A Unterfamilie of the horn carriers treats cattle of these articles. For further meanings of this term see: Cattle (term clarifying)
cattle
Hausrind in Indien
house cattle in India
systematics
Class: Mammals (Mammalia)
subclass: Higher mammals (Eutheria)
putting above: Laurasiatheria
order: Paarhufer (Artiodactyla)
subordination: Wiederkäuer (Ruminantia)
family: Horn carrier (Bovidae)
Unterfamilie: Cattle
scientific name
Bovinae
Gray, 1821

the cattle (Bovinae) are a Unterfamilie of the horn carriers. They are characterized by their size and the awkward, tonnenförmigen trunk. Both sexes carryHorns. The following kinds and kinds are ranked among the cattle:

the demarcation is disputed thereby. Like that the forest supports are, oneGroup of African-asiatic Antilopen, obviously so closely related to the cattle that they are often united with these in a common Unterfamilie. The Vierhornantilope is assigned alternately to the forest supports or the cattle - in this list she becomes as originalMember of the cattle regards. The Vietnamesi forest cattle only discovered into the 1990ern were placed from some zoologists to the goat-well-behaved.

The cattle a quite recent group are masterhistorical. Only in the Pliozän the earliest cattle are fossil occupied. They spreadpresumed from Asia over Europe, North America and Africa. Particularly in the Pleistozän they were species-richly represented.

The cattle of the kinds Bubalus and Syncerus, and colloquially also the kind Bison, are called “buffalos”. Here it actsaround an arbitrary name for related with one another kinds of cattle, which no systematic relevance has.

anatomy

of cattle are herbivores. They nourish themselves predominantly of grass. Grass consists mainly of with difficulty digestible cellulose and contains few nutrients. Therefore must cattle per day 50 - 100 kg green fodder and up to 100 l water to itself take. The grass is almost whole swallowed and arrived in first of the four stomachs, the Pansen. This seizes with some kinds200 litres. Here digesting begins under the effect of bacteria. After 1 - 2 hours, if the cattle rest, the partial cut up grass of the muskulösen net stomach is carried over the esophagus back in the muzzle. With the sharp edges thatFusion folds of the meal teeth it is thoroughly again-chewed and swallowed. This time the food arrives no longer into the Pansen, but into the sheet stomach. Here the water is extracted. Only in the lab stomach, that the human stomach corresponds begins the actualDigesting. Here digesting juices and the Zelluslose work into sugars are partly split up. Pansen, net and sheet stomach form thereby together the Vormagenbereich, after which with the lab stomach the only gland stomach follows. The lab stomach closes an about 50 meter long intestineon. There one continues to digest and one takes up the nutrients over the blood in the intestine walls.

The horns are excrescences in pairs at the head of the cattle, them are to 80% from Keratin and a hollow coat over a bone tap, with those themare fastened to the head.

Tooth formula

Oberkiefer: 2•6 molars

6 0 0 0 0 6

6 1 3 3 1 of 6

lower jaws: ever 2•6 molars, 1 Eckzahn and 3 Schneidezähne.

The 2•3 Schneidezähne and the Eckzähne of the lower jaw are to the Abbeissenof short grass; the cattle with the tongue seize and can longer tufts of grass it off with the Schneidezähnen tear. In the Oberkiefer the cattle have only a horn plate, which serves as back support when chewing. The molars play an important role. The cattleneeds these teeth, in order the fodder choked from the Pansen once again to cut up (again-chew).

The female cattle are called cow, male bull, male kastrierte ox, the child calf.

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