Republic

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The republic (over franz. république of lat. res publica ” public affair “, originally” public funds “) is one System of government, in which the head of state is selected, contrast to the monarchy is thus not by succession to the circle of the family of the monarch limited. The choice can directly by the people (for example in Austria or France) orvia representative (representative) of the people (for example in Germany or the USA) take place. The choice does not have to be democratic.

The idea of the republic consists thus substantially of dividing and limiting power for the obstruction from abuse to as well as itto give that one to the hands, which guarantee that political decisions are not exercised by a small group (king family, junta, a party etc.), but that these are the result of a political guidance, which represents at least theoretically the public consent.Must be said here clearly that this is only theoretically the case, there often certain parts of the society over and/or. are underrepresented.

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republic terms

the government is selected by a privileged minority, becomes thoseSystem of government aristokratische republic and/or. Aristocracy republic mentioned. Examples were the Polish litauische state in 16. Century and the Republic of Venice.

In Germany the term Free State was for a long time common as synonym for republic. The Lands of the Federal Republic Bavaria, Saxonia and Thuringia lead thisWord still as a name component.

In history it gave (e.g. in the soviet republic) of attempts to connect the system of government republic with a basis-democratic system of government. Usually today's republics have however a representative democratic system of government.

In Russia one designates also Republic of those member states, which enjoy a highest possible measure of autonomy (see also: Administrative arrangement of Russia).

emergence

the republic as political concept for the steering of the community and as designation of the same dipped for the first time with the antique Roman republicup. Their emergence has to essentially owe the republic also nowadays to the phenomenon still which can be observed that large or unrestricted power is used in the hands individual pretty often enriching personal for the purpose, accompanying with suppression andExploitation of the controlled ones.

Such a situation led approx. 500 v. Chr. to the rebellion of the population of Rome against the royal rule and for driving the regent out. It was decided to from now on never bear again a king. At its place consuls became(of lat. “consules” [“advisor”]) to the guidance of the community determines, whose power was several times limited: On the one hand they were only selected by the citizenry for one year (principle of the annuity). On the other hand for each office period two consuls were intended (principlethe Kollegialität), although everyone was equipped with full force. Increasingly the consuls were intended also to begin for certain tasks assistants.


republics today

both the head of state and the local representatives become therefore also into thattoday's republics on time selected. The principle of the Kollegialität sounds in Germany approximately for the structure of the Federal Government in kind. 65 S. 3 GG on. Republics offer generally large personal, financial and political liberties to their citizens.

Those world-widesmallest sovereigns republic is the Republic of Nauru, the surface-moderately largest is the Russian federation, from the total population regards the People's Republic of China.

republic: Contrast to the monarchy

differently than in the monarchy political positions becomenot by birth right or göttliches right grants. The republic is thus understood as against model to the monarchy, in which the head of state is used on lifetime. A newer opinion, which stresses the thought of the power employment on the common weal more strongly, goes by, thoseRepublic as refusal to each rule from higher right to understand beyond that and sets it thus in contradiction for instance to the leader, God state. From this the republic stands for a rational state.

republic in the German constitutional law

After that Weimar condition was the republican principle in kind. 1 exp. 1 WRV embodies. It was symbolically the break with the traditional empire. The republican thought is fixed in all national conditions of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Basic Law calls the republicanPrinciple not explicitly. It becomes rather in kind. 20 exp. 1 GG in-read (“federation the Republic of Germany is a democratic and social Federal State. “) and by kind. 28 exp. 1 GG concretizes. A definition of the term is hardly possible, too muchthe conceptions of the term of the “republic” are covered today by the terms of the “democracy” and the” constitutional state “. The German condition does not see the republican principle however without function: In connection with the eternity warranty kind. 79 exp. 3GG is in the long term impossible the monarchy.

, designates democracy

a system of government describes republic and democracy during Republic of a system of government, in which the rule is not exercised by monarchs , in that the decision procedures by means of majority decision of the votersare accomplished.

Nichtdemokrati republics

today the designation republic in some states is used as varnishing for dictatorship. A multiplicity of states call themselves since the triumphant advance republican-democratic in relation to the monarchischen principle as republic, even ifthe head of state actually on lifetime governs or the political system hardly power barriers knows. Examples are a set of dictatorships and states of the former Eastern Bloc or China.

States with high Islamic population portion call the system of government of their political system often Islamic republic, whereby a consideration for Islamic traditional religious value conceptions to be expressed is. The criterion for an actual republic is the eligibility of the guidance also here by the people and the temporal restriction of the exercise of power.

overview: Possible combinationsand examples

misleading definitions for distinction

the terms republic and democracy are frequently indistinct from each other separately. Example: Source: (after Mayers large bag encyclopedia):

  • Republic: Ggs. to the monarchy,State people is carrier of the government authority
  • democracy: People as eigentl. Carrier of the government authority (majority opinion).

The term democracy is often used in a misleading way, which probably decreases/goes back to the US-American understanding of “Democracy”, i.e. to the demarcation in relation to states, which neithera republican system of government, still another free free-market economy and an open society have. In the connection also the term western or liberal democracy is used. So seen above mentioned hide themselves behind that. Democracy term, like it v. A. of media and politiciansone transports, republican principles.

See also: System of government, Roman Republic of, democracy

transferred word meanings

“scholar republic”, “republic of the free spirit” among other things

literature

  • Jürgen Habermas: Three normative models of the democracy in: Jürgen Habermas: ThoseInclusion of the other one. Studies to the political theory, Suhrkamp publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 1996
  • Philip Pettit: Republicanism. A Theory OF Freedom and Government, Oxford University press, 1997

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Republic - quotations
Wiktionary: Republic - word origin,Synonymous one and translations
 

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