Robert James Fischer
Robert James „Bobby “Fischer (* 9. March 1943 in Chicago) is a chess - large masters of US-American origin and - since 2005 - Icelandic nationality. It was the 11. World champion of chess history. In the USA it was considered as a hero, after it upthe high point of the cold war 1972 with the chess world championship in Reykjavík had defeated the Russian Boris Spasski (match of the century). Later Fischer an unofficial „WM-revenge won twenty years “in Sveti Stefan and Belgrade.
Table of contents
Fischer Regina (1913 - 1997) buildup with its alone-educating nut/mother, which worked in Brooklyn , New York as a nurse. He never became acquainted with its father. The chess rules learnedit with six years as well as its five years older sister Joan, which lost the interest in the play however contrary to its brother soon. Its first coach was Carmine Nigro, the chairman of the Brooklyn Chess club. it took 1955 for the first time at thatYouth championship of the USA part, could platzieren itself however not yet in the front field. Starting from 1956 it became of John W. Collins trains, who cared for also different new generation talents such as William Lombardy and Robert Byrne. The psychiatrist and former world class players Reuben Fine, Fischer in this timebecame acquainted with, certified later serious psychological problems resulting from family conflicts, which led to behavior remarkablenesses to it. According to Fine the game of chess Fischer offered the possibility of living it up by means of its successes for suffered offenses to throats and power fantasies.
The title of a large master he achieved 1958. In the sameYear, with 15, he broke its off of him as useless felt education to the Erasmus High School in Brooklyn, in order to dedicate itself to chess completely.
as thirteen-year old it already became by the so-called portion of the century (Donald Byrne approximatelyFischer) suddenly admits. In the age of 14 years Fischer was the first time US champion - the up to then youngest at all. Between 1957 and 1966 he won eight times in consequence the American championship, 1964 succeeded it him even all 11 portions to win (no defeat, noneRemis).
1960, while, he answered the chess Olympiad in Leipzig to the question of a journalist, when he believed to be able to become world champions: “Perhaps 1963!”. With its first candidate tournament in Curaçao 1962 it reserved however only the fourth seat. It accused the participating Soviet players of, among themselvesagreed upon Remispartien to have played, in order to preserve their forces thereby for the fight against it. This criticism led later to the fact that the FIDE changed the mode for candidate tournaments and introduced duels in place of round tournaments.
In the following qualification cycle succeeded it however: 1970 it won superior the interzone tournament in Palma de Mallorca and 1971 the following candidate matches against Marks of Taimanow (quarter finals), Bent Larsen (semi-final), in each case with the sensationalResult of 6-0, as well as the final against the ex world champion Tigran Petrosjan with 6,5-2,5.
The title of the chess world champion it conquered 1972 in Reykjavík in a legendary match against Boris Spasski. Although the duel because of Fischer's eccentric behavior before the failure stood and for Fischer several times briefly evena portion combatless lost, won it finally clearly with 12,5-8,5. It required however some art of persuasion, in order to induce Fischer at all to playing:Henry Kissinger called it, the British millionaire James Slater, increased prize money. Fischer kept as good as no support on the part of of theAmerican chess federation, its Russian opponent had against it all support of the apparatus, as long as they did not lose.
After he had become world champion, he played nearly twenty years long no more tournament portion. 1975 were denied to it the world champion title of the FIDE, after negotiations over the conditions of a title defense toono result had led. Its successor became Anatoli Karpow, against which he never played a portion. Fischer therefore regards itself still as a chess world champion since nobody struck him in a WM-fight.
A short comeback celebrated he 1992, as he in Yugoslavia of the outlawed dictator Slobodan Milošević during the Balkans conflict under large interest of medium a looking fight against its old rival Boris Spasski with 17,5-12,5 won and thus against US embargo offended. Its homeland the USA, to which it could not return from now on any longer, wrote Fischer thereupon byWarrant of arrest world-wide for search out. Fischer was at different places in Europe, among other things in the powder mill in Frankish Switzerland and in Forchheim . Since then he withdrew himself again from chess. Since 2000 Fischer lived mainly in Japan. In March 2005it kept then the Icelandic nationality and could thereupon to establish also there.
books and inventions
its 1969 published book My 60 Memorable Games (German: My 60 memorable portions) is considered this very day as one of the best chess books at all. Originally the work should My would run in chess is called, this title reserved themselves it however for an autobiography, which however never appeared. He worked three years on the analyses, the introduction texts to the individual portions by Larry Evans was written. Contrary to the portion collections many other large mastersit did not only take up profit portions.
Already 1966 had Fischer, together with Donn of MOS fields and Stuart Margolies, a text book Bobby Fischer teaches chess (German: Bobby Fischer teaches chess) written. It is developed according to the principle of programmed learning and consists of 275 tasks of matte, thosethe reader independently to solve is. Done without describing text and chess notation, the solutions will become by arrows on the chess diagrams indicated. Until today became over 1 million copies sold, thus it is the commercially most successful chess book of all times. In Germany 2003 a new edition were published(ISBN 3-88805-471-0).
1982 it published in the self publishing house a brochure I which tortured into the Pasadena jailhouse!(dt. As I was tortured in the prison by Pasadena), in which he raises torture reproaches against American policemen, him due to a confounding with a bank robber for twoDays had arrested.
One 1988 published and 1993 book Searching also filmed for Bobby Fischer act not of it, but of the chess career of the new generation talent Joshua Waitzkin. Fischer, who had not given agreement to this title, is the opinion, its name is only tooAdvertising purposes abused.
One of Fischer publicised new kind of chess is the Fischer random Chess, which the opening theory annoyingness of modern computer-assisted chess works against. To have invented is it however the chess large master Pal Benkő.
In addition it developed a meanwhile wide-spread electronic chess clock, with that thosePlayers for each implemented course additional considering time to the basic contingent receive. Thus extreme time emergency is avoided. Fischer announced this clock on in August 1988 to the patent (U.S. Patent 4.884.255), because of not paid fees ended the patent protection however in November 2001.
Fischer, to who an intelligence quotient was certified of 184, is considered as an ingenious chess player. Its character gives however cause for controversies; thus he expressed himself - although even American as well as Jewish origin - repeats anti-American and anti-Semitic. In the Internet and in radio interviews he spreadanti-Jewish Hetztiraden and denied the Holocaust.
Fischer was specified with a person article in the Encyclopaedia Judaica, against what he with one of 28. June 1984 dated letter energetically protested. The publishers said to him thereupon too to erase the article from later editions.
Particularly infuriatesits American fellow citizens were, as a Fischer itself at the 11. September 2001 in a radio interview in Tokyo positively over the terrorist raid on the World trade center expressed. Literally he said: „Those are wonderful pieces of news “and „death the USA “(orig. „Fuck the US “). Due to this and othersStatements Fischer the membership in the US chess federation was extracted. Meanwhile Fischer its US nationality gave up.
a Grand in such a way specified jury had accused 1992 Fischer, because it despite a prohibition for a victory premium from 3.3 million dollar to Sveti Stefan, Yugoslavia traveledwas. (Of the senate did not discharge) an order of president George H. W. Bush had forbidden at that time all „to commercial activities “with Yugoslavia because of its role in Bosnia and Herzegowina.
The former world champion threaten because of this sanction break in the USA up to ten years detention and oneFine up to 250,000 dollar. Fischer turned thereupon not into the USA back, but was occasionally in Germany, Hungary, the Philippines and Japan. To 13. July 2004 it was arrested with the attempt of the departure from Japan by Japanese officials due to an invalid document of identificationand in the internment center of Ushiku with Tokyo arrests. Japan rejected its application for asylum at the end of of August 2004, since the accusations were not against Fischer in the USA political nature. Against this decision Fischer inserted redresses, it found support with that approximately 600 members of theJapanese chess federation. Its most glowing Verehrerin is probably the federation president Miyoko Watai , which since August 2004 Fischer's gotten engaged one actual the pair has meanwhile the marriage in Tokyo requested. Whether the intended marriage is a chess move for the prevention of the threatening deportation, remains uncertain.
To 14.December 2004 radiated the Icelandic TV-transmitter Stöd 2 a telephone interview with Fischer arrested in Japan. In that interview it deplores itself over the fact that it due to the looking fight mentioned above 1992 (in the interview says it erroneous-proves „1972 “) in Sveti Stefan, Yugoslavia approximately Boris Spasski is illegally held. It reported, it is at present in a prison in direct proximity of a defective atomic power plant arrested; this with the intention of contaminating it sooner or later. Furthermore threaten it the deportation into the USA, where it murders certainly „became “, because it itself always against the Jews expressed, because it would have defeated Jews in chess - and, as it added directly, America at all „a country of full Jews “was. In the connection it reports of its efforts to take up contact with members of the Icelandic government over thereTo get asylum. Thus the world in its expenditure reports of 28. January 2005 („Iceland gives Bobby Fischer asylum - the ex chess world champion wants to leave Japan with German passport - still is missing to it permission “) of Fischer's attempts to escape a deportation into the USA. On the part ofto the Icelandic message it a residence permit was given, its departure is however „due to various visa regulations still unclear “.
At its 62. It received an Icelandic foreigner passport to birthday. After the Japanese authorities judged these as insufficient a release, Fischer received to 22. March 2005 througha law the Icelandic nationality and three days passed by the Icelandic parliament later reached Fischer Iceland in company of its Japanese engaged Miyoko Watai.
„it is just as good in the Versteckspiel as in chess “(friend Jack Collins on the occasion of submerging Fischer1992)
- Bobby Fischer: My 60 memorable portions. Publishing house Eduard Wildhagen, Hamburg 1969.
- Rudolf Teschner: Fischer against Spasski, Goldmann, Munich 1972. ISBN 3-442-03312-8
- franc Brady: Bobby Fischer, profiles OF A Prodigy. New York: McKay 1973.
- Alexander Pasternjak: Chess phenomenonBobby Fischer. Olms publishing house, Zurich 1991 (reproduction of the expenditure Munich 1973). ISBN 3-283-00242-8
- Christiaan M. Bijl: The collected portions of Robert J. Fischer, Ijmuiden 1976.
- Reuben Fine: The psychology of the chess player. Syndicate, Frankfurt/Main 1982. ISBN 3-8108-0204-2
- H. Shopkeeper and S.H. Postma: The chess phenomenon Robert Fischer, Nederhorst the mountain, 2. Aufl. 1982.
- Elie Agur: Bobby Fischer. His approach tons chess, London 1992 (dt. 2. Aufl. Hollfeld 1996).
- Robert E. Citizen: The chess OF Bobby Fischer, San Francisco 1994.
- Robert Hübner: World champion Fischer (CD-ROM). ChessBase 2003. ISBN 3-935602-71-5
- David Edmonds and John Eidinow: Bobby Fischer goes ton was. London: Faber and Faber 2004. ISBN 0-571-21411-8
- Garry Kasparov: My great predecessors, part IV, Fischer, London 2004. ISBN 1-85744-395-0
- David Edmonds/John Eidinow: Like Bobby Fischer the cold war- the most unusual game of chess of all times won. Munich: DVA, 2005 ISBN 3421056544
Web on the left of
- Robert James (Bobby) Fischer
- Bobby Fischer: Chess player, Sonderling, genius
- of Fischer disputed Internet podium (English)
- Bobby Fischer Unofficial Home Page
- interactive Bobby Fischer fan Site (English)
- The Fischer story
- 65 crucial positionsof its plays (English)
- from the chess world champion to the refugee (article in sp)
- FBI versus Fischer - background for spying on for many years by the US secret service
| | * Literature of and over Robert James Fischer in the catalog of the DDB
William Steinitz | Emanuel Lasker | José Raúl Capablanca | Alexander Aljechin | Max Euwe | Mikhail Botwinnik | Wassili Smyslow | Mikhail Tal | Tigran Petrosjan | Boris Spasski | Robert James Fischer | Anatoli Karpow | Garri Kasparow | Vladimir stuff NIC
- FIDE world champion since 1993:
|NAME||Fischer, Robert James|
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Fischer, Bobby|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||chess player|
|DATE OF BIRTH||9. March 1943|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Chicago|