Bde, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983, ISBN 3-525-50123-4
- Hans Michael house victory: The religion term in the religions, Berlin, Philo 1999
- Wulf Meth (Hrsg.): Manual world religions: a comprehensive introduction to thoughts and rites of the world religions, R.Brockhaus, 2003, ISBN 3-417-24779-9
- Geertz, Clifford (1987) density description. Contributions for understanding cultural systems, Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp
- Friedrich D. E. Schleiermacher (1799): Over the religion, Reclam, Ditzingen ISBN 3150083133
- Klaus Ruediger May: The return of the faith. Berlin, April 2006, wjs publishing house, To ISBN 3-937989-18-8
Web on the left of
|Wikinews: Topic portal religion - current messages|
|Wikiquote: Religion - quotations|
|Wiktionary: Religion - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- information platform religion (REMID)
- politics and contemporary history: Religionand society
- C6 magazine: Dossier over religion and faith
- holy one of texts of different religions scan