the Rothschilds were in 19. Century one of the most influential banker families and the most important Finanziers of the European states.
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Mayer Amschel Rothschild
Mayer Amschel farmer (* 23. February 1744; † 19. September 1812 in Frankfurt/Main) was the founder thatRothschilddynastie. Its father, Moses Amschel farmer, was a moving exchange broker and Goldschmied, who had established themselves in Frankfurt/Main in the Frankfurt Jew lane, in order to open in the year 1750 a business for Münz and textile trade as well as exchange of money and Goldschmiede.
Few years afterthe death of its father Mayer Amschel had begun as a bank assistant with the banking house Oppenheimer in Hanover, where he was promoted in the following years rapidly to the junior partner. After the return to Frankfurt and the assumption of the business of his father, farmer called itself from now on Mayer Amschel Rothschild,after the house in the Jew lane.
Around the year 1760 Rothschild business relations attached to yards of Hanau. To 21. September 1769 knew the banker therefore the desired plaque with the coat of arms of Hessen Hanau and the inscription M.A. Rothschild, yard supplier of his Ehrlauchten sovereignty, hereditary princeWilliam of Hessen, count von Hanau before its business attach.
To 29. August 1770 married Rothschild Gutele Schnaper (* 23. August 1753; † 7. May 1849), with which he got five daughters and five sons (Amschel, Salomon, Nathan, Kalman and the Jakobs). 1780it acquired the famous house in the Jew lane, which served it from now on as enterprise seat.
William I. (1743 - 1821), since 1803 cure prince of Hessen Kassel, was one of the richest rulers of Europe and also one of the most important money lenders on the continent (its father, FriedrichII land count von Hessen-Kassel, put the foundation-stone for it by letting of subjects as a mercenary to other European rulers).
it attached close contacts to the most important financial adviser of the prince, Carl Buderus. During the napoleonischen foreign rule Buderus captivated the French general lying rank, in order to be able to secure securities over 15 million valleys for the cure prince.
By its Mayer Amschel of established banking houses outdid and achieved good contacts to Buderus and the cure prince, which stayed from 1806 to 1813 in the Danish exile, the exclusive responsibility for the securities and bills payable of the cure prince. With the bankers Lennap and Lawatz he drove interestin completely Europe and money could to speculate with it surrendered.
Like innumerable others, left itself also the postal monopolyist prince of Thurn and taxi ofRothschild captivate and informed him about contents of important letters. The following anecdote illustrates the balance of power: Rothschild works on the desk and says to the occurring prince: „Taking it itself a chair. “After some minutes the visitor pushes: „I am the prince of Thurn and taxis! “On itRothschild: „Property, you take to stop of two chairs. “Of Thurn and taxis Rothschild learned the value of fast, reliable information to estimate and furnished its own courier service. After Napoleons' defeat with Waterloo disbursed itself in million-gains to the Londoner stock exchange: Nathan Rothschild was hours beforethe government informs.
Briefly before its death, in the year 1812, Mayer Amschel became by a regulation, which the Frankfurt protection Jews placed to the remaining citizen, member of the Wahlcollegiums in Frankfurt. (1814 were cancelled again the regulation).
After death Mayer Amschels (1812) wroteMetternichs secretary: „You are usual ignorant Jews of substantial exterior. But they are talented with a remarkable instinct, to select which correct ones and of two correct ones the better. They are the richest people in Europe. “
In the following decades the Rothschilds ennobled in the meantime financed industries,Railways and the building of the Suez channel. With a special system of government loans they made the French government more independent of tax grants of the parliament. With the arising of large-scale industry and joint-stock banks the Bankimperium of the Rothschilds at meaning lost.
Its will wrote he few days before his death.It contained a strict regulation, as the exempt private company was to be led:
- All key positions are to be occupied with family members.
- In business only male family members may participate.
- The oldest son of the oldest son should be family head, as far as the majority of the family does not decide differently.
- The family is marry themselves among themselves with their cousins and cousins of first and second degree.
- There is not to be a legal stocktaking and no publication of the fortune.
the first generation
Rothschilds of five sons took over the banking transactions of the father. While Amschel Mayer remained in the principal firm in Frankfurt,opened the other sons branches in Vienna, London, Paris and Neapel.
Salomon Rothschild (* 1774; † 1855) opened a bank in Vienna to 1821. It granted the Austrian state and. A. a loan over 900,000 guldens. State States of Fürst Metternich and the house having castle were obligated to it thereby. It became the most important finances the Austrian state andone of the largest basic owners. The Viennese bank existed up to the connection of Austria to the German Reich 1938.
Nathan Mayer Rothschild (* 1777; † 1836) went between 1790 and 1800 as a textile buyer to Manchester. 1808 it creates the bank N.M. Rothschild& Sons in London, which successfully works this very day.
Nathan invested William soldier money in gold of the eastIndian society, which for later campaigns Wellingtons was needed. By the purchase and resale of Wellington shares, the sales and buy-back of the gold at Wellington, its dispatchto Portugal and smuggling during the continental barrier he gained a fortune.
It became the most influential finances the British government. By means of an efficient news service he knew before the prime minister of the exit of the battle with Waterloo, whereupon he sold his shares. The investors believed, itit is in the possession of information about a British defeat why they followed it when selling the shares. After the courses of the securities had sunk into the cellar, it bought them and carried the full improvement in prices forward, that the message of the victory of the Britishwith itself brought.
Kalman Rothschild (* 1788; † 1855) went into Salomons order 1821 to Neapel. There it had to supervise finances of the Austrian troops. It opened the sizillianische Rothschilddepandance, which existed however only until 1863. Kalman calleditself late Carl Mayer of Rothschild.
Jakob Rothschild (* 1792; † 1868) were the youngest of the brothers. It went 1812 to Paris and established there Rothschild Frères to one of the first bank addresses and called themselves from now on James de Rothschild.As an advisor of two French kings he became a most influential banker of the country. In the following wars under Napoleon, he played an important role with the financing of the railways and the mine's building, which helped France thereby, an industrial power to become.1983 became the bankby the government François Mitterrands puts under state control. Since this time there is the smaller Rothschild & Cie Banque there.
At the 11. July 1824 married Rothschild in Frankfurt/Main Betty Salomon de Rothschild, the daughter of its brother, Salomon Rothschild, with which it five childrenhad.
Albert Salomon Anselm baron von Rothschild (* 1844, †11. February 1911) applied 1910 with an estimated fortune of for 1 billion crowns as the richest European. Its hobby was chess. He could this be taught by Steinitz. It promoted the game of chess and the chess players to Austria. He was leader from itsGrandfather Salomon Meyer of Rothschild of created banking house in Vienna starting from 1872.
Baron Philippe de Rothschild (* 13. April 1902 in Paris, † 20. January 1988 in Paris) was inheritance and patron of the famous Weingutes Château Mouton Rothschild in Pauillac with Bordeaux. It made the fillingthe Weines on the Weingut (“bad EN Bouteille outer Château”) to the standard with fine wine. It was the only one, which it succeeded ever to let the classification of Bordeaux wines of the Médoc change: its property was revalued 1973 from the Deuxième to the Prime Minister Grand Cru Classé.
Maximilian of Goldschmidt Rothschild (* 1843, † 1940) had itself 1938of the Nazis in a forced manner seen, the Rothschild palace (Bockenheimer Landstr. 10) in Frankfurt/M. far under value to the city Frankfurt to sell, it was then rented in the form of dwellings. Thus plans of the Alfred rose mountain smashed themselves, here an anti-Semitic high one school of the NSDAP asTo furnish elite university. Institut for the study of the Jew question (as forerunners) became therefore 1941 in the house No. 68-70 furnished, with which however the symbolism was missing to the Nazis.
the banking house Rothschild today
the N.M. Rothschild group of mercantile banks has more as 40 offices in more than 30Countries and more than 2,000 employees employ world-wide. One differentiates between the N.M. Rothschild & Sons Ltd. (Company) and the bankers' syndicate, thus those, which are not registered in England or the Channel Iceland. Until March 2004 Sir Evelyn de Rothschild of chairmen was, since April 2004David de Rothschild takes this post.
The profit before taxes amounted to 2004 22.5 millions English. Pound, 3.3 millions more than in the year before, and after taxes 15 millions Pound. The largest group, which registered incomes, was the Concordia BV in the Netherlands, subsidiary companiesthe Rothschild Concordia AG in Switzerland, which was administered over the year by the Rothschild family and their interests. The Rothschild Concordia AG in Switzerland is also the roof enterprise of the entire Rothschild banks.
Up to the year 2000 Rothschild has nearly 40 governmentsadvised.
Here a small selection of the largest Deals, which advised the Rothschilds in the past years:
- 7 billion € sales of Viterra by E.ON
- 3 billion € buying up of the dials Corp. by handle
- 469 million € buying up of king and Licher breweries that Holsten AG by bit citizen
- advisor German course (sales of Mitropa AG - portions of compass Grp. PLC.)
- 180 million € buying up of Scout24 AG (Switzerland) by T-Online
- 6.6 billion € sales of Wella at Procter & Gamble
(the prices no incomes are on the part of the Rothschilds, butrepresents only the volume of business of the assumptions)
furthermore was Rothschild advisor with the assumption of the D2-Mannesmann-Konzerns by Vodafone, with the stock exchange course and on/sales of the cable system of the German Telekom and T-Online, German post office, E.ON and with the Pro7/Sat1-Übernahme von KirchMedia by consultation of SabanCapital Group (2003), in addition insolvency advisors of the PFAFF sewing machines with the sales at Viking Sewing Machines OFF and advisors of the airplane and arms company EADS.
current one prominent coworkers
- Gerhard Schröder (old Federal Chancellor) becomes member in the European adviser (European Advisory Council) the Investmentbank Rothschild, thatPersons from enterprises and the financial sector belong
- to lord George (ex governor of the bank of England), chairmen Europa-Beirat
- Doug Daft (ex chairman of the board The Coca-Cola company), member in the European adviser
- Pehr Gyllenhammar (ex chairman of the board Volvo), member in the European adviser
- Klaus Mangold (ex member of the board Daimler Chrysler), line of the Germany adviser
- Berne Thiemann (Ex chairmen of the board north German Landesbank, ex chairman of the board DG-bank, line of the Germany adviser
former one prominent coworkers
- William Scheider (of ex chairman of the board Krupp), line of the Germany adviser
the Weingüter of the family enjoy to today world-wide reputation. Nathaniel, third son Nathans, acquired 1853 Château Brane Mouton. James acquired 1868, briefly before its dying, the renowned Château Lafite Rothschild. Edmond Rothschild again became 1973 owners of the Château Clarke. A collection of over 15.000 bottles at Rothschild wines is in the English Waddesdon Manor, to one in itsArchitecture, garden plant and art collection unique family seat of the Rothschilds, 1874 establish from Ferdinand of Rothschild.
the family Rothschild Denunzierungen becomes constant by conspiracy theoreticians (e.g. Nesta Webster, Janvan Helsing) suspended. One subordinates them to be leaders (Jewish) of a world conspiracy which the free bricklaying, the Hexentum, which would control central banks or directly all three. Also the family is often moved into a connection with the Illuminaten or with Teufelsanbetung.
- Frederic Morton: The Rothschilds. A Portrait of the dynasty. From the American one by Hans's lamb and Paul Stein. Updated of Michael friend. Franz Deuticke publishing house, Vienna 1992. ISBN of 3-216-07896-5
- (Bernhard Schmidt) articles Rothschild in: France encyclopedia, 2.Aufl. 2005, Hg. B. S., JürgenDoll, roll ago Fekl, Siegfried lion, Fritz deaf ore, Berlin: Publishing house Erich Schmidt, 2005 (frz. Literature) ISBN 3503061843
- George Heuberger (Hg) the Rothschilds Frankfurt/M.: Thorbecke, 1994 (2 volumes: Exhibition catalog and instruction book with essays)
- Niall Ferguson the history of the Rothschilds. Prophet of the money from that English one, Munich Stuttgart: DVA,to 2002 (2 volumes) ISBN 3421053545
- descendant Mayer Amschel Rothschilds (family tree)
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