the Rocky Mountains [ˌɹɑːkiˈmaʊntənz] („rock mountains “), colloquially also Rockies mentioned, are an expanded Faltengebirge in the western North America, in which also some volcanos are. The rocky mountains extenditself depending upon definition over 4500-5000 km of Mexico, by the continental United States until Canada and Alaska. They consist of the actual Rocky Mountains in Canada and in the US Federal States Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado and new Mexico, as well as from different mountain chains in Alaska - among other things the Alaska chain, the Brookskette and the Eliaskette - and the Columbia Mountains at the Canadian Pacific coast. Also the Sierra Madre Occidental becomes partial and Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico and the adjacent USA to it-counted, isolates the Sierra Volcánica transverse and Sierra Madre del Sur in southern Mexico. To the Rockies the Coast Mountains, the cascade chain and the Sierra Nevada does not count.The highest mountain is followed Mount McKinley in Alaska with 6194 m over NN, of the Mount Logan in Canada with 6050 M. Mount Elbert is with 4399 m the highest mountain of the actual Rockies.
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geology and Geografie
Already 600-700 million years ago in North America enormous mountains had developed,however in the following 400 million years due to erosions, influences of the weather and seas were almost completely again cleared away. Only some Gesteinsmassen in the south still come from that time.
The today's Rocky Mountains developed mostly during ofGeologist Laramidi Orogenese period mentioned, which began approximately 70 million years ago and 30 million year ago ended. After the mountains were about as high as the Himalaya today, parts in northwest America began themselves to stretch and large parts inSouthwest of the mountain high level applied in mountain chains, Hochebenen and valleys. This area is called today the Basin and rank Province.
The Rockies existsmostly from metamorphic and magmatischem rock. At the edges of the southern Rockies also younger sedimentary rock is to be found and in the San Juan Mountains and in other areas occasionally vulkanogenes rock from the Tertiary period.
The width(East west expansion) of the mountain ranges varies strongly. The Rockies is broadest in the US Federal State Colorado at 500-600 km. From the Yellowstone area northward they split up themselves into several mountain ranges, with partial small widths of 50-120 km.
On the average are thoseRocky Mountains 2000-3000 meters highly. The highest mountains of the Rockies are in the north. North from the Glacier national park they are increasingly vergletschert. Likewise in the northern half are partly expanded Hochebenen - the largest is the large basin -by parallel running mountain courses to be limited. In the south the mountains are rather round as pointed.
along the Rockies runs the North American Wasserscheide (Continental Divide). The rivers, which rise in the Rocky Mountains, flow finally into three to five oceans of the world: the Atlantic ocean, the Pacific ocean and the Arctic ocean. The 2444 meters high tripolarizes Divide peak in the Glacier national park empties itself into all three seas.
Into the Rocky Mountains rise the essentially following rivers:
in the Rocky Mountains prevails often to west wind, that the clouds of the Pacific up floats and it at the Rockiesand to empty leaves to back-ups. This entails precipitation for the Pacific coast above average much and for the Plains lying behind dryness. The weather in the Rocky Mountains is accordingly usually cloud-covered. An exception represents the Yellowstone area, where it toofair weather periods lasting for weeks to come knows.
The climate of the Rocky Mountains is typical for the mountain country. The average temperature amounts to approximately 6° C. With 28° C July is the hottest month, January with minus 14° C the coldest. The yearly precipitation lieswith roughly 36 cm.
The summers in the Rockies are with 15° C and 15 cm precipitation warm and drying. In July it gewittert during on the average 18 hours. Particularly in August the thunderstorms often lead to Waldbränden.
The winter is on the other hand very coldly and wet with minus 2° C and 29 cm precipitation. Snow layers of five to six meters are not rarity; in the north they can amount to 15-18 meters. However occasionally warm air masses penetrate from the Pacific into in the winterInterior. This wind is called Chinook and can cause sudden temperature rises of 20-25° C.
the vegetation of the Rockies can be divided into several elevatorspecific stages. First the twoStages are coined/shaped by sandigen soils and precipitation of approx. 500 mm. There are hardly dense forests, instead isolated trees with strong Unterwuchs. The lowest stage on 1500-2200 meters over NN becomes of different Wacholder - (Utah and Einsamiger Wacholder) and pine species (Colorado Kiefer, Küstenkiefer) dominates, the following stage up to 2700 meters over NN von yellow Kiefern and Gambel Oak. Between 1800 and 2400 meters over NN one in addition frequently Subalpine find larches .
Starting from thatthird stage (2700-3200 meters over NN) the tree existence become closer and the Unterwuchs decrease. Therefore the northern, higher Rockies is clearly more closely wooded than the southern, which often bewachsen up to the crest with grass is. The precipitation on thisStage is approximately larger around half than on the two lower. Here douglas firs are frequent to find American Espen and Colorado firs.
The fourth stage reaches up to the timber line on approximately 3800 meters over NN. The there trees growless strongly into the height and the forests step apart. The most frequent tree species on this stage are the angel man, blue and white spruces, rock firs as well as Nevada and Grannenkiefern.
On the last stage, kleinwüchsige plants grow the alpine tundralike bushes, shrubs, flowers and grasses. Kinds of pasture (for example arctic pastures ) are to be seen particularly frequent here. With the Stauden dominate cock foot (Ranunculus adoneus), occupation herbs (Erigeron simplex), robbery rubber strip plants (Eritrichum of aretioides) and thick sheet plants (Rhodiola integrifolia); with the grasses alps Rispengras and lawn Schmiele.
human history since the last large ice age - peoples the Rockies. At present the conquest of North America by European Kolonisten among other things the Absarokee , Arapaho lived, Bannock, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Flathead, Inde (Apachen), Lakota, Shoshone and Ute occasionally or permanently in the Rockies or the intermediate Hochebenen. Many of these peoples pulled in the autumn and winter into the levels, over from Bisonsand for other large game to live and in spring and summer into the mountains, where they caught fish, game and berries and roots hunted collected.
starting from 1720 penetrated the first white falling plates, hunters and Mineraliensucher into thoseRocky Mountains. Soon the mountains were well-known as rich fur area. Fur fur companyfur companies like the Hudson's Bay company and the North west company in Canada as well as the American for company and the Missouri for company (later: Rocky Mountains for company) into the USA fought erbissen for the supremacy in the Rockies. To the earliest white ones, which visited the Rockies counted William Henry Ashley, Jim Bridger, kit Carson, John Colter, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Andrew Henry, Jedediah Smith and David Thompson. 1793 crossed Alexander Mackenzie of the Hudson's Bay company as first white the Rocky Mountains. Its route led from away the Chipewyan across the Peace and drill River into the area of the today's Vancouver. The Lewis and Clark expeditionthe first scientific Forschungsreise was from 1804-06 over the mountains. Botaniker, zoologists, geologists and other specialists collected first data over the Rocky Mountains. The expedition was prelude of the conquest of the west of North America. To 24. July 1832 led Benjamin Bonnevillethe first car course over the Rocky Mountains, by using Wyomings south passport.
1847 began themselves to establish the Mormonen with the large salt lake. 1858 were found in Colorado gold. In the consequence the white ones opened the area, built a transkontinentale railway andopened with the Yellowstone the first national park of the world. Ever more white settlers established themselves in the valleys and mine cities and displaced the indianischen peoples in reservations. Toward end 19. Century became further areas in the Rockiesposed under protection. The US Government defined mine, timber economy, agricultures and recovery zones. From Camps and tent places became Forts and farms and in the long run Dörfe and cities.
tourism and industry
in the Rocky Mountains valuable Minerialen became such as lead, gold, Copper, molybdenum, silver, tungsten and zinc found. In addition the intermediate Hochebenen contain coal, natural gas, oil and oil shale.
The Climax mine close Leadville, Colorado was over 100 years (1879-1986) long the world largest manufacturer of molybdenum.Molybdenum is used as heat-resistant steel for example in cars and airplanes. The mine in Climax busy once over 3.000 workers. The Coeur d'Alene mine in north Idaho promotes silver, lead, and zinc. Of Canada largest coal mines are in the Crowsnest Coal Field in the proximityfrom Sparwood and Elkford in British Columbia, beyond that there are coal mines close Hinton in Alberta.
The exploitation of Bodenschätzen led in the Rocky Mountains in many places to contaminated and dirty waters and soils.
with on the average fourInhabitants per square kilometer the population density of the Rocky Mountains is rather low and it gives only few cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants. It concerns nevertheless with the mountains a popular vacation goal for humans, who enjoy either the landscapeor sportily to work would like. Several millions tourists travel annually to the Rockys. In the summer the most popular attractions are in the USA Pikes peak, Royal Gorge, Rocky Mountain national park, Yellowstone national park, Grand Teton national park and the Glacier national park and in Canada Waterton Lakes national park, Banff national park, Jasper national park, Yoho national park, Kootenay national park, Mount Revelstoke national park and Glacier national park as well as the Mount Robson Provinzpark. Mount Revelstoke national park and Glacier national park lie west the actual Rocky Mountains in the Columbia Mountains, separately by the broad Rocky Mountain Trench, which of the Columbia Riverone flows through. In the winter against it Skisport is the most important point of attraction. The most important skiing areas are Aspen, Vail, key clay/tone, Breckenridge, and copilot by Mountain in Colorado; Alta, Park town center and Snowbird in Utah; Sun Valley in Idaho; Bend Mountain and bend Sky in Montana; Lake Louise and Sunshine many situation in Alberta and Fernie in British Columbia.
- large Atlas of all countries:America, 1986, Uitgeverij Het Spectrum BV
- Urs W.D. Tell et. aluminium: Rocky Mountains, Avanti publishing house, new castle, 1975
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