Red forest small bird

red forest small bird
red forest small bird (Cephalanthera titles)
Order: Asparagus-well-behaved (Asparagales)
family: Orchideen (Orchidaceae)
Unterfamilie: Epidendroideae
tri bus: Neottiae
Untertribus: Limodorinae
kind: Forest small bird (Cephalanthera)
kind: Red forest small bird
scientific name
Cephalanthera titles
(L.) Smell. 1817

the red forest small bird (Cephalanthera titles) belonged to the kind forest small bird (Cephalanthera) of the family of the Orchideen (Orchideaceae) and rank among the most remarkable Orchideen of our regions. The name consists of Greek κεφαλή cephalae (head), ανθηρός antheros (flowering) and to latin more ruber (red) and points out that the Anthere of the Columna like a head mount. The German name red forest small bird, also red forest small bird or red forest lily, refers to form and color of the bloom shape.

Table of contents

morphology, bloom time

red forest small bird, blooms

the red forest small bird has an average stature height of 20 to 60 centimeters. The root organs consist of strong, short, creeping Rhizomen, which are branched usually and contribute by Adventivsprossen to the bundle formation of the plants. The delicate Stängel is bald and in the top drüsig behaart in the lower part. At the reason of the Stängels some shed sheets develop. The 2 to 8 narrow, lanzettlich to ruler lanzettlichen Laubblätter is long and 1 to 3 centimeter wide to 5 to 14 centimeters and becomes smaller to the bloom conditions. Also the carrying sheets become smaller to the Stängelspitze.

The loose bloom conditions are elongated and consist of some few up to over 20 blooms. The rose-pink to nearly violet and rarely white blooms become large up to 5 centimeters. The bald, 15 to 20 millimeters are enough and for 7 to 10 millimeters spread Kronblätter (Petalen) are oval lanzettlich. The Kelchblätter (Sepalen) are oblong lanzettlich, 16 to 23 millimeters long, 6 to 7 millimeters broadly and outside behaart. The 15 to 20 millimeters long lip (Labellum) is zweigliedrig and in the front part triangular intensified with yellowish borders. The Fruchtknoten is briefly, upright and behaart. The ripe time of the fruits begins at October.

The Bütezeit begins at the end of of May and extends to at the end of of July, occasionally to at the beginning of of August. The main bloom time is in the middle of June to at the beginning of of July.

genetics, development

the red forest small bird has a Karyotyp of two Chromosomensätzen and in each case 18 Chromosomen (Zytologie: 2n = 36). The Same of these Orchidee does not contain any feeding fabrics for the Keimling. Germinating takes place therefore only with infection via a root mushroom (Mykorrhiza). The duration from germinating to the development of the flowerable plant could be determined not yet sufficiently.


red forest small bird in the biotope

the red forest small bird preferentially light, dry hardwood forests (particularly booking), Kiefern and spruce forests, edges of forest and bushes up to 2600 meters and is to be found rarer on half drying lawns. It loves kalkhaltige soils with a pH value from 5,9 to 8,2; comes however also on sand and loamy soils forwards (e.g. in Rhineland-Palatinate).

The red forest small bird is in the Pflanzengesellschaften: V Cephalanthero Fagion, V Cytiso ruthenici Pinion, V Erico Pinion (classification see: Plant-sociological one after units upper villages).


the spreading area of the red forest small bird extends from North Africa over completely Europe, up to the Krim and to the Caucasus. It is arranged in its spreading as subatlantisch - centralEuropean.

After the Orchideenkundler Karl Peter Buttler is it a Florenelement of the meridional/montanen, submeridionalen and temp-guess/advise Florenzone.

In Germany the red forest small bird in the Lands of the Federal Republic is Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, to find Saxonia-Anhalt and Thuringia.

more keuper like all

Orchideenarten occurring in Europe also the red forest small bird

stands for nature protection and endangerment red forest small bird in the light beech forest on gypsum under strict protection of European and national laws.

  • Red list Switzerland: Process card (Concern leases - does not endanger)
  • red one list Austria: no indication available.

The Bestandsentwickling in Germany is declining. Only absent-minded occurrences with small existence exist.

A rbeitskreis H of eimischer O rchideen (AHO) in Germany, that in all Lands of the Federal Republic the protection, the care measures of the biotopes, which mapping made and scientific support of the domestic Orchideenflora the task, selected itself the red forest small bird (Cephalanthera titles) to the Orchidee of the yearly 2000, since the existence of the red forest small bird show above average decrease tendencies in Germany in the last 100 years. Crucial factor for it is the change of use of the habitats of this attractive plant to Monokulturen.

subspecies, Varietäten, hybrid

Cephalanthera titles
var. alba

subspecies are not well-known from this kind.

As Varietät very rarely plants appear also to clean-white blooms:

  • Cephalanthera titles var. alba

Hybrids with other Cephalantera develop - for kinds very rarely:

  • Cephalanthera × mayeri (Zimm.) Cam. 1929 (Cephalanthera titles × Cephalanthera damasonium)
  • Cephalanthera × petrol hechtii cellars 1930 (Cephalanthera titles × Cephalanthera longifolia)


the valid botanische name red forest small birds became in the year 1817 of the French Botaniker a professor Louis Claude Marie smelling pool of broadcasting corporations (4. September 1754 - 6. July 1821) set up: Cephalanthera titles (L.) L. C. M. Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations 1817

the description of the Basionyms Serapias titles L. originates from Carl von Linné from the year 1767.

Further Botaniker described the red forest small bird. These kind names are led as synonyms:

  • Epipactis titles (L.) F.W.Schmidt 1795
  • Cymbidium title (L.) Sw. 1799
  • Helleborine titles (L.) cabinet 1814
  • Dorycheile titles (L.) foot 1866
  • Limodorum title (L.) Kuntze 1891

see also:

work on] would list


standard literature over Orchideen

  • Karl Peter Buttler: Orchideen, the wild-increasing kinds of Europe. Mosaic publishing house 1986, ISBN 3-570-04403-3
  • H. Baumann, S. Künkele:The wild-increasing Orchideen Europe. Frankh, 1982, ISBN 3-440-05068-8
  • Hans Sundermann: European and mediterrane Orchideen. Bridge publishing house; 2. Edition. 1975, ISBN 3-871-05010-5
  • J. G. Williams. among other things: Orchideen Europe with North Africa and small Asia. BLV publishing house, ISBN 3-405-11901-4
  • AHO (Hrsg.): The Orchideen Germany. Publishing house AHO Thuringia UHL city - Kirchhasel, 2005, ISBN 3-00-014853-1

special literature to the red forest small bird

  • A. Tree and. H. Tree (2000): Red forest small bird (Cephalanthera titles (L.) L. C. M. Smelling POOL OF BROADCASTING CORPORATIONs), Orchidee of the yearly 2000. - Ber. Arbeitskrs. Home. Orchid. 17 (1): 4-14.

Web on the left of

spreading maps:


picture gallery

Commons: Red forest small bird (Cephalanthera titles) - pictures, videos and/or audio files

  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)