Raw material

of these articles describes raw materials in the actual sense, for further meanings of the term sees raw material (term clarifying).

Raw materials all naturally occurring materials are called, which serve as media and still experienced no direct treatment.

Table of contents

occurrences

raw materials comingeither from living nature (agricultural products, wood - regenerating raw material) or from the earth's crust (for example ores), by the earth's surface, or from the sea are won. Places, at which raw materials enriched themselves, are called stores. Of them Worthy of exploitationness is determined by different factors, e.g. the quantity, quality or situation of the raw material.

historical development

the oldest articles manufactured or, which survived until today, worked on by humans, are a block factory witness. In the Steinzeit one finds thatTrade with desired stone places, which were suitable for the production of block factory witnesses. If the existing Artifakten from animated nature is not completely so old, that is possibly simply because of the fact that bones, wood and vegetable fibers are simply not so steady howStones.

The beginning of the permanence accompanied with the development of the pottery and the extractive metallurgy - and processing (bronze, silver, gold, copper, tin, iron). Salt was likewise won to larger extent.

Since that industriellen revolution and with increasing knowledge in geology and chemistry were discovered and used ever more raw materials. A weighty role plays thereby in the meantime the materials engineering, whose results permit constant optimizations and new developments.

organization

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Agrarian raw materials

for this count all raw materials, which are produced in natural way by animals and plants. There is regenerating raw materials, i.e. although they are not available for an unlimited period, they form constantly again. Into this group various food countsand luxuries such as fruit, vegetable, meat, leather or grain, in addition, e.g. Wood or Raps (as basis for fuels).

air/water

air and water is not only basis of all life upthe earth, but also as raw materials irreplaceably. They serve as basic materials for chemical reactions or as cooling agents are used.

Although both raw materials are only limited present, this lack before all becomes apparent with water. In certain regions of the earth howin the Near East or in Africa is not so easily available this, where an enormous conflict potential puts. Increasing water and air pollution of scarce these raw materials additionally.

mineral raw materials

by this count all inorganic raw materials, those as a component of the Edkrusteor the Earth's mantle in nature occur. There are three groups of mineral raw materials.

rocks/sediments

as rocks or sediments e.g. become. Clay/tone, sand, gravel, graphite, asbestos and diamond mark. They are forwardseverything in the high - and foundation engineering quantitatively important.

salts

of salts such as potash, phosphates or rock salt are used frequently in food industry and the chemical industry.

metallic ores

of Metallerze are the most important mineral raw materials. Iron, aluminum and steel (as product of iron and Stahlveredelern) form the basic raw materials of the machine, ship and automotive manufacture. Precious metals such as gold, silver or platinum are not crucial only for the decoration industry, but form together with silicon the basisthe Elektoindustrie and electronics. From uranium in nuclear power stations energy is produced.

fossil raw materials

fossil raw materials are all raw materials come out from organic material. For this count coal, oil and natural gas. They serve as fuel and diesel oil inPower stations, vehicles and airplanes and as raw material for the chemical industry.

availability of raw materials

raw material is not for an unlimited period missing. The growth of the Bevölkung and a rising standard of living as well as carefree handling raw materials (waste-oriented society) leadto a zunehmehmeden scarcity of raw materials. This becomes particularly clear with the fossil raw materials such as oil. Effects show up in prices of raw materials, already rising, as well as in increasing conflicts around these. The problem is Recyclebarkeit also limited, then e.g. becomes. Zincon galvanized metal parts by environmental influences slowly however surely in finest form absent-minded, similar to platinum in autocatalysts as the finest powder to the environment one transfers (general entropy increase) and cannot any longer meaningfully and economically be recyclen. Those today admitted high-gradeRaw material occurrences have a very much limited range of less than 100 years. A way out could theoretically a dismantling of raw materials in space or recuperation of the raw materials from at present not economical sources, like e.g. Sea water, its. Over the consequences of a world-wide andcan be so far only speculated to general scarcity of resources, however similar effects are expected as during the oil crisis, which economic stagnation and obligation restrictions of the population (e.g. Sundays driving ban) pulled.

see also

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