|coats of arms||map|
|surface:||38.68 km ²|
|population density:||2056 Einwohner/km ²|
|Postal zip codes:||47226, 47228, 47229, 47239|
|preselection:||02065, 02151 (Rumeln Kaldenhausen|
|allocation of seats of the district agency (2004)|
Rhine living, to 1975 independent city in the circle Moers is today a district of the city Duisburg with 79,566 inhabitants (conditions: 31. December 2004) and a surface of 38,68 km ². It is on the left Rhine side. Neighbour cities are Moers and Krefeld. To the urban district the quarters Rumeln Kaldenhausen , Hochemmerich with the rural structured local part aster situations, mountain home with the local part Trompet Oestrum, belong Friemersheim, as well as the quarters Rhine living center with 8955 inhabitants (conditions: 31. December 2004). Area lies innerhelb the governmental district Duesseldorf and the Land of the Federal Republic North Rhine-Westphalia. Responsible district court: Duisburg; responsible landscape federation and responsible national insurance office: Rhine country.
Telephone preselection: 02065 (and/or. 02151 Rumeln Kaldenhausen), postal zip codes: 47226 (Hochemmerich), 47228 (aster situations, mountain home), 47229 (Friemersheim), 47239 (Rumeln Kaldenhausen). License number: YOU (to 1975 MO).
Table of contents
1923 closing the villages Friemersheim, Bliersheim, Hochemmerinch, mountain home and Oestrum to the land municipality Rhine living together. At the 1. July 1934 receives the land municipality of municipal rights. 1923 had been already combined the predecessor municipalities Hochemmerich, Friemersheim, Rumeln and Kaldenhausen to the largest land municipality of Prussia. With the award of municipal rights by the Prussian Minister of the Interior the local parts Rumeln and Kaldenhausen separated and formed their own municipality. The Rhine living which was because of the left Niederrhein was associated to the circle Moers, which changed by the local regional reorganization in North-Rhine/Westphalia. Since that 1. January 1975 is Rhine living a Duisburger quarter, whereby Rumeln Kaldenhausen is now again a component of the city district. Last Rhine houses mayor was Johann Asch, after which in Rhine living a place is designated.
settlement traces can be proven in Rhine living into the Roman time. Thus with sewerage works in the bill settlement Diergardt at the end becoming green of the way of remnants of a Roman awake station were found, which had been built there for the protection of the Limes. A bronze board and strassenmarkierungen remind of it. The old Roman road at the left Niederrhein (partially. as B 57) runs at the edge of Rhine living. At the city boundary to Moers are remainders of an external bearing of the Romans, called Asciburgium. Also bishop Ludger originating from Ireland is to have been active among other things also in the area of Rhine living as Missionar.
The local parts Hochemmerich and Friemersheim were already mentioned documentary around 900, as “Kirchdorf Hochemmerich” and “glory Friemersheim “. Already Karl the large one is to have held Reichstag and at the beginning 9 here. Century gave he Friemersheim to the monastery (eating). In 14. Century came the region around Rhine living to the county Moers, which changed in the course of the 30jährigen of war to the protest anti-mash. 1702 transferred the cure principality Prussia the rule in the context of a succession. 1707 became the county Moers a principality.
Between 1794 and 1813 the region was French territory, among other things the code civil was introduced here. Starting from 1814 again the region was again Prussia (as part of the Rhine province) slammed shut. Until today Rhine living and Homberg Relikte from the napoleonischen code civil apply, e.g. in the linksrheinischen quarters. the only notary system.
on initiative of Friedrich Alfred Krupp in the year 1896 planning for the metallurgical plant Rhine living was taken up. Already to 18. Decembers 1897 were blown on the first blast furnaces. In the years before the First World War the work applied as the largest of Europe. The products covered rails, staff and sectional steel, semi-finished material, threshold and wire rod. 1910 were opened the first bill (Diergardt) in Asterlagem, to 1914 the 2. Bill (Mevissen) in mountain home, which both closed in the 60's again.
With the settlement of the company Krupp end 19. Century began a time of the economical bloom of the city (and/or. their predecessor municipalities), however also strong environmental pollution. The village Bliersheim disappeared completely under the industrial estate of the company Krupp. End 19. Century had the predecessor municipalities approx. 5,000 inhabitants, at the beginning 2. World war counted the city approximately 46,000 inhabitants. They had pulled in several large thrusts, particularly from the oberschlesischen mining district, this way, in order to find in the bills Diergardt and Mevissen, above all however in the Krupp metallurgical plant work.Krupp took long time an important role for the urbane development of Rhine living: Krupp let a sample settlement for the stealing workers build (Margarethensiedlung), a small station at the factory gate I (station Rhine living east) as well as a hospital, which carried the name of its wife Bertha, in addition numerous further social mechanisms, like library, kindergartens, own consumer institutes.
time of the national socialism
1934 got Rhine living of the Prussian Minister of the Interior municipal rights lent. As “the youngest city in the third realm” she was celebrated. The ceremonies to the city becoming were strongly interspersed by National Socialist propaganda.
As far the population of Rhine living stood in the years of the Hitler dictatorship behind the system, is not clearly recognizable. Admit are the however following facts: A local's group of the NDSAP was based already in July 1926. The being correct portion of the NSDAP in Rhine living with the realm tag choice of 20. May 1928 amounted to 4.8%. With the last free realm tag elections before Hitler's seizure of power to 31. July 1932 obtained the NSDAP however 36.6% (SPD/KPD: 38.5% - DNVP: 7.1% - Center: 18,1%).
Although the Rhine houses urban history was described by the city archivist at that time , Friedrich Albert Meyer (1883-1967), in detail in several volumes in and the 60's 50's (see under literature), is missing unfortunately all data to air they run gene, pursuits of other-thinking and occupation of forced laborers. The fact that the latter took place is only generally, e.g. for the company Krupp, admits. To 5. March 1945 ended the National Socialist rule in Rhine living by the invasion of American troops. After that 2. World war amounted to the number of inhabitants still approx. 40.000.
to 13. February 1946 met still by the allied Besatzern used the town council for the first time. 1947 were painted the Krupp steel plant by crew powers from the disassembly list and decartelized from the Krupp company. It carried thereafter „metallurgical plant Rhine living for the names “. 1949 became the 50.000. Inhabitant registers, to 15. May 1954 saw the 60.000. Rheinhausener citizen the light of the world.
and 70's 60's
in the middle of the 60's the number of inhabitants amounted to approx. 72.000 and 1974 on approx. sank. 68.500 (always in each case without Rumeln Kaldenhausen). Up to 16.000 humans many of them found work came from the niederrheinischen hinterland in the 60's with Krupp. Therefore the line 33, which leads from Kleve , Xanten, over Rhine mountain and Moers after Rhine living, Hippeland express is traditionally still called. Because at that time transported this line industrial worker from the agriculturally coined/shaped circle Kleve with his tradionellen goat breeding to the metallurgical plant.
Many social mechanisms , like 6 youth centres, could be furnished by the trade tax incomes of Krupp 5 community centers for the elderly, 19 kindergartens, free and indoor swimming pools in and the 70's 60's beginning, as well as an internationally considered sport-resounded (Krefelder road) and a large meeting-resounds (Rhine-live-resounds). Driving Kraft for this development within the social range was the 1 assigning to at that time of the city Rhine living Dr. William weber. Also in the center of Rhine living the people park was created (Rhine living green lung) and at very many roads avenue trees were planted, which for the quarter in particular starting from the 80's a park-like appearance provided.
With the fall of coal and steel the economic descent began also for Rhine living. The two bills were already closed in the 60's, however the persons employed found usually to work at the company Krupp.
The incorporation to Duisburg, in the long run however in vain for many years one resisted into Rhine houses politics and population. Rhine-live belonged to the initiators of the citizens' initiative to action citizen will, whose referendum, at which itself approximately 75% of the Rhine houses voter involved, on regional level remained unsuccessful, particularly interest in the prevention of the local reorganisation nearly only the inhabitants of smaller, of incorporation threatened municipalities, had.
Also after the local reorganisation, a relative self-sufficiency was for a long time because of it been to the district politics, especially. with urban mechanisms to protect. Library branches, youth centres and old person meeting places had to be nevertheless partly closed in the following decades, since local finances of the city Duisburg itself increasingly worsened.
and 90's 80's
1987 received the local part by the resistance against the locking of the steel plant large medium operational readiness level. In this connection also the Rhine bridge Rhine living was renamed - high field in “bridge of the solidarity”, a name, which was officially taken over later by the city Duisburg. In the winter 1987/88 large demonstrations followed against the locking of the remaining metallurgical plant. Within this framework also the Rhine bridge as well as the motorway were blocked and the Krupp head office in the mansion hill in meals was occupied. Months-long reminding guards accompanied the arguments.
Despite all protests ended to 15. August 1993 with the final locking of the Krupp metallurgical plants one nearly 100jährige industrial history. On the former area still the long time under monument protection is standing mansions of the former leading employees and the Casino with the charm of the 50's.
On the area of the former Kruppstahlwerkes now a center for logistics enterprises under the name log haven develops.
city centre (Rhine-live center)
In order to give to the city, which was compound from the enumerated, in former times independent municipalities, a center (the city hall at the grain place stood rather lonely in the “geographical center” for the city), a town hall became as multipurpose hall (Rhine-live-resounds) and an indoor swimming pool built and the free meadows and fields with a housing development cultivated.
With the alpha house, at all and different restaurants, pharmacy and a tavern/a restaurant, in the middle of the 60 ' it years an indication of a new center in direct proximity should develop for a small complex with one of the first health centers of West Germany to the city hall. With the attempt it remained however and as center of Rhine living the local part Hochemmerich was still regarded. After itself the plans had smashed to establish here a large center with the incorporation to Duisburg, a public library within the range, which buildings of public health authorities, became, which Hauptpost, which savings bank, which to tax office Duisburg west, a catholic family education place, a housing for the elderly complex and a geriatric home establish.
further local parts
At the edge of the rural coined/shaped local part aster situations are the traces of Roman settlement: A bronze board at the last house left at becoming green way toward the former cinder waste dumps of the metallurgical plant Rhine living refers to it. And white lines on the road mark the location of a former awake building for the protection of the Limes. These remnants were found with Stassenbauarbeiten, as the settlement of sewers belonging to the bill Diergard got.
During the war on the cinder waste dumps enormous fires were kindled at night, then report time witnesses, in order approaching bomber pilots in err to lead with the goal of not throwing their deadly freight off here and over the metallurgical plant. Which to the fact that also the small bill settlement some hit led abbekam.
the population particularly grew after the Second World War. The increasing heavy industry attracted many humans first from the old east areas of Germany and late immigrant workers from south Europe, in particular Turkey. Above all the local part Rumeln Kaldenhausen with relatively much development land ensures for the fact that the quarters Rhine living has a quite good inhabitant balance (opposite the city Duisburg as whole one).
in October 1946 the first free local elections in Rhine living took place. Rhine-lives was after that 2. World war a SPD center; in its best times the party reached choice portions over 65%.
Mayors of the city Rhine living were:
- 1. October 1933 - 19. July 1945 Arthur Kleinert
- 7. March 1945 - 12. February 1946 Dr. William Weinstock
- 13. February 1946 - 18. March 1961 Otto school castle
- 29. March 1961 - 31. Decembers 1974 Johann Asch
with the 30jährigen war became the inhabitants of the Rhine houses predecessor municipalities with their national gentleman, who count von Moers, Protestant, whereby not the lutherische, but those had calvinistisch Protestant religion priority. Only Kaldenhausen remained catholic; the religion border pulled itself in approximately at height of the Rumelner of city hall in east west direction.
With the immigrants from the oberschlesischen area (see above) many catholics were added. 1906 were celebrated the first catholic service, 1909 the first catholic church (pc. Peter) inaugurated. Today Protestanten and catholics hold themselves the balance, in addition come approximately 10% Muslims in Rhine living, whereby the Turkish Aleviten in Rhine living has an emphasis.
, original building for the first time
- mentioned, today's building 1447 village church Friemersheim builds, builds oldest churches in Rhine living Christ church Hochemmerich
- ( ev.) for 893 1487
- pc. Peter, Schwarzenberg (kath.), 1914
before the incorporation to Duisburg gave it in Rhine living a scientific High School for boys (formerly naturwiss. High School, now Krupp High School) as well as a High School for girls (ehem. neusprachl. High School, now Heinrich Heine comprehensive school). Both institutes used occasionally also a common building at the Schwarzenberger road after the slogan: Left is the entrance for boys and on the right of for girls.
Most children however visited those predominantly konfessionell aligned elementary schools. Thus there were the only two classrooms comprehensive village school in aster situations still: a classroom for the 1. to 4. Class and the second classroom for the classes 5 to 8.
In the meantime there are in Rumeln Kaldenhausen further High School (Albert Einstein High School) and one further comprehensive school (Lise Meitner comprehensive school) as well as two six-form high schools (grain place) and (elm tree road), in addition several reason and hauptschule and a special school for learn-obstructed (Dahlingstrasse).
the Bertha hospital in Friemersheim at the May flower road, already mentioned, was into the post-war period the only such mechanism locally. And held to 1969 the status of a work hospital for the Krupp persons employed, later also their families were opened to 1914. The increasing population made then later the establishment of a further hospital necessary. Thus in the middle of the 60's the Johanniter hospital with a well-known tumor center developed at the edge of the Stadtparkes of Rhine living.
Today the Bertha hospital belongs to the clinical center Duisburg gGmbH and is in particular one municipality near psychiatry. In the last years numerous geriatric homes were established.
In Rhine living it will give a Forensik to Hohenbudberg against the will of many adjacents resident on the area of the former marshalling yard, where psychologically ill offenders therapy ore will are. The citizen desiring against the Forensik failed meanwhile for lack of interest of the population.
in the postwar years was supraregional the field hand ball crew of Rhine living admits and played in the upper leagues. In the nineties the OSC Rhine living in the hand ball federal league played. The association, which had to outer-separate for financial reasons from the professional hand ball, brought the later Welthandballer and hand ball national player out Daniel Stephan in this time . At the Kruppsee one could try another sport out since 1913 Wasserball. Rhine-live played for a while in the 1. Federal league nevertheless to time in the regional league.
the Rhine and the leisure culture
as everywhere at the Niederrhein the Rhine in earlier times rolled not by its current bed, but changed it frequently and formed Seitenarme. There one became fündig, if it concerned the sand, gravel and clay/tone production. These sand and gravel pits specified in the vernacular excavator holes were for young and alto in the summer a popular local recreation area. To swim one could not there free of charge - however harmless. Which arranged the local DLRG association to furnish at the most popular bath beaches rescue guards. Regionally particularly admits e.g. was. the Töppersee. And also Rhine living only official open-rir swimming pool uses a former gravel pit, the so-called Kruppsee. It developed from an excavator hole, which the company Krupp put on for the production by gravel and sand. There there is also the fishing rod sport club Kruppsee Rhine living 1924 eV * http://www.asc-kruppsee.de/. In addition, likes were the Rhine meadows. The Rhine was everything else as clean, and some float left the water by tar verdreckt again. But where one could swim towards otherwise as “more courageously” floats a ship and entern, a few hundred meters upstream to be carried forward be able, then with daring “Köpper” in the water jump and downstream again back-swims.
the regional traffic was first rail-bound: Streetcar and railway. The streetcar replaced of electrically operated Oberleitungsbussen, which connected Rhine living by Homberg with Moers. The enterprise of the penalty bound at Stromleitungen was given up at the beginning of the seventies. Many stop names by the vernacular coined/shaped, as for example the Rhabarberbahnhof, a bus stop because of the edge of an enormous Rhabarberfeldes were, which was managed there by the property yard of the hospital in Homberg.
In Rhine living there are at present 4 critical points of the course, however no central station:
- (Friemersheim Rhine-live), (established since 1873, current building 1903)
- to Rhine living east (since 1907; opposite the gate at that time 1 the Krupp `metallurgical plants) Rumeln
- , Trompet
- (oldest critical point, probably established since 1854, current building 1928) at
the city boundary schen to Krefelder gave it in Hohenbudberg once the largest marshalling yard of Germany. It was taken 1901 in enterprise and shut down end of the 90's. Here now a trade area is furnished.
Between Duisburg and Krefeld and/or. Moers exist railroad lines of the German course. Here operates 3 regional course and/or. Regional express lines
- RB 33 (Wesel - Duisburg - Rhine living east - Rhine living - Hohenbudberg - Krefeld - Moenchengladbach - Aachen), the so-called Hippeland express
- RB 31 (Duisburg - Rhine living - Rumeln - Trompet - Moers - Xanten) and
- the RE2 (Münster - meal - Duisburg - Moenchengladbach) with the stop Rhine living.
the economic life of the city Rhine living was coined/shaped over years by coal and steel. The steel plant of the company Krupp was shut down to 15.8.1993. Coal was promoted on likewise in the meantime the shut down bills Diergardt and Mevissen. Also Rhine living had to pay a high price with the death of many buddies with a large pit fire at the beginning of the 50's. Despite numerous protests, which at that time in the entire republic to their re+resound found, the locking of the metallurgical plant concerned by the structural change in the German steel industry could not be prevented 1993.
Up-to-date however a modern logistics center with numerous again created jobs on the area of the former metallurgical plant (log haven) develops. In the meantime could be settled a number of smaller and medium-size enterprises (log haven on ehem. Kruppgelände, trade area Mevissen, Businesspark aster situations, trade area Hohenbudberg).
Unemployment lay within Rhine living long time clearly lower than altogether in the city Duisburg. Since the new counting of unemployed person (Hartz IV) unemployment is however clearly higher. Conditions at the 1. October 2005: 20.9% (inclusive Quarter Homberg).
the 1. Railway bridge between Rhine living and Duisburg was built by the Rheini railway company and inaugurated at the 23.Dezember 1873. After approximately 50 years it had to be replaced because of age weakness by a new Rhine bridge. This was built directly beside the old between 1925 and 1927 and to 13. October 1927 traffic hand over. To 4. March 1945 was blown up it by the back-yielding German troops. Already in April 1945 the allied ones established a provisional war bridge. The reconstruction of the railway bridge began already in July 1945, for traffic became it at the 1. October 1949 approved and is until today in enterprise.
railway train ferry Rhine huge field
to road bridge
only starting from that 12.1.1934 between Rhine living and Duisburg high field a first road bridge one established, the admiral count Spee bridge, to 22. May 1936 was released by the realm Minister at that time Goebbels to traffic. The total construction costses amounted to 6 3/4 million Realm Mark. Just as the railway bridge became it to 4. March 1945 blown up by the German armed forces. The linksrheinische tide bridge remained.
A new road bridge was built starting from July 1945 and at the 3. July 1950 for traffic approved. To the place Krupp steel structure Rhine living an elegant staff elbow after a suggestion of the company, which almost represents a Filigranarbeit at beauty and momentum, stepped the earlier construction. While the earlier bridge was vierspurig, the crew authority insisted on a decrease on 3 lanes, which can be differently switched for some years by a traffic light device. The bridge was renamed 1988 by the strikers Krupp workers in “bridge of the solidarity”, which became bridge designation carried out by the city later officially.
- span of the elbow: 255.91 m
- arrow height 35.5 m
- stiffening beams: einwandig riveted sheet metal carriers with 4320 mm. Web plate height
- distance of the stiffening beams: 12.4 m
- Steghöhe of the Hutquerschnitts: 1.7 m at the vertex, 2.10 m at the fighter
- Fahrbahnbreite: 9 m (3 traces A 3 m)
- usable cycle track width: 1,1m
- usable sidewalk width: 1.8 m
1975 at the border of the local parts Rhine living and Homberg, at the Essenberger break a further Rhine bridge (to the Duisburger quarter Neuenkamp), on the motorway line 40 (in former times A2/A430) were operated.
overhead line crossing of the Rhine in Duisburg Rhine living
remarkable are the 118.8 meters of high overhead line masts of the combined 220kV/110kV overhead line over the Rhine with a span of 570 meters. These 1926 established overhead line masts is very unusual not only because of their large height, but also by the unusual arrangement of the conductor cables in 6 levels.
- height of cross beam 1: 81.8 meters
- of span cross beam 1: 17.5 meters
- height of cross beam 2: 89.8 meters
- of span cross beam 2: 15 meters
- height of cross beam 3: 97.8 meters
- of span cross beam 3: 12.5 meters
- height of cross beam 4: 103.8 meters
- of span cross beam 4: 13.5 meters
- height of cross beam 5: 109 meters
- of span cross beam 5: 11 meter
- height of cross beam 6: 115 meters
- of span cross beam 6: 8.5 meters
in contrast to the convention generally usual in the pipe installation to install the conductor cables for the higher tensions on the highest cross beams are with these masts on the lowest cross beams 1.2 and 3 the conductor cables for 220kV and on the highest cross beams 4.5 and 6 the conductor cables for 110kV.
- Construction design: Tower structures, building publishing house GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany), 1966 (there called Kreuzungsmast at the Niederrhein)
of the Rhine houses Rhine harbour was established to 1897 by the company Krupp directly at the work area (southern the railway bridge) and served the charring and iron ore transport. Today he is administered of the Duisburger port company Duisport as „log haven “. A further port served the shipment of the hard coal promoted in the former mines Diergard and Mewissen and was connected with these by a work course. It was at the border to the city Homberg nearby the new Rhine bridge.
- being thing, G.: Archaeological investigations in the Christ church Rheinhausen Hochemmerich, 1971
- Esser, Aleta /de Jong, Klaus: Rhine-live this to ISBN in old pictures, to volume 1.1978,
- 3-88265-020-6.: Rhine-live to volume 2 in old pictures, (1980?)
- Gey, Michael /de Jong, Klaus: Rhine-live in old pictures, volume 3, 1984, ISBN 3-88265-118-0
- Lisken, Rudolf: Rhine-live in old opinions; Zaltbommel (NL), 1994, ISBN 90-288-5898-9
- ders.: My hometown Rhine living in pictures, once and today (volume 1 and 2)
- Meyer, Friedrich Albert: Rhine-live at the Niederrhein in historical; A house and a manual for Rhine houses the area; Series of publications of the city Rhine living, volume 1, 1956
- ders.: The colonization of the industry in Rhine houses the area; Series of publications of the city Rhine living, volume 3, 1965
- ders.: Of the Ruhr over the Rhine. Rhine living heavy industry series of publications of the city Rhine living, volume 4, 1966
- ders.: Rhine houses stories; New edition 1979/1980
- Wislinghoff, Erich: The area of Friemersheim, Rhine living 1961
literature over Rhine living is available over the bookshop book island, 47226 Duisburg, Fr. - Alfred road 93, http://www.buecherinsel.com
Web on the left of