|coat of arms|
|Gespanschaft||Primorje Gorski kotar|
|geographical situation|| |
of coordinates: 45° 20 ′ n. Break, 14° 26 ′ o. L.45° 20 ′ n. Break, 14° 26 ′ o. L.
|postal zip code||51000|
|preselection||+385 (0) 51|
|city arrangement||of 7 urban districts|
|Mayor||Vojko Obersnel (SDP)|
Rijeka [ˈrijɛːka] (Italian and Hungarian Fiume, German become outdated also to pc. Veit at the Flaum; the Croatian and the Italian name mean on German „river “) are a port at the Kvarner bay in Croatia.
Table of contents
situation and climate
the port Rijeka, is because of the bay of the same name. It is deeply cut into the mainland in the north, in the Kvarner bay. The river Riječina, by thoseCity flows and into the Adria flows, is the name giver of the city.
The middle air temperature amounts to in January 5 °C and in July 22.8 °C, the annual air temperature 13.8 °C, the annual amount of precipitation 1228 mm. Altogether there are 86 rain days in the year. Seems on the averagethe sun 2120 hours in the year.
with 144.043 inhabitants (2001) is Rijeka the third biggest city of Croatia, with the suburbs points her about 305,505 inhabitants to (statistic yearly book 2002). 1991 had Rijeka of 164,075 inhabitants. After the Croatian war of independence the number of inhabitants tookeasily off.
The population is compound from the following nationalities:
80.39% Croat6% Serb5% Italian
the Croats are by the majority Roman catholic. In Rijeka there are minorities of the orthodox and Jewish religious communities beside the Roman-catholic, also.
Rijeka is the main port of Croatia. The transit port is for the Central European Binnenstaatenof great importance, in particular for Hungary. Austria and Hungary have both its own free port in Rijeka.
The driving port of Rijeka connects the city with the more important ports along to the Croatian coast, Venice, and South Italies.
the railway plays for thatTransportation of passengers in the region Rijeka practically no role. But penalty are used.
On the city is the remote station. This connects Rijeka with Zagreb and Ljubljana. The Eisenbahnnetz became outdated in this region very much and requires urgently a reorganization. 2007 become with the buildinga new railroad line after Zagreb and in further consequence to Hungary begun.
It gives way to airline connections of and: Zagreb, Cologne/Bonn, Hanover , Munich and Stuttgart. The international airport of Rijeka is approached under andem by “low cost the carrier ” Hapag Lloyd express. In the summer the airport becomesapproached by Norwegian and EasyJet.
Rijeka is attached to the motorway net of Croatia. For the distance Rijeka - Zagreb amounts to the travel time approx. 80 minutes. The Magistrala (main street along the Croatian Adria) is one of the most important connecting roads at the Croatian coast,it leads Montenegro (SCG) from Rijeka until.
suburban traffic - long-distance traffic
the suburban traffic is covered by the local Autotrans (motorbuses). All quarters and those connect the penaltysurrounding villages with one another. The connections are very good.
in Rijeka traces were found, into the Paläolithikum (stone ages) and the neolithische age in-rich. In the prähistorischen age (bronze and iron age) the Celts probably built attachments around the hills. The Celts connected the 5 hills (Solin, Martinšćica, Trsat, Velivrh and Gradišće) alsoEarth barriers. A leftover from the celtic one might be the word Tarsa (Trsat), mountain meant, possibly. Mountain at the river.
by these buildings of barriers could develop a settlement with a port. The Celts were displaced by the Illyrern or them to have itselfwith them mixes. The trunk of the Liburnier (Illyrer) predominantly lived along the coast and removed the port, in the hinterland lived the illyrische trunk of the Japods, which established high left hill (Trsat) of the river Riječina an attachment, a kind castle (Gradina) on the 138 m.
The Illyrer used the port for its sea-predatory activities in the Adria. They were at that time well-known as sailors, ship farmer and pirates; at this time they called Liburna the locality.
Liburna was the Romans at that time a thorn in the eye, therefrom here numerous attacks on the Roman trading vessels in the Adria proceeded. The Romans led different wars against the Illyrer, they conquered the settlement around 180 v. Chr. The Romans shifted the past settlement more near to the sea, to the today's place thatOld part of town.
In the antique one then the city Tarsatika mentioned, probably was already at this time the city divided into 2 municipalities. Tarsatica Romanian (Rijeka) was the port and Tarsata Liburian (Trsat) the castle city. The Romans built an observation station later on the Tarsata.Today one finds still remnants of the Roman settlement, among other things a thermal bath ruin, a Roman gate, Roman wall remainders and walls of Roman houses.
to the Middle Ages
the Croats left themselves around 700 n. Chr. in Rijeka down. Outthe place for Karl the large one was important to strategic reasons. It sent an army under guidance of his favourite Mark count and Kriegers Erich (Eric) around the city to conquer. The Croats however successfully resisted and struck 799 n. Chr. Franconias back. Mark count Erich lostat the rock slopes before the castle Trsat its life. The death of the Mark count enraged Karl the large one, so that it let Trsata with a much larger army attack and destroy. During this time Franconias controlled Rijeka, which they integrated into their realm.
In 9.Century belonged to Rijeka to the kingdom of the Croats.
In 13. Century Trsat (Trsata), which one had again developed, controlled by the prince Frankopan of the county Vinodol. This promoted the development ofTrsat.
1287/1288 developed the law book of Vinodol, one of the oldest law books of Europe. The Vinodoler municipalities rough NIC, Trsat (Rijeka), Bakar, Hreljin, drive NIC, Grižane, Bribir, Ledenice and Novigrad (today Novi Vinodolski) signed to 6. January 1288 this law book. The law book protected among other things body-own and the manfrom the people before the Feudalherren and the courts.
On the right side of the Riječina the settlements Reka (Rika) and sports association developed. Vida (Sveti Vid well Rjecini, pc. Veit and Pflaum); they formed a city with gates, towers, roads and trade. While changed for this timethe masters of the city: the dynasty Duino, the princes Frankopan, the counts von Walsee. The number of inhabitants amounted to at this time approximately 3000.
between that 13. and that 14. Century developed under the count von Walsee the gothical Rijeka.
under thatHaving citizen
1465 bought Friedrich III. Rijeka; the city became pc. Veit at the Flaum mentioned (until 1918 Rijeka belonged to the having citizens, with smaller interruptions). Among the having citizens Rijeka entickelte itself as Rivalien of Venice, the having citizens removal Rijeka constantly.
1509 became Rijeka underthe guidance of general conquers Trevisian of the Venezianern at short notice, the city was geplündert, ignited and partly destroyed.
With the accession of the having citizens in Hungary it became 1526 part of their land complex. In the future it was however usually governed from Graz (see inside Austria). 1530 developed first printering.
In 16. Century flowered the city up; in this epoch developed in Rijeka Manufaktur, trade, art and the public education. 1626 were created the Jesuitengymnasium, first to the Adria; it exists until today continuously. While developed for this timethe baroque Rijeka. It came at the same time in this century always again to attacks of the Turks, Rijeka however never fell into its hands.
The Austrian monarch Karl VI. 1717 economic policy introduced the noticing anti-reading tables ; this made possible the free navigation in the Adria. 1719 became Rijeka togetherwith Triest avowedly as the free port, developed industry, navigation and handicraft. 1725 were built the first traffic route, which connected Vienna with the Adria (Karolina).
1750 were shaken Rijeka for weeks by several earthquakes, partly might have been very violent it. Also the castle becameTrsat damages. Based after the earthquake the sugar refinery (1750-1828), later followed the paper mill (1823) and the torpedo factory (1873) for k.u.k the sea-fleet.
1779 with the order of Maria Theresia become Rijeka a corpus separatum, independent body, autonomously by the State of that the city surround anddirectly the having citizen crown subordinates.
in the napoleonischen wars
the Frenchmen took 1805 Rijeka and attached it at Italy. A special role during this time played the wife of a buyer of Rijeka, Karolina of Rijeka. It saved the cityat present the napoleonischen wars, by using its female charm with negotiations with an English admiral. Owing to Karolina only one shot from a cannon direction Rijeka was fired. The cannon ball today still is in a wall of Rijeka.
1815 transferred the having citizens again power to Rijeka. Ban Josip Jelačić Rijeka, it conquers 1848 sets off the city government and creating ore the municipality Rijeka. 1855 were completely modernized the port, the river Riječina was shifted into a new bed. After Austria-Hungarian reconciliation 1867 were it as free city ( a crowning country on an equal footing and similarly as Triest) part of the Hungarian realm half (see Fiume város). Rijeka was at present the Kingdom of Hungary also seat of the Komitates (Gespanschaft) Modrus Fiume. 1867 became Rijeka the main port for HungarianGoods; under the Hungarian line the port of Rijeka flowered up. This persisted into the First World War inside. 1870 took over the Hungarian government the administration Rijekas. Between 1870 and 1910 the total population doubled itself on 50.000 inhabitants. 1871 took place the opening from banks(and. A. Riječka Banka) and establishment of steam navigation corporations. By the whole city drove streetcars, it gave 22 consulates, 20 hotels and 9 cinemas. 1873 was opened to lines after Ljubljana and Zagreb , Vienna and Budapest, 1874 after Triest. 1882 became in Rijeka one thatfirst oil refineries in Europe based. In Rijeka also ore duke established Josef, the brother of the emperor Franz Joseph I., its residence.
19. Century. Rijeka was the eight-largest port of Europe with a conversion of 2.1 million tons; in the largest Tabakfabrik of the empire2400 workers were busy, in which paper factory became the first steam engine of South-east Europe installed; more than 20 large enterprises and dockyards were registered. The building of the only military sea-travel academy in the empire was established (today buildings of the hospital in Rijeka). The museum Nuget became in the castelletfrom Trsat, the first museum in Croatia opens. Also the theatre of Adamic (destroyed) was opened, a theatre for 1600 spectators, which ranked among the largest in Europe. In Rijeka the first torpedo by native engineer Ivan Lupis Vukić was developed (the factory „torpedo “existstoday still), together with engineer Robert Whitehead that torpedo so far ticking ELT which it be also effectively used could. In Rijeka the first submarines for Austria Hungary were built.
Rijeka experienced its fall from 1915 to 1918 practically. The blockade of Otranto by the allied ones brought the port from Rijeka to the stop.
In the Londoner contract (secret contract) of 1915 was permitted to Italy the Annexion of the east coast of the Adria. Rijeka was awarded thereby Italy.
After the surrender of Austria Hungary the past empire had to deliver among other things Rijeka.
after thatThe First World War
during those Paris peace negotiations still under way were, became the city to 12. September 1919 of 2500 Italian partisans under the guidance of the Italian nationalist and writer Gabriele d'Annunzio occupies. D'Annunzio wanted thereby the status of Fiume (Rijeka) as Italian city as completedsupport, before the city the sports club was awarded. D'Annunzio proclaimed the Italian regency at the Quarnero, which one can regard as an important forerunner of the fascist system; he took over the city command. The state of emergency was imposed and the policy of the mass mobilization was invented; Nichtitaliener and linkswere driven out.
Official Italy remained reservedly, only the fascists placed themselves behind d'Annunzio (D'Annunzio was member of the Italian fascist party and parliament delegate of Italy) and could this to a question relating to domestic affairs magnify the importance of. Its friend Mussolini (D'Annunzio was one of its models) supported it with his project.To 12. November 1920 came off a contract between Italy and the SHS kingdom, with which the city was explained as the free city (similarly as Danzig). For D'Annunzio there was actually no more reason to occupy the city although it rather preferred an Italian crew. OnlyD'Annunzio could be persuaded by an employment of an Italian warship to the resignation. It came in the city to unrests, in March 1922 came it even to a Putsch of the local fascists.
D'Annunzio again took the city 1924, it became then in the contract of Rome(Friendship treaty between Italy and sports club) to 27. January 1924 solved: the territory was divided, the city came at Italy, the neighbour city Sušak came to the SHS kingdom (Serb Croat Slovene). The harbour authority was implemented together. Rijeka had at this time approx. 95,000 inhabitants, 30,000 were Italians and 60 ' 000 Croats.
D'Annunzio saw the Erfüller of its schwärmerischen nationalistic ideas in the Italian fascist Mussolini despite some differences and served this as model - there was the Duce twice. In Fiume the rituals were learned, which drove Europe into Spanish the civil war and the Second World War: thatFascism was born, imported here here and tried out better said it from Italy through [D'Annunzio].
In the July of the same yearly fascism in completely Italy was established, thus also in Rijeka. During the GermanItalian occupation of Yugoslavia the environment of the city came under Italian crew. Non--Italianwere partly expropriated and hunted from the city Rijeka.
The port became split, the gross tons fell on a low of 500.000. Sušak became the main port of the Kingdom of the sports club. The port of Susak is approximately six times smaller than the Italian part, but the converted quantityis equivalent high. Rijeka occurred one epoch of intensive Italienisierung and perished economically, because it became a provinziellen Grenzstadt of a state.
During the Second World War the port was destroyed by Rijeka. The German armed forces destroyed thereby 50% of the depots and thoseAnchorages of the port. In the city gave it thereby also smaller destruction.
after the Second World War
the end of the Second World War raised a political question in connection with Rijeka; Rijeka was returned 1947 at Yugoslavia and by a popular vote againa geeinte city.
The inhabitants of the city were placed before the choice to be accepted either the Yugoslav nationality or proven from Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia proved a great many altogether over 300.000 inhabitants, who refused itself accepting the Yugoslav nationality under it from Rijeka and the region.The proven Italians were settled in the region by Triest.
After the Second World War Rijeka became a transit-routistic, an administrative, a handels, a industrie, a culture and a university center.
The revitalization of the old part of town began in the sixties after drafts of the native architect Igor Emili. Also those becameCastle on the Trsat completely reconditions.
1973 became Rijeka university center. The seat of the Rektorats is the former city hall of Sušak.
since the national independence of Croatia
1991 Croatia explained itself independently of Yugoslavia.
During the Serbian aggression against Croatia Rijeka without damage comesof it, Rijeka is approx. 70 km far from theater of war removes. Many Serbs leave the city and its environment. Rijeka accepts a great many refugees from the theaters of war of Croatia and Bosnia.
In Croatia the most important institutes for education were shifted by different reforms to Zagreb. Different faculties andInstitutions had to move after Zagreb.
Austria received a free port in the year 2000, Hungary in the year 2001. By this measure different companies open, from the two countries locations in Rijeka.
2004 after 35 years are Rijeka, attached to the Croatian motorway net. The motorway net connects Rijeka alsoZagreb and Ljubljana, which are binding at Triest (I) in build.
faculties has city partnerships Rostock (Germany): Medicine, philosophy, technology, economics, navigation, right.
inRijeka appears the independent daily paper La Voce del Popolo for over 120 (new edition 60) years.
The daily paper Novi cunning appears since 1890 in Rijeka.
The regional television RiTV predominantly reports from the region.
The Croatian state State of HRT maintains Lokalsender radio Rijeka. since 1945in enterprise is. Local Radiosender are a great many available, for example radio SVID.
art and culture
since 1982 take place in Rijeka the annual Karneval. Annually visit over 120 ' 000 spectators the Karneval, that from in the middle of January toAt the end of February takes place. In the removal participate over 10 ' 000 active, in approx. 150 groups are organized.
a great many
kinds of sport are represented sport in Rijeka, and. A. Football, hand ball, basketball and Wasserball.
The soccer club in Rijeka is one of the larger associations inCroatia. The inhabitants are proud of their soccer club.HNK Rijeka won so far 3 Cuppokale (twice in Yugoslavia and in the year 2005 in Croatia).
- Slavenka Drakulić, authoress. In the year 2005 it was distinguished with the Leipziger book price for the European communication.
- Ödön of Horváth (1901 - 1938), one the most important writers of Austria
- Vincenz Jelić (1596 - 1636), composer
- János Kádár, communist and Hungarian politician, Prime Minister of Hungary
- Ivan Zajc (1832 - 1914), Croatian composer and conductor
- Alexander Petritz,To architect and town planner
- Mirza Džomba hand ball player
- Nedjeljko Fabrio, writer
Web on the left of
- homepage of the city Rijeka (English, also on Croatian and Italian available)
- city plan Rijeka and information for tourists - CroMaps navigator
- Tourist board of the city Rijeka (German)
- Rijeka danas (Internet newspaper, Croatian)
- virtual free city Rijeka (English)
- Karnevalseite of Rijeka (English/Croatian)
municipalities: Baška | Brod Moravice | Čavle | Dobrinj | Fužine | Jelenje | Klana | Kostrena | Lokve | Lovran | Malinska Dubašnica | Matulji | Mošćenička draga | Mrkopalj | Omišalj | Punat | Ravna gora | Skrad | Vinodolska općina | Viškovo | Vrbnik