Richard Nixon

Richard Nixon

smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Milhous Nixon (* 9. January 1913 in Yorba Linda, California; † 22. April 1994 in New York) was US - an American politician and 37. President of the United States of America (1969 until 1974). Nixon was an only US-American president, who withdrew during its term of office. Reason for it was the Watergate affair.

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Nixon mit Elvis Presley
Nixon with Elvis Presley

Nixon became to 9. January 1913 in Yorba Linda in the US Federal State California born. Its parents were Francis and Hannah Milhous Nixon. Hannahs family originated from Germany; the original name was „Milhausen “. Nixons education followed strictly thatRules of the Quäkertums. Its nut/mother educated it as an Evangelist Quäker, and it hoped that it would become possibly Missionar. The family did without alcohol, swearing and dancing. It is remarkable that Nixon as an adult this doctrineabandoned. Nixons father, when franc admits, had been before its marriage catholic, and was converted for sake its wife sake.

Nixons father operated the family business, a shop, where he sold food and gasoline. Nixon always spoke of its parents with largerReverence. It referred to its nut/mother as „a quäkerische holy one “, and began his memoirs with the sentence, „I in a house was born, which my father had developed “. Today one has smelling pool of broadcasting corporations M. Nixon LIBRARY and Birthplace museumin Yorba Linda equal beside the original house developed. The public may visit the house. Nixon buildup nevertheless actually in the town Whittier, some miles far away from the original house. Today this area is completely settled, but it existed at that timeonly from field. Nixon had four brothers. They were designated, as it, after English kings: Harold, Arthur, Donald and Edward. Arthur and Edward died as children, and Harold died center twenty at Tuberkulose.

Nixon visited the filler clay/tone High School,and the Harvard club of California lent its price for the best academic achievement to it generally speaking Federal State. Nixon was certainly talented. It had the ability to learn and speak long excerpts from latin poems as well as Shakespeare by heart. The Harvard price was a scholarship, which paid all study fees. However the sum was not sufficient, because food and Logie were not enclosed and the diseases of the brothers were for the family a large financial load. Some historians and authors maintain, this early disappointmentthe origin Nixons was lifelong antipathy against the so-called “Eastern establishment”. Instead of Harvard Nixon visited the quäkerische Whittier college. There it created its own student connection, the Orthogonian Society, which competed with the established Franklin Society. Nixon, the football loved,tried qualify for the university crew too. Its talent for the play was however small and it spent nearly the whole time „in the bank “. Nixons of front teeth were discharged when playing and it received the bridge later, in countlessCaricatures to see was. Nixon was selected to the president of the studentses, and his largest achievement was the organization of the first school ball - which up to then after the quäkerischen tradition had been always forbidden.

1934 terminated Nixon the college as the secondits conclusion class and began law studies to the Duke University, which lent a scholarship to it. One of the conditions of this scholarship was a certain note average. Although Nixon had no trouble good notes to actually obtain, stood it under large psychologicalPressure. In the second year of the study this pressure led to it that it convinced a friend to help it with the break-down in the office of the Dekans in order insight into the documents to take. Nixon was not punished for it. Many years later discoveredthe press this youth caper and one spoke spöttisch of „Nixons first break-down “.

Nixon showed also with its law studies a outstanding achievement; it graduated to its class as the third. Therefore he, work hoped with one of the prestige-fullest law offices in New York toofind. For several reasons it did not have a success - it was the year 1937, during the world economic crisis. Some authors agree with Nixons statement that the necessary social connections were missing to it. It was besides Kalifornier, and at that time those belongedDuke University not to the elite universities. In addition, it is possible that it made a bad impression with the interview. During the Watergate affair an attorney found with White & Case notes of that discussion. One described Nixon there as „zwielichtig “or „cleverly “(shifty).

To this failure Nixon returned to California. He put fast the state examination down and began to work at the small Kanzlei of a family friend. The work was usually routine and Nixon found it boring, although it efficiently and competentlywas. Later it granted that the family cases worried it. Its education had always stressed reservingness and Konservatismus with personal affairs, and for it the intimate details of a marriage were very embarrassing.

At this time he learned his later wife Patricia “Pat” Ryan know. She was a High School teacher in Whittier and played beside Nixon in an amateur play. First Pat did not have interest in Nixon. It never gave up, in order to recruit it. It drove it even with its car to appointmentswith other men. Finally Nixons persistence disbursed itself and the pair married to 21. June 1940 in mission the Inn in Riverside, California.

In the Second World War Nixon served at the US Navy. Because of its birth as Quäker it would have thatBeen right to avoid the military service without reproach. Nevertheless it decided to occur the navy. In some biographies it stands that Hannah Nixon in tears broke out, when she regarded her son for the first time in its uniform. In its memoirsstated Nixon, he would have hated Hitler, and that the attack on Pearl Harbor had shocked him. Nixon was a supply officer in the Pacific and operated also a lunch, where he sold Hamburg ones and fruit juice. One carried it up to the rank lieutenant commanderand its superiors regarded it as an excellent officer and leader. Interestingly enough Nixon learned the Pokern as a naval officer - some more, which rejects the Quäkertum. It became fast as the best player of the whole navy admits and at the end of war hadit approximately 10,000 US Dollar won. At the navy he learned its future minister of foreign affairs William P. Rogers know.

political ascent

Richard Nixon and Billy Graham to 28. May 1970 on a Crusade in such a way specified (English. for crusade)
1946 were selected Nixon for the republicans into the congress. Its opponent was the liberal politician Jerry Voorhis. Nixons election campaign campaign was particularly aggressive and many observers regarded it as a Verhetzer. For its ascent the role, those became crucialhe in the committee of inquiry of the Alger was called - affair played. 1951 he became a senator for California. While this election campaign interspersed it itself against the Herausforderin Helen Gahagan Douglas , by diffamierte it as communist Sympathisantin. The newspaper Independent Review gaveit on it the pointed name “Tricky thick”, which became never again loose he.

Nixon was from 1953 to 1960 vice-president of the USA under Dwight D. Eisenhower. Its candidacy was disputed, against the reproaches of the corruption successfully resisted itby a spectacular television appearance (Checkers Speech). During its time as vice- Präsindent it - after a heart accumulation Eisenhowers - represented twice the president. It received world-wide publicity by the “kitchen debate” with Nikita Khrushchev and by a South America journey, with which it with tomatoesand stones one was subject to 1960 with conceivablly scarce number of votes with the presidency election against John F. Kennedy, ironically a friend Nixons.

In the presidency election 1968 it sat down against stroke ore H. Humphrey through and became 37. Presidentthe USA selected. In the presidency election 1972 Nixon struck the challenger George McGovern and with very large majority was confirmed. It received over 60 per cent of the voices and won the majority in all Federal States except Massachusetts. Its vices-president were Spiro Agnew (1969 - 1973) and in its second office period Gerald Ford (1973 - 1974). To 8. August 1974 led the Watergate affair to the resignation Nixons.

In its 8 years as a vice-president under Eisenhower Nixon had oneDislike against cabinet meetings develops. When it drew into the white house, was it from the outset decided to govern with the help of its advisors themselves. Its most important advisor was Bob Haldeman (chief of staff), Henry Kissinger (security and foreign policy) and John Ehrlichman (inside).


the largest challenge, which it found with its assumption of office, was the Viet Nam war, which it had inherited from its predecessors, and which split the nation. Nixon had to see that this war was not to be won and closed1973 a peace, which equaled actually a retarded surrender.

To become politicoly-economic tried Nixon of the inflation in the USA gentleman. In an unusual experiment reminding of plan managing wages and prices should by in several phases (phase I to phase IV)national regulation to be frozen. It then actually came to features, as it admits from communist plan managing was. A gas station set up a sign considered much in the media: „Nix on gas today “(Nix with gasoline today).

Under Nixon the USA gavealso 1971 the gold redemption obligation of the US Dollar up, a step for the end of the system of Bretton Woods 1973.

1972: Mao Tse Tung meets in Peking with smelling pool of broadcasting corporations M. Nixon

The name Nixon is connected probably durably with the Watergate scandalremain, however this does not become fair the presidency Nixons in the result. Thus it is often forgotten that Nixon in area with regard to foreign policy obtained considerable successes. To state here its active policy of detente and disarmament efforts are in the weddings of the cold war. Nixon was the first American president, who undertook state visits in Moscow and Peking, and thus signaled to the disliked communist camp willingness to have talks. The Nixon doctrine (1972 ), designated after it, plans besides a larger regional sole responsibility (above all the states in Asia), the rolethe USA should be future only an order-keeping power in the background. In the context of its policy of detente it supported also - after initial skepticism - the east politics of Willy Brandt.

1995 - briefly after Nixons death, came olive Stones film “Nixon “in the cinema. Disputed scenes are violent, the alcohol awarding and/or. under influence of alcohol acting Nixon shows. These occurrences - in addition, the representation cigars of a smoking Kissinger - were criticized sharply by time witnesses because of their alleged defectiveness.At the end Stone uses pictures of the funeral, in addition one hears the ring-back signal of president Bill Clinton and its praising words for Nixons achievements.


  • Richard Nixon: Memoirs. Ellenberg, Cologne 1978, ISBN 3-921369-61-4
  • Richard Nixon: Sowe lose the peace: The 3. World war already began. Crystal publishing house, Hamburg 1980, ISBN 3-607-00001-8
  • Richard Nixon: Autobiography. Ullstein 1984, ISBN 3-548-3301-0X
  • Richard Nixon: Material Peace: A strategy for the west. Ullstein 1985, ISBN 3-548-3304-44
  • Richard Nixon: Statesmen of our time: Political profiles and personal meetings. Bonn current, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-87959-317-5


  • Iwan Morgan: Nixon. London [among other things] 2002, ISBN 0-340-76031-1
  • Vamik D. Volkan, Norman Itzkowitz, Andrew W. Dod: Richard Nixon: A psychobiography. Columbia Univ. Press, New York [among other things] 1997, ISBN 0-231-10854-0
  • Melvin Small: The presidency OF Richard Nixon. Univ. Press OF Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 1999, ISBN 0-7006-0973-3
  • Keith W. Olson: Watergate: The presidential scandal that shook America. Univ. PressOF Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 2003, ISBN 0-7006-1250-5
  • of Louis W. Liebovich: Richard Nixon, Watergate, and the press: A historical retrospective. Praeger, west haven, Conn. [among other things] 2003, ISBN 0-275-97915-6
  • Jeffrey Kimball: The Viet Nam was files: Uncovering the secret history OF Nixon era strategy. Univ. Press OF Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 2004, ISBN 0-7006-1283-1
  • J. Edward Lee, manufacturing costs. Toby Haynsworth: Nixon, Ford, and the abandonment OF South Viet Nam. McFarland, Jefferson, numerical control [among other things] 2002, ISBN 0-7864-1302-6
  • Dean J. Kotlowski: Nixon's civil rights: Politics, principle,and policy. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, measure. [among other things] 2001, ISBN 0-674-00623-2
  • Andreas Möller: The “kitchen debate”. Nixon and Khrushchev in the contest of the ideologies. , No. learn history. 94 (2003), ISBN 3-617-17094-3.

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