|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Rome (term clarifying).|
|Coat of arms||map|
|region:||Latium (lat.)/Lazio (it.)|
|surface:||1.285, 306 km ²|
|population density:||1,987 Einwohner/km ²|
|height:||37 m and. NN|
|preselections:||0039 (Italy) - 06 (city)|
|geographical situation:|| |
Coordinates: 41° 53 ' n. Break; 12° 29 ' o. L.41° 53 ' n. Break; 12° 29 ' o. L.
|City arrangement:||19 Munizipien, 155 city ranges|
|mayor||Walter Veltroni (conditions: 2004)|
Rome (Italian: Roma) is a large city with 2.553.873 inhabitants on the banks of the river Tiber. It is called also “the eternal city”. In the province Rome live3.807.992 humans, in the closer dye 3.615.972 (conditions in each case 31. December 2004).
Within the city the independent state of the Vatikanstadt forms an enclave. The Vatikan is the seat of the Pope, the bishop von Rom and head of the Roman-catholic church.
In addition Rome is also thatSeat of the Malteser of knight medal, which is its own, however non-governmental international law subject. Thus Rome can be considered as repeated capital.
The old part of town of Rome, which became Peter cathedral and the Vatikanstadt avowedly of the UNESCO in the year 1980 as the world cultural heritage. In addition is Rome the seat of the UN-organizations FAO, IFAD and WFP.
Table of contents
Rome lies in the center of the country, at the Tiber, nearby the Tyrrheni sea of on the average 37 meters over the sea level. In the east of Rome the Abruzzen is, in the northeastthe Sabiner of mountains and in the south the Albanians of mountains.
Rome lies in the Tiberebene, in which Tiber and Aniene before the city unite briefly. The geographical coordinates are 41.53 degrees northern latitude and 12.29 degrees of eastern length. Thosefurther environment is short the Campagna Romana or Campagna.
The province Rome borders in the north on the province Viterbo and the province Rieti, in the east on the province L'Aquila in the region Abruzzen, as well as in the souththe province Frosinone and the province Latina.
Rome is divided into 19 Munizipien and 155 city ranges. The Munizipien is urban districts, which were introduced to the easier governing barness of the city at the beginning of the 1990er years.There was original 20 municipi, but the Municipio XIV is 1992 expenditure my December and today as city Fiumicino well-known. The urban districts are:
- AREA north Est (range north-east): Municipi I, III, V and XVII
- AREA north Ovest (northwest): Municipi II, IV, XVI,XVIII, XIX and XX
- AREA south Ovest (southwest): Municipi XII, XIII and XV
- AREA south Est (southeast): Municipi VI, VII, VIII, IX, X and XI
the climate of Rome is coined/shaped of its mediterranen situation. ThoseAnnual average temperature amounts to 15.5 degrees Celsius and the annual amount of precipitation of 880 millimeters on the average.
The warmest months are July and August with on the average 24.5 to 24.7 degrees Celsius and driest likewise July and August with 14 to 22 millimeters precipitationon the average.
The largest precipitation is to be registered from October to Decembers with on the average 106 to 128 millimeters. The coldest month is January with 6,9 degrees Celsius on the average.
after the establishment legend became Rometo 21. April 753 v. Chr. of Romulus based. Romulus killed later its twin brother Remus . The twins were after the legend the children Mars with the Vestalin Rhea Silvia. They are suspended on the Tiber, of oneWölfin sucked and then drawn up by the Hirten Faustulus at the Velabrum below the Palatin found and.
The Gründungsdatum of Rome is the beginning of the time scale of the Roman calendar, lat. off urbe condita, shortened a.u.c., German „of thatEstablishment of the city (Rome) on “. Excavations on the Palatin actually found settlement remainders from the time around 1000 before Christ.
King time and Republic of
the summary of individual settlements to a community could itself in the opinion thatHistorians actually around the legendary Gründungsdatum occurred. The proverbial seven hills of Rome are:Palatin, Aventin, Kapitol, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquilin and Caelius (also Caelian (US)).
At the beginning of its history Rome was a kingdom, asfirst Etruskerkönig becomes Tarquinius Priscus (616 to 578 v. Chr.) mentioned. After driving the last etruskischen king Tarquinius out superbus - alleged in the year 509 v. Chr. - became Rome a republic - although this probably only around 475v. Chr. happened. The future was characterized by condition fights between the without rights, although free Plebejern and the noble Patriziern. Rome began now to attach the surrounding areas.
Although itself Rome 390 v. Chr. an invasion of the Celts hardly erwehren could,nevertheless constantly expanded the city. To the protection from further encroachments the Serviani wall was established. 312 v. Chr. the building of the first aquaduct as well as the building of the via Appia followed. For the expansion of Rome in particular also the Puni wars carried (264 - 146 v. Chr.).
After the brothers Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Sempronius Gracchus, which had tried to implement Landreformen were murdered, it came to a phase of the instability, which found its high point in civil wars. Gaius IuliusCaesar interspersed a set of reforms as a dictator, became however 44 v. Chr. murdered. At this time the forum Romanum already reached building density, which made an expansion of the area necessary. For this reason Caesar began with the buildingforum the Iulium.
in the 1. Century v. Chr. Rome was probably already a town with millions of inhabitants and both geographical and political center of the Roman realm. It had a well developed road system a functioning freshness and sewage system,functioning population protection units (Vigiles) which as a fire-brigade with police powers their service provided. Nevertheless the development of Rome, which under Caesars inheritance emperor Augustus had been particularly forced, was back-thrown by a large fire under Nero in the year 64 temporarily.
Underthe rule of the Flavi dynasty (69 - 96 n. Chr.) began extensive building activities. To these new buildings the most famous architectural monuments belong, like the Kolosseum and the emperor forums. The last one of these forums became at the beginning 2. Century under Trajanposed. At this time Rome reached the high point of its civilization. Large hot springs as of Caracalla and Diokletian, which even libraries included, had become a firm component of the Roman life. Possessed of the giantism the emperors established ever larger buildings,like the Maxentiusbasilika. Herein the fall of the empire began itself to already draw.
Late ancient times and fall
At the beginning of late ancient times Rome probably achieved its largest total population, lost however soon at political meaning. In 5. and 6.Century came it to disasters, which meant the end of the antique glory of the city: Also in 3. Century established Aureliani wall could not prevent that Rome during the people migration 410 of the Westgoten, 455 of the Vandalen and 472 one geplündert by the Burgundern.
After the formal fall of the westRoman realm in the year 476 well-known urban mechanisms were maintained like the Diokletiansthermen and the Kolosseum first and despite sinking numbers of inhabitants continued to exist the antique life away. Prokopios heldfirmly that the buildings of the city were held during the rule of the Ostgoten. Around 530 still about 100,000 humans in Rome lived. The actual civilization disaster was the Gotenkrieg with the final destruction of nearly all Roman water pipelines through Witichis 537, extinction the antique inheritance retaining senator layer and suspending of several years of the urban life by eastRoman-gothical FE storage fights.
Last late ancient times the building in the city are the 608 established Phokas column. The city escaped only scarcely onecomplete destruction. Rome belonged formally since 554 again to the eastRoman realm, the order functions however in the times of the people migration more and more by the papacy was exercised. Between that 8. and 11. Followed century further FE storages, attacks and plunderingsby Langobarden, Sarazenen and Normannen, so that the city occasionally hardly extended beyond the Tiberufer.
the high Middle Ages and modern times
since beep pin attained Rome, that in the Middle Ages, new meaning counted only about 20,000 inhabitants as capital of the church state (Patrimonium Petri) and as the most important place of pilgrimage of the Christianity beside Jerusalem and Santiago de Compostela. New gloss came in the year 800 into the city, as a Karl the large one by Pope Leo III. to the emperor of the holy Roman realm one crowned.
The grave after the fire of Rome under Nero in the years 64 executed Apostels Paulus as well as innumerable other Reliquien, assumed by the catholic church directly in Rome starting from 1300 in the holy years unusual grace and drains promised to the pilgrims. For this the assumption contributed in the special one that Simon Petrus was to have been executed together with Paulus and buried in Rome. This acceptance is until todayunder historians extremely disputed. Blossoming Rome in the Renaissance was interrupted 1527 by the Sacco di Roma („plundering of Rome “), as the mercenary troops of Karl V. Rome plünderten and devastated.
In Christian time many important buildings developed, for example thosefour Patriarchalbasiliken so mentioned sank Paul before the walls over the grave of the holy Apostels Paulus from that 4. Century, the Lateran, likewise from that 4. Century, of Francesco Borromini barockisiert, Santa Maria Maggiore from that 5. Centuryand above all the Peter cathedral, which originates in the today's form from the Renaissance and the baroque.
In the Renaissance and in the baroque the city a new Gepräge, which is determined mainly by churches, found in addition, from newRoad courses with view axles at Obelisken, palaces and places with wells. In this condition Rome until today remained, why the Roman old part of town beside the Vatikan represents one both to world cultural heritage in the city Romes.
Capital of Italy
after thatEnd of the church state became Rome 1871 the capital new Italy. Under Mussolini the differences between state and church were terminated by the Lateranverträge with the holy chair 1929 and the independent state of the Vatikanstadt was justified. After that 1946 the king the country left the Second World War, and Italy became republic. 1960 found XVII in Rome . Olympic summer games instead of.
the large buildings 20. Century became nearly all in the external quarters like that E.U.R.established, so for instance the Palazzo del Lavoro. In the city center against it construction measures for denkmalpflegerischen reasons are only rarely permitted. At present large excavations within the range of the antique emperor forums take place. In the modern townscape the past still is in many placesto find. So for instance the theatre of the Pompeius at the Campo is de' Fiori from that 1. Century v. Chr., in whose forecourt was accommodated to Cäsars time the Kurie and was probably killed it, still to large parts receive.However in the process of the centuries from the semicircular for the spectators a residential zone became. Today are in it cellars and an underground parking, restaurants and bars, private dwellings and hotel pensions. All rooms have a trapezoidal sketch due to the original semicircular theatre structure.
The renewal of the city often places the Romans in the everyday life before large problems. The building of an enormous underground parking to the year 2000 into a Tuffhügel at the Peter place was disputed already, because the destruction of archaeological remainders was feared. From the same reason becamethe still urgently needed third Metro line until today not built.
Larger problems than the historical city center make the often unpleasant suburbs with their high criminality rate. There 2 was after that. World war often later against a fee approved building nearlyuncontrolled built into the Roman Campagna. While in the city center the churches are to be often hardly still received due to their majority, they were missing in the environment frequently completely. Until today are in the former city „of the hot springs for all “public baths hardly available.
The inhabitants it to afford can, possess a dwelling in one of the often begrünten and carefully maintained inner courts or a small mansion within the city range. Altogether has itself since the choice of the green mayor RutelliBeginning of the 1990er years and under the government of Silvio Berlusconi the situation only little improved.
Under the Pontifikat Pope Johannes Paul II. experienced the city twice never before a people crush been there. In the year 2000 came to the service toWorld youth day two million humans before the gates of the city. At the funeral ceremonies to 8. April 2005 at the Peter place participated 200 state and heads of the government as well as three to four million humans from all world, of those however only 300,000 place, the remaining pursued found the ceremonies on video large screen displays.
- See also: Time board Rome
in the antique one was the Roman mythology with its cults the furthest common religion in the city. Nevertheless were in thisCultural center also all other religions represent. Already very early developed a Christian municipality in the city, which increased despite Christian pursuits rapidly.
Starting from the rule time constant in the large one the Christianity took an upswing in the Roman realm and survived also itsFall. After the city was geplündert several times and destroyed by heidnischen peoples, Rome became generally accepted as center of the church state . Consequently in Rome innumerable churches were established, which accommodate the most important Heiligtümer.
After Rome 1797 conquered by Napoleon Bonapartewas, it was placed after the Viennese congress 1815 again under papal sovereignty. Since Italian national consciousness under the French crew had grown, it came to the war between Italy combined in the meantime and the Pope seat Rome.
The Pope pulled himselfwhereupon into the Vatikan back, which was accepted 1929 in the Lateranverträgen as independent state. Since then Rome, particularly the Vatikan, is large religious center of the Christianity.
of Rome history began about 800 v.Chr.with an alliance of different small villages with few hundred to thousands inhabitants. From then on Rome grew in the next centuries continuously to a megacity, which counted over one million inhabitant. In the course of the shifting of important capital functions after Konstantinopelaround 4. Century as well as the decay of the westRoman realm in 5. Century decreased the population clearly and sank rapidly up to the year 530 on approximately 100.000.
In the early Middle Ages Rome with 20.000 inhabitants was compared with today oneTown. Only with the ascent of the church state Rome flowered again up and could as barrier travel center up to the end 19. Century 230,000 increase its number of inhabitants. Only in 20. Century grew up Rome again to the town with millions of inhabitants, by it inapproximately 100 years increased tenfold its number of inhabitants more than.
The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants after the respective area conditions. Until 1858 it concerns around estimations, from 1861 to 2001 around census results and 2004 an updating of the national institute for statistics(ISTAT).
culture and objects of interest
Rome became the excessive quantity according to in the year 753 v. Chr.on onethe seven hills based. However finds suggest that already 1000 v. Chr.within this range human settlements to have existed must. Particularly the picture of the hill Palatin and the valley lain north is certain by antique buildings. This is to attribute to the fact that the Palatin was in the Kaiser era residence hill of the emperors, while in the valley between the Palatin and the Kapitol the forum Romanum was the center of the urban life in antique Rome.
As city center of Rome the range is consideredwithin the Aureliani wall, in 3. Century around the area of the seven hills Kapitol, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquilin, Caelius, Aventin and Palatin was established. The historical center spreads almost exclusively on the left bankthe Tibers out.
Here are most and largest architectural monuments from the antique one. The Christian buildings however are scattered on both sides of the Tiber. The Vatikanstadt with the far away visible Peter cathedral is however on the right sidethe Tibers. The historical center of Rome, which became Peter cathedral and the Vatikanstadt avowedly of the UNESCO in the year 1980 as the world cultural heritage.
The outside city and the periphery of Rome are in the range outside of the aurelianischen wall. The concentration more antiqueBuildings is here clearly smaller, even if one finds such again and again. One finds however numerous churches, which were established within this range, so for example the Basilika pc. Paul before the walls.
Rome plays a prominent role in the Italian culture life. In the opera house of the city, which ranks among the largest in Italy, opera performances are ordered, which take place in the summer also in the Caracalla hot springs. In addition it gives inRome of about 20 theatres and six concert halls, which offer outside of the summer months a varied program.
In April 2002 in the northern part of the city a concert park was opened; that approximately 50,000 square meters large area covers among other things three concert resounding also700, 1,200 and 2,700 places, which were built after plans of the Genueser architect Renzo Piano.
In the mansion Giulia, the country house Pope Julius II. which in the middle 16. Century was established, is accommodated an outstanding collection to etruskischer and antique Roman art. The art collection of the family Borghese becomes in its palace outearly 17. Century issued. It carries the name Galleria Borghese and consists particularly of paintings and plastics.
In the Museo Nazionale Romano depression of terms sketched by Michelangelo are issued Greek and Roman plastics. The picture gallery is likewise important in Palazzo Doria Pamphili, the Renaissance bronze collection in the Palazzo Venezia and the painting collection in the Palazzo Barberini.
Rome from the Peter cathedral as one of the large culture cities of EuropeMonuments of the time of the Etrusker up to the present, whereby the certifications are rather meager from the time of the etruskischen kings and Roman early history. The inheritances are the more extensive from the epoch of the Roman realm.
They are enoughof the nearly completely received Pantheon (based in the year 27 v. Chr., rebuilt between 118 and 128 n. Chr.), the only received domed structure of the antique ones, up to the impressive Kolosseum (finished placed 80 n. Chr.), the largest Amphitheater of the antique ones,delivering place from Gladiatorenkämpfen and other plays was. Since the year 1999 the Kolosseum serves also as Monument against the death penalty: Every time a state of this world abolishes the death penalty, the Kolosseum is long brightly illuminated 48 hours - whichbut happens only rarely.
In the city one finds beside the antique Stadtmauern Triumphbögen, singular churches and palaces as well as large public places; the forum Romanum and the emperor forums is particularly important, just as the Caracalla hot springs (builds around 217 n.Chr.), which are used today as scenery for the opera performances in the summer, the Katakomben - underground plants branched out far, in those Christian their services celebrated and were bestattet - and the angel castle, those as Mausoleum for the Roman emperor Hadrian and developed in the Middle Ages to a fortress was built.
In 4. Century was built the church San Paolo fuori le mura and again-established after the destruction by a fire in the year 1823. The Basilica San Giovanni in Laterano becamein 4. Century establishes and in 17. and 18. Century essentially rebuilt. From that the 5. Century coming church San Pietro in Vincoli is in 15. Century restored and accommodates the famous Moses - statue of Michelangelo Buonarroti.
Further important buildings are the Piazza Navona with three wells (under it the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi, a Hauptwerk of the Italian sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini), the Piazza del Campidoglio (Kapitolsplatz with a bronze statue of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, in 2. Century n. Chr. finished), the Fontana di Trevi was placed (one baroque - wells from that 18. Century, into which tourists traditionally coins in-thrown and somewhat wish themselves) and the Piazza di Spagna with the famous, from that 18. Centurycoming Spanish stairs, to from that the 15. Century coming church Santa Trinità dei Monti drove up.
Further objects of interest of Christian Rome are scattered over the entire city. The Christian center forms here the not accessible state of the Vatikanstadt with the Peter cathedral. Further large churches like the Lateranbasilika, Santa Maria Maggiore, sank Paul before the walls are within the city. Most churches are equipped particularly splendid and contain works of art of inestimable importance.
Objects of interest of themodern Rome are rather in the outside districts of the city, like for example buildings for the olympic summer games 1960, sketched from jetty Luigi Nervi, one of the prominent Italian architects 20. Century, in addition, honour painter andMultistoried buildings. Are distributed over the whole city numerous further architectural monuments, places, well and Obelisken, which were created by large artists and verziert splendidly. In the west of the city developed 1972 - 1982 with the residential complex Corviale the longest multistoried building of Europe.
a zoo-logical garden, the Bioparco Rome possesses park Rome.
in the city gives it with that to 1927 created AS Rome and in the year 1900 created Lazio Rome two national and internationally meaning soccer associations. Both associations carry their Heimspiele in 85.000 spectators the seizing olympia stadium out.
As Rome became three times Italian football master, seven times Italian football Cup winner and won once (1961) the UEFA cup. Lazio Rome became twice master, four times Cup winners and won once (1999) the European Cup of the Cup winners.
the culinary offer in Rome is very varied and is enough from excellent kitchen of the most famous cooksinternational levels up to the typically Roman kitchen with their variety; from the Jewish kitchen to the preparation of shellfish over specialities from Latium up to excellent fish courts.
Typical courts of the Roman kitchen are „coda alla vaccinara “, tailsyoung cattle in wine with tomatoes and Pfefferschoten, „pajata “, calf stomach with tomato sauce, „abbacchio alla scottadito “(Milchlammkotteletts), or „trippa alla romana “(Kutteln in tomato Minzsosse), those with the time and today true specialities were cooked were ever continued to refineare. Also the Supplì aluminium Telefono, frittierte Reisklös is tasty filled with Mozzarella, filled Zucchiniblüten and “abrupt-rushes”, roasted slices of bread with oil and garlic or also in many other variants, for example with tomatoes. A further Roman speciality are differentKinds of preparing of young artichokes, for example “alla Romana” with garlic and Minze in the furnace or fritiert “alla Giudia” gedünstet, and from the Jewish-Roman kitchen the popular “Baccalà” comes, frittierte Kabeljaufilets, which are often eaten as Snack occasionally.
Also two of the most famousNoodle courts come made of Rome, “bucatini (thicker Spaghetti with a hole) all'amatriciana”, with belly bacon in the tomato sauce, and “spaghetti alla the carbon era”, those the legend to in the crew time for American soldiers as replacement for their typical breakfast with baconand egg were invented.
The traditional restaurants of the city with genuine Roman specialities are predominantly in Testaccio approximately around the earlier slaughterhouse. Under the popular restaurants surely an honour place is entitled to the Pizzerien. They are over the whole citydistributed, but the largest offer at Pizzerien with wood furnace probably offers to Trastevere. Recommendable is here the famous flat Roman Pizzen with the knusprigen edge.
economics and infrastructure
Rome are since that 2. World war thatmost important economic situation in Italy. Its economics is based on the national administration, as well as the tourism. Besides other service industries completely particularly dominate, like the retail trade.
As industrial site Rome produces above all the traditional industrial products textiles and souvenirs for tourists, as well as thosenewer products such as food, pharmaceutical products, machines, paper - and metal goods. Besides Rome is because of the climate and the Monumente also for the film industry an important location.
The head offices of numerous international enterprises and organizations have their seatin Rome. For this count among other things the nourishing and agriculture organisation of the United Nations (FAO), the international fund for agricultural development (IFAD), the world nourishing advice (WFC) and the world nourishing program (WFP).
Rome has two international airports, Fiumicino (Leonardo da Vinci) and Ciampino (G.B. Pastine). The international airport of Leonardo da Vinci which was because of the coast is one of the geschäftigsten airports of the world.
As central junction of the ItalianRailway system has Rome the stations Roma Tiburtina, Roma Ostiense, Roma Tuscolana, Roma Trastevere, Roma San Pietro, as well as the main station Roma terms. With the start-up of the new high-speed railroad line after Neapel in this year and the imminent development of the stationTiburtina will not start courses, which drive through Rome only as passage station, for no more the main station terms.
Rome has a well developed, but only chaotically functioning ÖPNV - system, consisting of penalties, Tram and underground. While the whole city bySystem from express and city penalties is quite well opened, is only moderately developed the underground system with the lines A and B and in the rush hours perfectly overloaded, there a damage of many historical buildings and plants by the building of the tunnelsone fears. The first distance section of the Metro became to 9. February 1955 between terms and Laurentina inaugurated. Today it drives on two lines with a length from 41 kilometers. An extension of the line B and a new line C are in building.
After between that 8. January 1937 and that 2. July 1972 already once trolley buses in Rome, became the system drove after an interruption of 33 years to 23. March 2005 again imported. The streetcar of Rome took to 2. August 1877 the enterprise up. It wrongly on a 84 kilometers long route network.
The roads of Rome are notoriously clogged. Also the ring motorway GRA (Grande Raccordo Anulare) cannot prevent the daily collapse. The city center is considered as “traffic-calmed down zone” (ZTL).That is, private cars may drive on it during the day between 6 and 18 o'clock only with a special special permission. Also the two quarters Trastevere and San Lorenzo were traffic-calmed down, these however in the evening hours. However a generous practice of the special permissions has thatEffect waters.
- daily papers: La Repubblica, IL Messaggero, IL speed, Corriere dello sport (sport newspaper).
- Fernseh-/Radiosender: RAI TV, radio Vatikan
Rome has three national universities: The Universitá degli study di Roma La Sapienza is one of the oldest universities of Europe (establishment:1303) and with 147.000 students the largest university of Europe. The two other universities are the gate Vergata and Roma Tre. Besides several catholic universities exist as mechanisms of the holy chair and/or. individuallyreligious medal.
In addition Rome is the seat of the academy of the beautiful arts, the national academy for dance, the national academy for dramatic art, the music conservatoire and the Central Institute for the restoration of works of art.
sons and daughters of the city
- Jansen, D. /Poeschel, S.: Rome. Munich, 1990.
- Gregorovius, F.: History of the city Rome in the Middle Ages of V. to XVI.Century. Munich, 1988.
- New master, C.: Antique Rome. - A literary city leader. Munich, 1991.
- Coarelli, F.: Rome. - An archaeological leader. Freiburg, 1989.
- Titus Livius: Off urbe condita. Rome, starting from 27 v.Chr.
- Kolb, franc: Rome - history of the city inthe antique ones. Munich 1995
- Clemens Bombeck: “Also they coined/shaped Rome. At the graves of the holy ones and blessed ones in the eternal city ", publishing house fast & Steiner Regensburg 2004, ISBN of 3795416914
- novel Holiday (a heartand a crown), direction:William Wyler, 1953
- La dolce vita (dto.), direction: Federico Fellini, 1960
- Roma (Fellinis Roma), direction: Federico Fellini, 1972
- Caro diario (dear diary), direction: Nanni Moretti, 1991
- Gente di Roma, Regie: Ettore Scola, 2003
- Roma, città aperta (Rome, open city), direction: Roberto Rossellini, 1945
- Sabrina of goes ton of Rome (Sabrina verhext in Rome), 1998 direction: Tibor Tákacs
- The Lizzie McGuire Movie (Popstar on detours), 2003 with Hilary Duff
- Fallen in love with Rome (with Mary Kate and Ashley Olsen 2002)
this list is incomplete.
|To Paris, France since 1956|
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|Commons: Rome - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Rome - word origin, synonyms and translations|
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Web on the left of
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- KIRKE: Rome in the WorldWideWeb
- those-Roman-on-line: Antique Rome and its buildings
- detailed report on a journeywith Insiderinformationen
- Roman history in annalistischer representation
- 3 days in Rome recommendations for city round courses
- Viaggiare Web S.r.l information
- panorama OF Rome by Satellite
- antique Rome - history and buildings
- Interactive high quality filling screen QTVR of panorama - with broadband (English)
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- Stanford digitally Forma Urbis Romae Project - city plan of Rome at the beginning of the 3. Jhdts (English)
- travel guide Rome
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