revolution (v.frz.: révolution circulation; out lat.: revolvere back-rolled) in different sciences one treats.
a revolutiondesignated in the sociology as well as colloquially a radical and usually, however not always violent social change (revolution) of existing political and social conditions. It is carried by an organized, possibly secret, grouping of Neuerern and finds the support of larger population parts(compares:Elite, mass (sociology), mass movement). If the change the speed (rapidity) goes off, approximately for those global several thousand years continuing” Neolithi revolution “(see. Steinzeit) or for the Industrielle revolution (S. A. Industrialization), can be called also this in the review “revolution”.
The term of the emancipation is partly taken in addition, the idea of the release from grown structures and a social or political liberty gain for the particular. The value of the individual criteriafor the definition of a revolution is quite disputed.
If without radical social change only one organization or a closely linked social network, also with relatively small mass basis, undertakes the revolution, one calls this coup d'etat or, in particular under participationthe military, as Putsch. Here” revolution “- the term is used often afterwards as justification.
The term” revolution “is also used, if the speed (rapidity ) is missing to the social change, approximately for those global several thousand years continuing”Neolithi revolution “(see. Steinzeit) or for of England over the European continent between 1750 and 1850 spreading Industrielle revolution (S. A. Industrialization), which was for its part again precondition for different political revolutions in this period.
sociological theoreticians/inside the” revolution “
- Vilfredo Pareto (revolution as a special form of the elite separation),
- max of webers (in Europe/North America required capitalism at the beginning of a radical not-economical - religious - change of mentality, in shape of the protest anti-mash),
- Eugen Rosenstock Huessy (the European revolutions as succession of stand evolutions, beginning with” papalen revolution “ of the papacy against the medieval Kaisertum and ending with the” proletarian revolution “),
- Ralf Dahrendorf (” revolution “as radical and rapid social change, under intensive and/or social conflicts by force),
- Theda Skocpol (lasting revolutions are above all rural revolutions)
- Crane Brinton (comparison of revolution and disease process)
theoretical innovatively arguing revolutionaries and revolutionary inside
- Karl Marx (each society, in the one form of the” Possession at means of production “it permitted to submit human work ends inevitably by revolution or fall; to differentiate” revolutions of the productive forces “are of the” revolutions of production conditions “caused by her),
- Friedrich Engels (work and their control by property those solved first revolution out, which terminated the” gameness “(human primeval times) and which was the beginning of history, and become by the last revolution are optimally disposed, in that the end of history - the end” of the realm of the necessity “- andthe beginning of the” realm of the liberty “will become possible),
- pink Luxembourg ( the imperialism is thereby the last defense possibility of capitalism - in the alliance with the Proletariat of colonial powers - before the locking world-wide proletarian revolution),
- Lenin (the last revolutionthe proletarian revolutionary can become forced ), Anton Pannekoek by the structure
- of a cadre party (parties and trade unions - including the Leninistic - are unfit forms for the fight of the working class for its emancipation, everything come on the self organization of the female workers andWorker on)
as well as Danton, Marat, Saint Just, Robespierre, Símon Bolívar, Bakunin, Leo Trotzki, Mao Zedong, Camilo Torres, Kwame Nkrumah, Ho Chi Minh, Che Guevara, Ali Schariati, Guy Debordand others revolutionaries 18. to 20. Century.
practical man of the revolution
of radical and rapid social change (” revolutions “) attached also at successful political, often also charismatische personalities, whose sociological judgement is opened rather only implicitly, of themsocial effect however consciously and intended in a revolutionary manner was, like already in the antique one for example Solon or Cäsar, in the Middle Ages for example Harald beautiful hair or Otto the large one and in the modern times for example Pombal, Cromwell or Atatürk.
social revolutions in the broader sense
- first than” revolution “designated revolution was 1688 the Glorious revolution in England.
- American war of independence 1775 - 1783 (declaration of independence of the USA 1776)
- French revolution 1789
- July revolution (France 1830)
- Belgian revolution (1830)
- November rebellion in Poland 1831 and subsequent years
- February revolution and June rebellion (France 1848)
- revolutions in Hungary, Italy, Germany (March revolution) 1848
- Paris municipality 1871
- Russian revolution 1905
- Mexican revolution 1910 and subsequent years
- Russian revolutions 1917: (February revolution and October Revolution)
- November revolution in Germany 1918/1919, including the soviet republics in Bavaria (resident of Munich soviet republic) and Bremen (of Bremen soviet republic)
- Cuban revolution 1956 - 1959
- carnation revolution in Portugal 1974
- revolution in Laos 1975 (see. also Pathet Lao)
- Nicaraguan revolution 1979
- Islamic revolution in Iran 1979
- the peaceful revolution in the GDR 1989/1990
- the singing revolution in Lithuania 1989-1991
- the Samtene revolution (rose revolution) in Georgien 2003
- the Orangene revolution into the Ukraine 2004
- the” Kopernikani revolution “(replacement of the geocentric by the heliozentrische conception of the world at the beginning of the modern times - the Heliozentrismus already was in the antique one of Aristarchos of Samos success ore)
- the Darwin revolution, in which humans lost his privileged position in nature (S. A. Darwinismus)
- the” sexual revolution “, often with the discovery of the unconscious one through Sigmund Freud gleichgesetzt
- Die »Kulturrevolution« 1967 und Folgejahre in China, die Studentenbewegung 1968 in Deutschland, aber auch in Frankreich, den USA und anderen westlichen Ländern
Inflationierte »Revolutions«-Begriffe im Feld der öffentlichen Meinung bezeichnen oft nur einen Stilwandel (Decaying evolutions).
See also: Paradigm change.
technical revolutions (Marxist: ” Revolutions of the productive forces “)
- Neolithi revolution (transition from the Wildbeutertum to agriculture and cattle breeding approx. 15,000 v. Chr. - the transition to the Jungsteinzeit)
- Industrielle revolution to 18./19. Century (see also industrialization)
- electronic revolution or digital revolution) starting from approximately 1980
revolution (political science)
the today's political revolution theory calls five main factors, which represent substantial conditions for the emergence of a revolution, whereby the special case of the developing countries is not considered:
- A sudden recession after a time of economical bloom, rising prosperity and more risingExpectations into the future.
- A consciousness, which questions the existing institutions.
- Solidarizing different groups of the society, which different motives have to be dissatisfied with the existing condition and itself for the revolution of the old order temporarily groups.An individual group, layer or a class of the society do not accomplish a revolution.
- An ideology.
- Weakness, disagreement and Ineffektivität on sides of the counter acting forces, the state.
After: E. Point, the break-through of the middle class. 1776-1847. Propyläen history of Europe, Bd. 4, Berlin 1978,96f.
- in the astronomy (become outdated) designates a revolution the Umlaufbewegung of the planets around one Fixed star, in contrast to the rotation, the turn of the planet around its rotation axle
- marks earth revolution the annual circulation that in particular Earth around the sun become - from here the expression revolution was taken over generally.
- When revolution is or more exactly than “revolution without rotation” (see also Tide), the impulse for tides of the seas, caused by the moon, designation.
„The revolution without rotation is responsible more exactly “for the tide on the moon facing the side of the earth.
with the Skatspiel the variant “zero ouvert hand”, with which the opposing players may exchange the maps,also “revolution” mentioned. It is however only with hobby rounds common and not in the official Skatregeln mentioned - there this play is anyway only announced, if it cannot be lost.
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- category: Revolution
- anarchy mash, general strike, class warfare, marxism, political theatre, advice communism, sabotage, Situationisti international ones, subversion, socialism, communism
- civil revolution, Earlycivil revolution, national revolution
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