Robotics

the robotics is concerned with the control and development of robots and covered subsections of computer science (in particular artificial intelligence), electro-technology and mechanical engineering. A goal of the robotics is it by programming a steered co-operation of robot electronicsto manufacture and robot mechanics.

Table of contents

classes

Japan Industrial Robot Association (JIRA) differentiates between the following robot classes:

  • Manual manipulator: Handling equipment, which does not have a program, is led but directly by the operator.
  • Fixed Sequence Robot: Handling equipment, repeats aftera constant movement sample works. Changing of the movement sample is relatively complex.
  • Variable Sequence Robot: Handling equipment, as described before, however with the possibility of changing the course of motion fast and problem-free.
  • Playback Robot: The course of motion becomes this equipment once by the operatordemonstrated and in the program memory stored. With the information contained in the memory the course of motion can be repeated at will.
  • Numerical control Robot: This handling equipment works similarly as NC controlled machine. The information about the course of motion becomes the equipment over tracers, switchor data media in terms of figures entered.
  • Intelligently Robot: This highest robot class is meant for devices, which have different sensors and so that able are, for adapting the program sequence automatically to the changes of the workpiece and the environment.

history

alreadyin the antique one first attempts with automats were accomplished. Admits are devised automatic theatres and music machines by Heron of Alexandria, or the flying pigeon of Archytas of Tarent.

With the fall of the antique cultures disappeared temporarly alsothe scientific realizations of this time. Only after the Middle Ages technical inventions and sciences obtained again a higher value. So recordings and sketches Leonardo are Vincis from that there 15. Century over Androiden admits. Naturally the technical level of knowledge of at that time was enoughTime not yet out, in order to also realize such plans.

Around 1740 and already builds Jacques de Vaucanson designed a flute-playing automat, an automatic duck, as well as the first programmable fully automatic loom. In the literature becomes latter merit/service often also Joseph Marie Jacquard around 1805 attributed.

End 19. Century within this range special efforts in military affairs were undertaken (boats operated by remote control, torpedo price increases). The writer Jules Verne writes a history over a people machine.

1920 led the writer Karel Čapek the termRobot for a Androiden.

After end 2. World war experienced the range of the robotics rapid progress. Decisive for it surely also the invention of the transistor was around 1947 into the Bell Laboratories, integrated circuits and in further consequence thoseDevelopment carry outable, high performance and stable computer.

Off approx. 1955 came first numerical control machines on the market.

1954 announce George C. Devol in the USA a patent for a programmable manipulator on, this date is considered as birth to the development of robots.Devol was also joint founder of the company Unimation, who presented 1960 the first hydraulically operated robot.

1968 are developed to WITH the first mobile robot.

Into Germany the robotics was only used starting from beginning of the 1970er years productively.

Around 1970 becamealso the first autonomous mobile robot Shakey (the Zittrige) at the Stanford Research of institutes develops.

In the year 1973 at the which since university Tokyo the development of the humanoiden robot Wabot 1 was started.

1974 became the first completely electrically propelled robot (IRb6) of ASEA presented and imported.

In the year 1986 Honda started the Humanoid Robot Research and development Program. Result were the humanoiden robot versions P1 to P3. An advancement presented Honda 2001 in form humanoiden robot of the ASIMO .

1997 landed thatfirst mobile robots on Mars (Sojourner).

Also the toy industry did not lock for the robotics. Current examples of such products are Lego Mindstorms or the robot dog Aibo of the companies Sony.


robots today

thoseRobotics is a scientific discipline, which concerns itself with the development of robots and service robots, for example by pattern recognition. Play the mechanical modelling, the regulation and the electronic control a substantial role. The mechanical modelling of a robotbeen based mostly on methods of the multi-body systems and/or. Multi-body dynamics, while the draft comes of to the regulation for robot the area of the automatic control engineering.

Meanwhile alternative techniques are investigated to the wheel as progressive movement means in the human environment, like z. B. goingon six, four, two or also a leg. While robots in an environment adapted on you settle usually relating to crafts or handling-given up, such service robots are to furnish services for and at humans. In addition they must move in the human environment andby right to find can, what the subject of scientific research is.

Like a play seeming, but with serious scientific research as background are robot soccer games between crews of homogeneous robots. A goal of the researchers is to be developed it until 2050 a football crew from autonomous two-legged robots,those against the football world champion to begin can.

Robots are usually inserted into for humans to dangerous or unreasonable environments. Modern robots settle today stupide assembly line work faster and substantially more exactly than humans and can it in ever more ranges replace(Automation). Cars are built nowadays with strong participation of robots, and also a modern microprocessor would be no longer producible without a robot. To facilitate service robot for some time assigned around humans the everyday life or around itto maintain, like z. B. the Robosapien. There are already household robots, which are able, to suck dust to mähen the soil to wipe or the lawns. They are specialized in only one task, can thesebut accomplish relatively autonomously.Research robots explore among other things far planet or disaster areas and penetrate into volcanos or sewage drain. Utopias of robots, which remove us the work, seem to become slowly reality.

So far still pure speculation are however tiny nano-robots, which can move in the Blutkreislauf. However also otherwise robots on the advance are and already accomplish operations or perform simple activities in hospitals in the medicine.

First maintenance robots like the robot dog Aibo of Sony are a stepto the electronic domestic animal. Beside Aibo it gives to follow further robot products of the toy and Unterhaltungsindustrie, which can be programmed with a computer in a usually simple language, around for example a source of light or a line on the soil or coloredTo sort building blocks.

A further hobby direction is the self-'s building of robots. This can take place supported via robot kits or however after free Fantasie. Z fascinates many. B. the building of „combat robots “, which try to destroy remote controlled with martialischen weapons each other. Therethese machines remote controlled will possess, do not concern and no considerable own intelligence it thereby so far not robots in the actual sense of word.

Robots are also a popular article in the Science Fiction. There it often hands human being-like robots over, artificial intelligence order. Even if they are still pure fiction, then Isaac Asimovs of robot laws quite already coin/shape a thinking of robots.

An additional, already variation of the robot realized in very simple form is the Cyborg as fusion of robot technology with thathuman anatomy. Androiden - artificial manlike natures - can be robots, robots must however not necessarily Androiden be. A first beginning developed far is the robot ASIMO of the company Honda.

robotics and military

place last alsoin the military technology unmanned drones, or robot for war guidance no Science Fiction more, but reality. The DARPA military Hightech agency Pentagon for the first time wrote a prize money out of one million US Dollar in June 2004 in the Grand Challenge. The unmanned vehiclesthe participant should independently in 10 hours across the Mojawewüste a goal in 175 miles distance achieve. Although the most successful vehicle only 11 miles came far and afterwards tilted and in flames came up, prize money on two million becameUS Dollar for the next competition increases. During the repetition of the competition 2005 already four vehicles achieved the goal. The winner vehicle reached an average speed of scarcely 30km/h.

robotics and religion

in its book „questions at the Buddhismus “describethe buddhistische nun Thubten Chodron the following situation: Its holyness of the Dalai Lama answered to the question whether a robot could ever develop consciousness that then from a robot a feeling nature could become, if a computer supported consciousness physically, anda nature a Karma would have, which could be born in a computer. This is unfortunately malfunctioned plants.

robotics and security

security are relatively

safety guidelines for robots result from the respective area of application and the type of robot. Robots becomeby legal prescribed safety precautions such as cages, lattices, light barriers or other barriers secured. With increasing autonomy however present or future, more complex robot systems need according to the circumstances adapted safety precautions. By the various use of robots it is however utopian, universal safety rules forto set up all robots. Also „the three set up by Science Fiction author Isaac Asimov in its novels (and/or. four) Rules of the robotics “(robot laws) can be understood only as ethical guidelines for a possible programming, there unforeseeable situations about the robot not calculablyare. The more autonomously a robot in the surrounding field of humans acts, the more largely is the probability that organisms or articles will come to damage. Likewise the conception, robots suffers the protection of human life or human health, from the morally difficultInterpretation of protection. The fact that no absolute values can be programmed here shows up parallel in the discussion over the stress ratio between protection and to patronizing, see Nanny State. The danger of a robot results last from interaction betweenphysiological condition, condition, and software-specific factors: Adaptability and - speed, sensor technology, reaction rate, speed, articulatedness, association ability, intelligence et cetera. Difficulties in the safety programming of a robot consist also of the fact that ethical values are not absolute as basis of acting, but a compromiserepresent in interests potentially moving in opposite directions between owners and society. It is not inconceivable that a private service robot places the protection of a high government official or a group of humans in given situation by law over those of the owner.

Dangerous robots

to the groupthe robot belong also autonomous weapon or reconnaissance systems such as Smart Bombs, unmanned Dronen, awake robot or in the future conceivable autonomous combat robots. If such dangerous machines to warfare are used, the question about ethical values in programming becomes redundant andit shows clearly that the demand after universal safety maxims for all robot types only represent a romantic illusion. The consideration of ethical values in the use of robots is also no topic, which mankind will only face in the future. Already inthe Second World War ships were sunk by torpedoes with navigation system, or buildings by V1 rockets destroys, which by their function mode after the input, processing, and output of the definition of a robot to correspond. Also at present humans purposefully of complex, autonomously acting machineshurts directly or indirectly or killed.

There

were accidents due to safety gaps already industrial accidents with robots. To 21. July 1984 became in Michigan, the USA, in the first US-American robot caused death, a factory hand of a robot to safety cabinets tooDeath pressed. Human failure either in programming or in ignoring safety precautions caused the death of the worker.

robots as control units of complex systems in the film

  • HAL 9000 - 2001: Odyssey in space (1968)
  • Colossusand Guardian - in Colossus
  • the speaking bombs - in Dark star (dt. Titles also Dark star - dark star)
  • Edgar in Electric Dreams 1984 - humans and computer (Edgar) buhlen around the favour of a woman.
  • “Talk Queen” in Resident Evil. Those talk Queen comes however in the second part resident Evil: Apocalypse no longer forwards.
  • VIKI in I, Robot. This is based on a positronischen brain, on whatever the robots NS-5 in the film touch down.
Work on []

Humanoide robot in film and television

robot competitions

see also

Wiktionary: Robot -Word origin, synonyms and translations

to literature

  • Manfred Husty, Adolf of meager, et.al: Kinetics andRobotics, Springer publishing house, Berlin Heidelberg 1997, ISBN 354063181X
  • Heinz W. Cat Meier: Bases of the robotics, Elektor publishing house 2004, ISBN 3895761478
  • Alois Knoll, Thomas's Christian all: Robotics, Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 2003, ISBN 3596155525

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