Rotunda

of these articles concerns itself with the architectural term; For the building of the same name on the world exhibition in Vienna 1873 see to rotunda (Vienna)
pc. - March in rotunda, Prague
Körnerpark Berlin, Wassertreppe und Orangerie
grain park Berlin, water stairs and Orangerie

a rotunda (Latin rotundus, Italian rotonda) is a solidium on circular sketch. It can as Zentralbau alone stand or for part of a larger building its. It can be simple or assume, sakralen monumental extents or serve to everyday functions and is in architecture across the epochs. It is on the inside frequent, but not necessarily, by Konchen or nichesarranged and of a dome over-curves.

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antique one

than simple rotunda is the Monopteros and the Tholos since the Greek and Roman antique one admits. Already the treasure house of the Atreus in Mykene as Kraggewölbe can be called as early example for this. The most well-known example of a monumental Zentralbau in form of a rotunda is the Pantheon ( Rome ), established among emperors Hadrian. As art-historically pointing the way those provedGrave church of Jerusalem (326 begun); here the grave rotunda with 2-geschossigem is handling and 3-geschossigem, over-coupled central tract part of a general complex, to which also a yard with column gallery and a 5-schiffige Basilika belonged.

early Christianity

Santo Stefano Rotondo in Rome, 470 geweiht, is a well-known earlyChristian example after the model of the grave church of Jerusalem. Here it concerns the last building of monumental of the westRoman realm.

In Syria simple rotundas are within earlyChristian excavation places to constitute (cathedral of Bosra, 512/513).

the Middle Ages

the round churches in particular on fount cross-beam and in Hungary/filter defiency guarantee contain as central architectural element a simple rotunda. They served primarily as military churches. The Gewölbe rests sometimes on a central pillar.

As individual component within a total concept the choir vertex rotunda is considerable; this tradition comes from Burgund (pc. Bénigne in Dijon, 11.Jh.) and spread from here from also in Germany and in the Mediterranean countries.

The central rotundas of English Templerkirchen (Temple Church, London) are larger constructions with internal support rings, which tie again to the grave church of Jerusalem.

Medieval towers of castle plants have also oneCircle as sketch. These solidiums in function of a military tower (donjon or Donjon) or apartment tower do not fall generally any longer under the definition rotunda, probably however the castle chapels (well received examples z. B. in Böhmen and Mähren).

To what extent the Trulli of Alberobello upcircular sketch still as rotunda go through, is not not described (in addition, not definitely excluded).

Renaissance

in this epoch is again tied to the buildings of monumental of the antique ones. Starting point is Italian architecture (Venice, Florenz, Rom). The central circular building becomes as completion onein itself closed architectural harmony understood, are equivalent in which the horizontal and vertical forces. Acquaintance over-coupled rotundas are in many central's buildings of Andrea Palladio, Filippo Brunelleschi and Donato Bramante. Both Leon Battista Alberti and Leonardo da Vinci were also occupiedAnd beyond that numerous drafts, which were not implemented, manufactured architectural theory.

For the most important and most well-known rotunda with the world-wide largest freely carrying dome, some first-rate artists had the Peter cathedral in Rome (among other things Bramante and Michelangelo) trailblazing drafts supplied; one implemented at the endModel of Giacomo della Porta.

baroque

the art of the buildings of monumental with central rotunda finds elaborierte forms in Italy, but also north the alps far spreading.

Well-known examples are Santa Maria della Salute in Venice, the woman church in Dresden, the Karl church inVienna, the invalid cathedral in Paris. In Germany and Austria this type of the Zentralbaus with rotunda finds frequently as pilgrimage church spreading (example: Maria Birnbaum in Upper Bavaria).

In this epoch the rising garden architecture the antique type of the Monopteros becomes - rotunda in form of a small pavilion (Gloriette)revitalisiert. Also wells and Wasserspiele in baroque lock plants are frequently circular; generally and the term well rotunda manifested itself routistic linguistic usage for this, what is not defined however nonspecific and in architecture encyclopedias.

Also baroque cemetery chapels constitute or contain frequently a rotunda.

newer ones and monumental rotundas

attach newest architecture in the classicism on to the tradition of the Pantheons (San Francesco di Paola in Neapel; Gran Madre di Dio in Turin). There are domed structures with central rotunda frequently in France (Panthéon of Paris), Germany (Paulskirche in Frankfurt) and Denmark (Frederiks Kirke, Copenhagen). The 1937 burned out Viennese rotunda as exhibition building is an everyday example 19. Century. The Monopteros is in the classicism a very popular object in the park and garden design.

Sacré Coeur, the test case of the ParisianHistoricism, exhibits beside the central still several side rotundas.

Examples of buildings of recent time are the main area of the Pinakothek of the modern trend in Munich or the panorama museum (storage place of the farmer war panorama) in bath Franconia living.

Monuments are occasionally implemented as rotunda (Soviet honour mark in the TreptowerPark in Berlin).

There are contemporary examples of round churches, which use the element of the rotunda architecturally very generously and in innovative constructions.

see also

literature

Günther being thing: Architectural form teachings, Darmstadt 1987

Wilfried cook: Architectural style customer,Munich 1988

 

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