Romain roll and

Romain roll and (* 29. January 1866 in Clamecy (Nièvre); † 30. December 1944 in Vézelay) was a French writer. It was distinguished 1916 as a third Frenchman with the Nobelpreis for literature.

life and work

roll and were sona notary and a good-civil education received. With eleven it began to write. Besides it became enthusiastic under guidance of its very musical nut/mother early for music. 1880 sold the father its practice, and the family pulled to the boy to Paris, around better preparation possibilitiesto provide for the entrance examination (concours) to the École normal Supérieure (ENS), the French elite school for the teaching profession fan at High Schools. Roll and, which had visited up to then the catholic High School of its homeland small town, changed now to the Lycée Saint Louis and 1882 to the tradition High School edge of Louis putting, where ititself among other things with Paul Claudel got used to. 1886 it was accepted to the ENS and studied there until 1889 literature and history.

After distribution of the conclusion exam (licence) and successfully completed attitude examination (agrégation) for the office of a Gymnasialprofessors for history it left itselfgive time off immediately and went for two years (1889-91) as a scholarship holder to the Ecole française to Rome, in order to collect there material for a music-historical doctor work (thèse) over the history of the opera before Lulli and Scarlatti. In Rome operated it, which already longer Wagner - fan was,in the salon of the daring pleasing DIN Malwida of Meysenbug, which carried it forward to an attendance in Bayreuth. Its most important additional job in the Roman years was the history of art, but wrote it also, like always: e.g. Considerations to one „novel musical “(1890) and first dramas (1890/91), howeverremained ungedruckt.

Back in Paris it accepted 1892 a partial time place at the tradition High School Henri IV and married. After it had locked 1895 its Thèse and had completed the pertinent examination (soutenance), it could be delegated as a lecturer in history of art to the ENS and later (1904) than lecturershift for music history to the Sorbonne. Its childless marriage remained became 1901 divorced.

In all these years before the First World War roll and undertook many, partly longer education journeys by west and Central Europe, spent often mehrmonatige work vacation in Switzerland and wrote: Telling, Essayisti, music and art-historicalas well as much biographic, e.g. Biografien Beethovens, me long lot or Tolstois (printed in each case 1903, 1906, 1911).

The numerous dramas, which it likewise wrote, remained further long time unpubliziert and/or. ungespielt. The first accepted and specified were 1898 Aërt and Les Loups. The latter became firstfrom a drama cycle finally continued over 40 years achtteiligen and, which tries to form a kind Epos of the French revolution. The further pieces (with performance data) are:Danton, 1899; Le Triomphe de la raison, 1899; Le Quatorze Juillet, 1902; Le Jeu de l' amouret de la mort, 1925; Pâques of fleuries, 1926; Les Léonides, 1928; Robespierre, 1939.

1903 began roll and the work, which admits it make should: the 10-restrained „novel fleuve “ Jean Christophe (printed 1904-12). Title hero is (fictitious) a German composer Johann Christoph Krafft, thathowever as a young man to France arrived, with the help of a French friend assimilated and in such a way in his music quasi it the innate „German energy “with „French spirit “to connect themselves there and improve knows. The Jean Christophe was a large success became after 1918 also of thatnot at all so few frankophilen Germans estimated, which had the gossip of the French-German hereditary enmity fullly and on communication between both peoples set.

In October. 1910 were started roll and in Paris by a car and suffered injuries, which made it serve unable for several months. ThatAccident was not indifferent at its resolution to give its Professur up and free writer become (1912).

1913/14 he wrote Colas Breugnon, a shorter historical novel in form (fictitious) of a diary from the years 1616/17 (printed only 1919).

The First World War surprised it in thatSwitzerland. It remained, engaged themselves with the red cross and published in the journal de Genève the war-critical series of articles outer-dessus de la mêlée, with which it tried to in-work „standing over the Schlachtgetümmel “, both to France (where one defamed it because of allegedly unpatriotischer attitude however) andto Germany (where one hardly heard it). After it had appeared 1915 in Paris as book, the series of articles in the second war half found larger spreading. It was translated now rapidly into several European languages - not into German - and had beside the Jean Christophe largePortion of the fact that roll and was selected 1916 for an additional assignment of the Nobelpreises of 1915.

After the war (1919) it initiated the group of Clarté , a peace movement of left intellectual with magazine of the same name with Henri bar penalty. (1923) he became joint founder the magazine Europe somewhat later,itself especially. for a communication between France and Germany began. Also the novel Clérambault, histoire D' une conscience libre counterpart la guerre (1920) is expression of its transnational Pazifismus.

Beginning of the 20's took roll and, apart from an extensive journalistic activity, larger novel projectin attack:L' Âme enchantée, whose four parts in three volumes from 1922 to 1933 appeared. The action extends from approx. 1890 to approx. 1930 and tell itself the history of a woman, who accept it to be single nut/mother and so first socially, thenby a left-wing oriented active commitment politically and finally in a mystischen Spiritualität religiously emancipated.

This development reflects those of the author, who had begun to concern itself after the war left engaged and beside it with India and its mental and religious traditions to certain extent(from which among other things 1923 a series of articles over Mahatma Gandhi arose).

Since the Russian October Revolution 1917 sympathized roll and with communism and with that 1920 created portion communiste accordingly français. It did not become hereby one that few per-communist intellectual ones, those the PCF as “compagnons de route” (way comrade)estimated - when to members however gladly missed, because it does not discipline the respective party leadership usually too critical and enough was. Thus it traveled despite attacked health 1935 on invitation from Maxim Gorki to Moscow, where it from Stalin as a representative of the French intellectual ones receivebecame. Starting from 1936, to the year of the Muscovites of looking processes, roll and went however on distance and broke 1939 completely with the Soviet Union Stalins, when this closed its assistance pact with Hitler.

End of the 20's it had turned again to Beethoven and a Monografie put on on five volumesbegun, which in parts of 1928, 1930, 1937 and posthum 1945 appeared finally, but unfinished remained.

1934 married itself roll and with the Russian translator of his works, Maria Kudaschewa, with whom he stood since 1923 in contact.

1937 it pulled itself back after Vézelay (Burgund), where itits old age to spend meant. To the outbreak of war 1939 it went however once more into Switzerland. Here it placed and others its 1924 Autobiografie begun Voyage intérieur finished (gedr. 1942). Back in Vézelay he became still a witness of the release of France from German occupation.

Afterits death appeared its extensive and various correspondence as well as its diaries.

Today roll and, despite its fame in 20's, 30's and 40's years, hardly more read, not last probably, because the educated civil readership, for which it wrote, does not exist practically any longer.

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