a ritual is a culturally bound human action, which by structured means the transformation of an area of life in, over which everyday life causes outside handing, connections.
Rituals are a menschheitliches phenomenon. They make that for the existence possible by handling basic questionshuman with one another. In addition count security, order just like the number of deaths. They are able to make the world simpler and more manageable and facilitate decisions. Sometimes their effects operate themselves in addition, in negatives, then ritual criticism begins .
- cyclic rituals, which follow the dailytemporal, weekly, monthly or annual calendar, (e.g. the sun turning celebration);
- Life-cyclic rituals, e.g. Initiationsrituale (with birth, man barness etc.).
- event-referred rituals, e.g. with certain crises apply (e.g. death, a hunger emergency etc.);
- Interaction rituals, which come into Interaktionssetting to carrying, like e.g. the greeting ritual, rituals of the body distance or the ritual of smoking. ;
Table of contents
for the technology of the ritual
the ritual points after Wallace the aspects of the technology,Therapy and anti-therapy, the ideology and/or. social control, the Salvation and the revitalization up.
- The ritual as technology
refers to handling the environment. Thus by pointing saying references are expected by highest instance, which contribute to decision making. ThatIntensification ritual extends to hunt, cattle, field, and weather charms. The protection ritual is to turn misfortune and disasters away.
- The ritual as therapy and/or. Anti-therapy
refers to control of the human health range. Anti-therapy Hexerei means: supernatural disease causes are found,Persons the ability is awarded to be able to affect others negatively. The witch faith promotes social control in a society: One avoids Anstössigkeit, in order to be verhext. One looks for the inconspicuousness on the other side, over not than witchto be suspected. Anti-therapeutic rituals of the witches increase stress and disease risk, therapeutic rituals reduce the same.
- The ritual as ideology
refers to behavior, feelings, values and moral conceptions of the society. This can be achieved on different ways: Transition rites refer upthe role role of a person or a group in the social or territorial range.
- The ritual as social intensification
stresses the identity of a group, it befriedet it. It is repeatable like the coming union or the greeting. Likewise the taboo stabilizes thatWith one another. Rebellion rituals offer through ritualisierte social reversal to “valve seat” (smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Thurnwald) and stabilize thus the existing society (see. the Saturnalien, the Karneval). Sociologically seen rituals are suitable to unite contradictory for which it is typical that the participantswell-informed can follow and want it, although they do not have in detail at all to reconstruct the social conflicts integrated therein; the well-informed field researcher (for instance the Ethnologen) however the signals are differently than ritually not recognizable to agreeing upon - z.B. lean (as in Japan) with the greeting the greeting before each other, of it are not excluded the emperor, but bows itself the low standing more deeply. Lars Clausen: The ritual shows, what hides it.
- The ritual as Salvation (“healing”)
offers the chance, deviations such as Psychosen etc. to integrate and accept, since new Schamanen is created in this way, which attain meaning high by the contact to the supernatural one.
- The ritual as revitalization
determined groups, the social or ethnical suppressionand thus (religious) arousing movements , which offer a better life by means of solution rituals, experience shrinking their standards.
of rituals are frequently in the range of the religion embodied (see rite). Rituals promote the co-operation of religious groups. Sothe evaluation of data over 83 US-American religious communities resulted in 19 from that. Century that religious communities the more rituals are the more long-lived, restrictions and requirements in it are practiced. For lay communities such a connection cannot be determined. (Source: Brain& spirit No. 1-2/2005)
in single sciences
to the Ethnologie and sociology
Ethnologisch are observableRituals a multiple entrance into the research of master cultures.
But, like it opened, rituals in all societies are the sociology. They are subjected to a constant change. They renew themselves and step in changed shape into the changedsocial reality. Thus certain rituals arise both within the ranges religion, sport, in the star cult or in the advertisement .
toRitualisierung an important
role plays Psychotherapie and Pädagogik within the range of therapy. Orders are to be restored, where they are present no more than social structure. The structure and meaning giving Kraft von Ritualen for the social connection in groups are also in the therapeutic area to be made usable. In symbolic way the core of the total problem is worked out. In the mode of the play therapy the family roles involved are set up; Changes are supported by a symbolic action (e.g. with a gesture of reconciliation).
Also in that Schulpädagogik and in the primary school are introduced in particular increasingly rituals consciously for the structuring by instruction and for the creation of an alive school life.
- rite, passage rite
- ritual magic, Ritualität
- institution, custom, customs, ceremony, Umgangsformen
- religion sociology
- M. Douglas: Ritual, taboo and body symbolism. Sozialanthropologi studies in industrial company and master culture. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt A.M. 1981.
- Damon Rigor, Athara Nokei, paths into the other worlds, ISBN 3-89094-390-X
- Daniel B. Lee: “Ritual and theSocial Meaning and Meaninglessness OF religion ", in:Social world, 2005 (LVI), H. 1, S. 5-16
- Roy A. Rappaport: Ritual and religion into the Making OF Humanity. Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology. Cambridge: University press
- Thomas Macho,The zeremonelle animal. Rituals, remainders, times between the times, Graz 2004 ISBN 3-222-13161-9