The Red Army
the red worker and farmer army (Russian Рабоче КрестьянскаяКраснаяАрмия, Rabotsche Krestjanskaja Krasnaja Armija, the briefly Red Army) was the army of the socialist republics. Usually the term designates the armed forces of the Soviet Union between 1918 and 1990. It was developed under the relevant participation Leo defiance gravel by military specialists of the tsarist army in the revolution time. The designation developed in the process of the Russian civil war, when the opponents were called white army.
Of1920-1921 brought out the fights between Soviet red ones and antisoviet white one also an Iranian Red Army in the Persian Soviet republic . Since 1927 a Red Army of the Chinese Soviet republic existed , the 1949 with the establishment to that likewise in China People's Republic of China however in people release army was renamed.
Also in Bavaria there was a Red Army in the year 1919. This had been created of the KPD in connection with the Bavarian revolution and played in the time of the residents of Munich soviet republic one- however only episodeful - role. In the spring 1920 fought besides still another red Ruhr army in the Ruhr district those to it contributed prevent the secession of the Rhine country however likewise attain no greater importance could.
From 1946 to the end of the Soviet Union1991 were called the army of the USSR officially Soviet army (soot. Советскаяармия), but colloquially was called it particularly in the western world further often falsely „the Red Army “.
table of contents
to establishment and structure
the Red Army became by a resolution of the advicethe people's commissars to 15. January (28. January n.d. Julian calendar) 1918 based. It came out from already before the existing red guard . Leo Trotzki, people's commissar for military affairs from 1918 to 1924, saw itself as „a founder “to the Red Army.
Thatlater in the Soviet Union than official day of the Red Army proclaimed holiday to 23. February decreased/went back to the first day, on which 1918 in Petrograd and Moscow soldier were recruited, also to the first day, at that it tooVictories with fights between the Red Army and the troops of the German Reich with Pskow and Narwa came. The holiday important up to the end of the Soviet Union this very day as a day of the defenders of the native country one celebrates.
In the case of its establishment was the Red Army an armyarmy army of ranks (ranks), without badges of rank or special emphasis of individual function carriers. Kommandierende were selected democratically, also the instructions of the officers could by the Untergebenen discussed and if necessary. are rejected. In order to increase the military efficiency, main header Stalin thispseudodemocratic mechanisms however later. There was thereafter the designation of utility positions (see below), from those a kind of ranks developed. To 29. May 1918, in the middle in the civil war after the October Revolution became the compulsory military service for men between18 and 40 years proclaimed.
Since a lack of officers existed particularly in higher command functions, at first on freiwilliger were won basis generals and officers of the tsarist army. Among them were also generals, which befehligt under the Zaren fronts and armieshad or in high staff functions had been active. Examples of it are Brussilow, Bontsch Brujewitsch, Parski, Klembowski, Gutor.
Each unit of the Red Army was assigned a Politkommissar or a Politruk (политическийруководитель, political leader), to that thoseAuthority possessed to waive instructions of commanders who offended against the principles of the CPSU. This decreased on the one hand the military efficiency, guaranteed however on the other hand the political reliability of the army in relation to the party, which considered the party required in view of thatFact that the army was dependent on into the Zarenzeit trained officers.
With introduction of the military service also generals and officers were called up, among them even generals and officers, who had served already briefly in the white army. At the end of the civil warapproximately 50000 former tsarist generals and officers in the Red Army served, from whom approximately 15000 had served before also in the white army. A large majority of the generals and officers provided faithfully their service in the Red Army.
There was a GermanSoviet co-operation between the world wars after Rapallo also in military area to the mutualAdvantage. That concerned above all the Air Force and armor branch, whose possession Germany was forbidden.
Those as an inheritance of the Zarismus of abolished occupation officers were originally introduced 1935 again. Officers with good operational training formed the general staff. End of the 20iger and beginning that30iger years were developed modern theories and the Soviet army had in W.K.Triandafillow, M.N.Tuchaschewski, J.P.Uborewitsch, I.E. Jakir, A.I.Sedjakin, G.S.Isserson, J.I.Alksnis and other outstanding military theoretician and commanders. Became mechanized corps (tanks with motorized Infantrie) as well as air landing troops constructed and in maneuvers becamedeep attack operations experienced. Later one called such a thing blitzkrieg.
During the large Stalin cleanings, particularly in the years 1937 to 1939, a great many higher officers were killed or sent in Gulags, there them than a danger forthe position of power Stalins and above all also of Politoffizieren without sufficient military education as an enemy were regarded. Three of five marshals of the USSR, five of sixteen army commanders, all corps commanders, nearly all commanders of divisions and brigades, about those were arrestedHalf of all regiment commanders.
Particularly the Repressalien are by Lew Sacharowitsch mechanical-read, Jagoda and Jeshow accomplished Grigori Michailowitsch star , Mikhail Petrowitsch Frinowski and the people's commissars of the inside (NKWD) worde.
were utility positions in the Red Armythe following utility positions (see above):
Commander level: Platoon leader, company commander, battalion commander, regiment commander, brigade commander, division commander, corps commander, army commander 2.Ranges, army commander 1.Ranges
Politebene: Politleiter, Oberpolitleiter, battalion commissioner, regiment commissioner, brigade commissioner, division commissioner, corps commissioner
were lent there these utility positions as title also officers in higher staffs, developed from ita kind of ranks (ranks). e.g. the corps commander Tschuikow in the Soviet-Finnish war led an army.
1935/36 military ranks up to the Colonel were introduced. The titles starting from brigade commander as well as all commissioner titles became ranks. The commander service guard 1940 into general ranks, those were convertedCommissioner ranks with the introduction of absolute military individual direction and abolishment of the commissioner functions in October 1942.
after up to then a dualism with a cadre army and military training in a Milizsystem existed,in September 1939 the military service was introduced and the structure of a mass army was tackled. To 22. June 1941, the day of the German attack on the Soviet Union, covered the Red Army about 4.7 million soldier, from those scarcely thoseHalf was stationed in the west . The German attack, on instruction and under strong influence of Hitler on military planning and penetration, pursued the goal, the Soviet Union and the bolshevism within shortest time to destroy and the German „habitat “to expand up to the Urals.
Of well equipped and experienced, although already at the time of the invasion of the Red Army German forces personnel which were subject implemented attack met the Soviet leadership and the badly graduated Red Army completely surprisingly. Even after hoursand even days Stalin believed only in a purposeful provocation, in order to entangle the unprepared Soviet Union into a war with the high-prepared German one Reich.
Stalin assumed that, Hitler did not want a war with the Soviet Union contrary to the German generals.Actually it had turned around. While the army command of the armed forces advised against predominantly due to the size of the Soviet Union of a war against Stalin, Hitler insisted on his before-calm plan to „the campaign Barbarossa “.
for the Red Armymade more difficult the following circumstances the defense: The Soviet armed forces were at this time in „the change “. In the course of the Stalin „cleanings “in the years until 1938, almost the entire higher officer corps, in front the well-known of the marshals, became all andliked M. N. Tuchatschewski, up to which most generals and highest ones, murders.
In addition the consequences of missed estimates forestalled armored units in modern combat, those only briefly after the experiences of the Spain war over the influence of motorized units, in particularunder the impression of German successes during the assaults on polarizing and France, were again corrected. Were some military in the guidance of the Red Army such as G.I.Kulik an obstacle. Besides were many the partial of Stalin personally initiatedNew developments of modern tanks (T-34), airplanes (Jak-1, MiG-3, Il-2) and artillery cannons still in the locking phase. The mass production had begun and only few units was equipped only partly with equivalent munition. To the renewed structurefrom mechanized corps it came only to the experiences of the Soviet-Finnish war, so that at the 22.Juni 1941 too few and fully not equipped armored units were available. Likewise antitank defense was only developed. Those available tanks T-26, BT5 and BT-7corresponded to the German tanks pi, PII and PIII and were far underlaid for the modern PIV. KW and T-34 were present only few.
A defense of the Soviet Union (CSU) against the German aggressors was favoured by the following circumstances: Stalin had already end the 30's to shift leave a majority of the heavy industry behind the Urals so secured against a possible assault and. Beyond that the CSU end of the 30's turned a substantial part of its household, about 50%, for the equipment thatNational defense up, so that the Red Army was more extensively prepared than the French army 1940. Starting from August 1941 the USA supported the Soviet Union by auxiliary supplies.
Into the operational-strategic level the Red Army was divided into fronts, into approximatelycorresponded to the German army groups, but were smaller of the personnel and equipment existence. The fronts consisted of armies, independent corps and special troop units.
June 1941 until December 1941
in the first war weeks lost the army despite resistance nearly each combat, hundredthousands soldiers partly despaired were imprisoned taken, large partsthe equipment were destroyed or captured. From the outset energetic resistance of the Soviet units however already led 1941 also at the armed forces to substantial losses. In December 1941 were nearly all since June 1941 used tanks of the armed forces (inJune 1941 about 3,000) just like the armored vehicles of the Red Army destroys.
The Soviet government changed its strategy in handling the army as reaction to the defeats. Propaganda did not aim any longer at the political dimension of the class warfareseparate off turned to the patriotic feelings of the population, referred positively to before-revolutionary Russian history. The war against the German aggressors was called „Great Patriotic War “, a reference to „the patriotic war“against Napoleon Bonaparte 1812. Traditional Russian heroes such as Alexander new ski and Mikhail Kutusow became an important part of propaganda, Repressionen against the Russian-orthodox church stopped; traditional practice to church segnen weapons before combat became againintroduced. Military individual direction was introduced 1943. From the Politkommissaren deputies for political work of the respective commander medals and medals as in the Zarenzeit were again introduced.
The Red Army was bad to the beginning of war in the summer 1941 one in partstrained and army, which was not able to teach to the powerful and battle-tested federations of the attacking German armed forces defeats equipped with outdated technology, changed in runs the next two years. To autumn 1943 it transformed intoto accomplish one qualitatively and quantitatively clearly superior attack army, which was able to conquer the initiative on the battleground aufwändige offensive operations and also successfully lock these. After the surprising assault first all federations of the Red Army were inthe defensive. Technologically despite high household expenditures for the national defense z. T. badly equipped and with unsuitable strategy and tactics operating, the Red Army registered devastating losses at humans and material particularly in the first war months. In accordance with the front andField hospital reports lost the Soviet armed forces (army, navy and Air Force) in the period 22. June to 31. Decembers 1941 3.137.673 soldiers and officers as pleasures, dying, Vemisste or prisoners and 1.336.147 as wounded one and a patient (without consideration of the losses of the land resistance andPartisans), and also 20,500 tanks and 21,200 airplanes of all types. Fast within a short time the air rule conquered advancing and opponents capable by the good equipment with radios of extensive communication. High-motorized tank units broke through badly defended positions and pushed fastinto the depth forwards, so that the Red Army could not establish a continuous front. Many of the outdated airplanes of the Red Army were already destroyed in the first days at the soil or shot in short aerial engagement. Defending ones and back-yielding units sawitself from the beginning permanent air raids, particularly by psychologically effectively the dive bombers (dive bombers), equipped with sirens, suspended. Misdirected resistance and compromiseless retaining instructions led the raid to catastrophic encircling, which led regularly to the destruction of whole divisions and armies, butthe armed forces nevertheless crucially retarded. Before Moscow the front stabilized only briefly. NKWD Sperrverbände behind the fighting troop and drastic measures, up to public shooting of alleged cowards did a remaining. Taken prisoner Red Army soldiers were considered as traitors. Stalin refusedlater in the first war weeks son Jakow, which later committed suicide in the KZ to exchange against the general field marshal Paulus, catches its.
The Soviet Union transformed in few months into an enormous army and labour camp, in which only one goal applied: ThoseTo supply the Red Army in shortest time with all necessary one for the victory. Food, fuel, tank, airplanes, cannons, soldiers. With this enormous victim readiness Hitler and others had, those after successes of Finland 1939 against the Sowjetion and after the GermanPartial victory against Russia in the First World War had assumed that, the Soviet Union is not counted a Koloss on tönernen feet.
The aggravating resistance at the front and in the hinterland brought itself 1941 in connection with the autumn mud and the cold winterthe attacking armed forces briefly before Moscow for standing. A pro-Soviet German diplomat (Dr. smelling pool of broadcasting corporations concern, in the service of the Soviet NKWD) had communicated Stalin from Tokyo that Japan allied with Germany did not plan attack on the Soviet Union. Consequently Stalin could inThe east for the defense against Japan stationed units to Moscow shift. These led to 5. December 1941 a first successful counter attack, which back-threw the armed forces before Moscow. The Red Army knew however at this time the initiative in the war stilldo not take over, however the armed forces had to be limited 1942 to the attack a strategic direction, the south direction.
The Red Army was equipped now to ever broader extent with modern combat equipment. Stalin the fronts and armies divided in the start timethe few produced tanks, airplanes and cannons still personally too, ensured from the occupied regions again evacuated and in the hinterland or again-established Rüstungsbetriebe for a constantly rising number of modern equipment.
To call is here above all the well-knownmedium T-34, the battle airplane Il-2 and the fighters Jak-9, Jak-3 and La-5/7. Nearly all munitions were cut to the mass production in enormous numbers of items with unskilled workers - under it also a great many women in the hinterland -.On the battlefield their increasing number ensured and always improves control for a gradual change. The crucial instruction No. 227 of the people clerk acre for defense of 28. July 1942 makes Ernst of the situation, in that it for the Soviet Union overnaked surviving went, clearly. The instruction set the demand „no step back “and specified thorough regulations to the receipt and for the penetration of the discipline. It contained among other things the instruction for the list of Strafbataillionen and special units, „directly behindunreliable divisions to begin are and the task have to shoot and to assist with it to the honest fighter with the defense of his homeland in case of an unordered retreat of the divisions lying before them each fleeing and each coward. “
A first attempt to win the military initiative by a large-scale offensive failed in the battle with Charkow (12. - 28. May 1942) due to too weak and for large-scale offensive measures not yet capable forces as well as insufficient reserves and presumption thatHigh-level personnel. The goal of the operation under marshal Timoschenko, with strong tank forces the 6. Army under Paulus to include, failed. The Soviet troops - six armies also over 30 divisions and brigades -, advanced far, became now for their part in a pliers movementby German federations enclosed and in a boiler battle completely reamed. Desperate attempts to escape failed, several hundredthousand Soviet soldiers were killed or went into shank. The force advantage at the entire front was at this time still on sides of the armed forces,now on instruction of Hitler two large-scale offensive ones toward the southern oil fields with Baku, the Caucasus and Stalingrads began. It shifted however - also due to the shifting of a part of the German troops to North Africa and thatrising US-American material support - further toward the Soviet armed forces.
after encircling and destruction of the 6. Army in Stalingrad and the following Charkower operation attained the Red Army 1943 ever more the initiative and wentto extensive attack operations over. The consciousness of the own Kraft and the motivation rose. Hero acts were extensively celebrated by Soviet propaganda at front and in the hinterland. Excellent soldier and officers received also material advantages, higher food dispatchings or even front vacation.Parallel taking place restructuring and the rising qualification of commanders and crews, who learned from errors and defeats, provided for the necessary impact force. Newly created tank and air armies, as well as the rising mobility by motorized units, permitted force concentration at crucial points of theBattlefield, so that the armed forces were pushed ever more strongly into the defensive. After the last, of the Red Army stopped attack operation with Kursk (enterprise citadel, about 0.5 millions dead ones on both sides) in the summer 1943 Hitler could do thosemilitary initiative no longer actually tear.
Forced due to the strategy of Hitler („stops at any price “) to permanent defense in the position warfare, the armed forces could teach high losses to the attacking federations of the Red Army. To a victory against that constantlybetter and more strongly becoming opponent was contrary to illusions, which made themselves some faithful ones of Hitler further, also without the later opening of the second front in the west, no more to be thought. Hitler had already expressed in December according to 1941 discussion minutes,that the war against the Soviet Union no more to win is and already used resources 1943 ago increasingly for the execution of the Holocaust. Starting from September 1943 Hitler shifted for instance a third of the divisions stationed in the Soviet Union afterFrance, around an expected attack of the westallied to before-build with the consequence of a further thinning of the German troops out.
in mirror-image reversal of the situation from the initial days operated the Red Army in the large offensive ones 1944 with that„Blitzkrieg tactics “. Concentrated connecting with high tank density broke through the opposing lines after artillery preparation for hours with thousand cannons and pushed spaciously forward. Following federations encircled rolled over armed forces federations, cities and villages. To 22. June 1944 began the Red Army an offensiveMinsk, which led to encircling the army group center. The army group north was cut off due to penetrating to the west by East Prussia and included completely in the cure country up to the end of war in May 1945. The organized resistance of the strongly fastened and personnellike armed forces which were subject materially, which had to operate at the same time at the west front against superior forces, with safe hinterland and continuous supply of the Red Army so crucially one made more difficult.
in the spring 1945 stood the Red Army before Berlin, in Hungary, Austria and later Czechoslovakia. In the last large offensive, the citizen of Berlin operation, beginning with the battle with the Seelower heights up to the last road fights in Berlin, led under high own losses, lost thoseThe Red Army again 78,291 soldiers as fallen, died, missed or and 274,184 as wounds and ill, before Germany to 8. May unconditionally capitulated.
During the Second World War the Red Army drew in 34 million men, from thoseafter official collections please the Soviet Union 8.668.400, missed or in war shank had died. Estimations of military historians proceed from up to 13 million Red Army soldiers, who died. Further 939,700 soldiers were missed in the course of the war than or imprisonedannounced, but later „alive “found and again into the army drawn in. In addition 1.836.562 Soviet prisoners of war turned after the end of the war back into the homeland. From approximately 5.5 million Soviet soldier, who came into German war shank, came about 3,7Millions by hunger or targeted killing over. From that about 3.5 million armed forces soldier in Soviet shank deceased about 1.5 million.
Into the German army groups, which fought against the Red Army, was also the weapon SS with a personnel strength of approximately 900.000Man at the end of war integrates. Among them also many foreigners as well as freiwillige were prisoners under the former general of the Red Army Wlassow (Wlassow army so mentioned). Due to the race ideology of the national socialists and the subordinated possibility of a front change these came, although Wlassow already1942 a co-operation offered had easily armed, first since 1943 only to small extent and and only since September 1944 to considerable employments. After the bloodily achieved victory over Germany and the income of Berlin 1945 rose the prestige andthe political influence of the Red Army in the Soviet Union immensely. Stalin strove however in the future, considerable commanders, how the successful marshal Schukow to keep away from crucial positions of power.
the Red Army in Finland
as with manyother wars are disputed war causes and debt. Indisputablely is that the Finnish head of state marshal Mannerheim, a former tsarist general, who had struck down 1905/1906 the revolution in Finland gave 1919 of the English of Time an interview, in which it “the release of pc. Petersburgfrom the bolshevism " as a goal of the Finnish policy defined. Of it Finland is also never moved away. Finland supported also terrorists with the penetration into the Soviet Union.
Beginning with an air raid on Helsinki, the guidance of the Soviet Union 1939 instructed the attack up Finland. Finland was official because of the proximity to Leningrad (today pc. Petersburg) and a possible attack from the north judged as danger, actually however probably only by the war in Europe without sufficient protection. Are subject in terms of figures farFinnish army was able itself to defend however successfully in the winter war so mentioned 1939. After a reorganization of the troops of the Red Army on 11-March 1940 the man home line was broken through, with which an advance to Helsinki would have been possible. Thereupon the Finnish askedGovernment under Risto Ryti around peace negotiations. The auxiliary corps for Finland, set up by Great Britain and France, was not used any longer and to the German assault on Norway in the area Narvik was used. Altogether the winter war was a heavily bought victoryfor the Red Army and perhaps apart from the erring faith of a racistic superiority a reason for the Hitler government to underestimate the Soviet Union much while in the CSU thereby numerous modernization and armament measures were seized.
the Red Army inEastern Asia
1939 came it also to a short argument between Japan and the USSR, in which the Red Army began as one of the first armies tanks such as Kavallerie and thus the Japanese troops included and destroying struck. There Hitler tooto the time that Germany Russia could defeat, did he did not believe without an assistance, which arranged Japan to sign a peace agreement with the Soviet Union those again the Soviet Union in the later war against Germany the back kept free (together with thatof the allied ones imposed oil embargo and the ability lacking of the Japanese to build tanks in large quantities). For the end of the Second World War fallow among other things the Kurilen conquered the Soviet Union the present agreement and the Red Army, since that time Zankapfelbetween Japan and Russia are.
the Red Army in Poland
the Red Army occupied 1939 the eastern part of Poland up to the Curzon line, which Poland partially after that Polish-Soviet war had conquered. After Hitler and StalinPoland between the German Reich and the Soviet Union had divided (Hitler Stalin pact).
In the summer 1944 the Polish homeland army decided to re-establish a free nationalistic Vorkriegsstaat Poland to release its capital it wanted and called at the 1. August 1944 inWarsaw to the rebellion against the German crew up. The Red Army had near-fought itself during the rebellion in Warsaw to to the borders and suburbs of the city, was then however not in the situation further forwards to be pushed, there itin the previous offensive (operation Bagration) had been exhausted. On instruction J.W.Stalins were made no further attacks up to the arrival of replenishments and supply.
the Red Army in the Baltic
after the Hitler Stalin pact occupied the Red Armythe three Baltic states, where it deportierte in several waves a large part of the population into Siberian and centralasiatic camps, which equaled a death sentence in many cases.
Ten thousands often tried from fear of the Red Army in few seaworthyTo flee boats to Sweden, whereby many drowned. Others created groups of resistances (partisans) or tried to the Soviet regime to adapt, in order by the Red Army to be pursued.
the Red Army in Germany
thosehistorical evaluation of the Red Army in the time of the Second World War is different: On the one hand the USSR at the side of the other allied ones fought in the anti-Hitler coalition and released many KZ, under it also the KZ Auschwitz Birkenau. On the other hand you becomeForce excesses accused, which are seen of some as revenge for the crimes of the Nazis. Lew Kopelew, which criticized the force excesses as an officer of the Red Army, did not find hearing with its superiors and to ten years camp detention was therefore condemned.Similarly it was issued Alexander Solschenizyn.
Contemporary descriptions report of rapes in substantial number by the Red Army. Estimations over the number vary; the federal center for political education goes on basis from Franz W. Seidler/Alfred M. de Zayas war crime inEurope and in the Near East in 20. Century of at least 2 million German rape victims out.  The guidance of the Red Army tried to contain the problem since June 1945 the punishments from detention reached to the execution. Only by thoseMechanism of the crew government in Berlin could be defused the problem there. Since in the middle of 1947 the Red Army was separated also spatially from the resident population. In March 1949 the presidency of the highest one finally issued a Soviets' decree, which standardized the measure of punishmentand increased. A rape drew compellingly a punishment of 10 to 15 years in the labour camp, heavy cases a punishment of 10 to 20 years.
By the encroachments of the Red Army it came in May 1945 into the min toprobably largest mass self massenselbsttötung of German history. Approximately around 900 inhabitants terminated after the invasion of the Russian army their life.
The topic was always also politically instrumentalisiert, both for the authentication of the anticommunism, and, over in the comparison the acts thatTo play down and relate national socialist. Still before the end of the Second World War „violating German women played “an important role in war propaganda. In the GDR it was not possible to mention the topic in the public.
the strategies and tactics learned in the Second World War coined/shaped and determined up to the end of the cold war and the Soviet Union the military doctrine of the Soviet army. Strong and in terms of figures superior, particularly conventional attack armies equipped with tanks should alsoin the age of the nuclear weapon arsenals by concentrated raids decide the war on the territory of the opponent. The group of the Soviet armed forces in Germany, in the former GDR , had for this purpose several powerful divisions, for the facing NATO - Would connect the potential opponent placed.
The creeping economic and social purge of the Soviet Union, which already in the sixties began, did not make also before armed forces of the Soviet army in principle consisting of people liable for military service stop. The technology was badly waited, thoseCrews and officers, above all the federations in the hinterland, were badly trained. Partly had by soldiers themselves food, z. B. Potatoes, to be cultivated, in order to improve the supply of the troops. Whole troop units were abkommandiert into the socialist economy, around bottlenecks,z. B. in the Kohleförderung or when bringing in the harvest to eliminate.
That Afghanistan - war, in which the Soviet army in hard-to-travel areas saw itself confronted with persistent and partisan tactics for many years, provided for a further moral purge, as well as strong material andpersonnel manifestations of wear at the out insufficiently trained and badly motivated people liable for military service existing troop. Although almost any larger combat won the Soviets against the national and Islamic resistance of the foreign fighters, it became 1988 from Afghanistan by the political guidance outthe devastated country, which sank in the consequence in civil war for many years and a bloody, taken off.
After the end of the Soviet Union, in particular in the first Chechnya war of Russia the disaster and the complete fall became most powerful after the end of the Second World Warconventional armed force also in the broad public clearly. The nationalistic partisans brought to also strong troop units, in particular in the first battle around the capital Grosny, in which the Russian armed forces operated badly trained and badly led with completely missed tactics,sensitive defeats, which culminated finally in a temporary retreat.
After the era the Russian armed forces a high value for the political guidance of Russia, formed from large parts of the Soviet army, have Yel'tsin, thereby their further existing requirements of an internationalGreat power to legitimize wants. It is tried to introduce by reforms and a higher military budget one Renaissance. Often the once times - mediated although crucially by propaganda and Indoktrination for many years - size and the fame of the Red Army are sworn to. The fallcould be stopped so far however only in subranges. Unglücke and their accomplishment, like the tragic fall of the nuclear-powered submarine Kursk and the purge the superseded nuclear-powered submarine in Murmansk and other locations, are only symbol for the deep crisis of the Russian armed forces.
|Commons: The Red Army - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- Leo Trotzki: My life. Attempt of an autobiography. German expenditure: Fischer, Frankfurt/Main 1990 ISBN 3-596-26627-0 - Trotzki was first a commissioner for outside, Then war commissioner (war Minister) of the USSR and the Red Army with developed affairs (ministers of foreign affairs). The book is on-line under 
- Carey Schofield: The Red Army: a Koloss unmasks itself, Zurich, 1991 ISBN 3-7263-6629-6
- Ilko Sascha Kowalczuk and Stefan wool: RedStar over Germany. CH. On the left of publishing house, Berlin 2001 ISBN 3-86153-246-8
- Helke Sander and Barbara Johr (Hrsg.): Befreier and released. War, rapes, children. Art man, Munich 1992. (as paperback: Fischer, Frankfurt/Main 1995 ISBN 3-596-12644-4)
- Franz W. Seidler/Alfred M.de Zayas, Kriegsverbrechen in Europe and in the Near East in 20. Century, Hamburg Berlin Bonn 2002, S. 122.ISBN 3813207021