|office languages||English, French, Kinyarwanda|
|system of government||Präsidialrepublik|
|head of the government||Bernard Makuza|
|surface||26,338 km ²|
|number of inhabitants||7.954.013 (conditions July 2004)|
|population density||of 301 inhabitants per km ²|
|independence||from Belgium at the 1. July 1962|
|time belt||UTC +2|
|national anthem||Rwanda nziza|
table of contents
to the way of writing of words
the country on German „Rwanda “with u written, exactly the same as the language Swahili on German „Suaheli “is called. There the office language Kinyarwanda, like many other African languages also,one inflects in front , develop confusing various ways of writing in Europe. To Tutsi and Hutu for example there are not the words as such in Kinyarwanda. In the grammatical standard format a Ba (Wa) is placed in front, thus Bahutu and/or. Batutsi (= Watussi). Overto be more exact still to it the article and it come of Umuhutu (in majority Abahutu) or Umututsi (Abatutsi) are correctly spoken. Since the prefixes change however depending upon grammatical use, the words become after in Kinyarwanda dictionariesthe word trunk sorts.
Rwanda is a high country, which lies in the level about 1500 m (between 1.000 and 4.500 m) over NN. The volcanic mountains in the north are high up to 4507 m. Ofthe East Africa niches coast is distant it for 1,200 km.
Rwanda is called gladly country of the thousand hills, French Pays de Mille Collines and has indeed a very hilly landscape mainly in the western part of the country.
Due to the heightthe mild-damp high land climate is rather mild despite the near-equator one. The hot equatorial time of day climate is overlaid by seasonal East Africa niches the climate and moderated the large altitude. The middle daytime temperature is with 18°C. There are no large variations in temperature over the year. The temperatures varybut depending upon altitude. There are two rain times according to the East Africa niches Monsumregen, “umuhindo” approximately between Septembers and Decembers (average 27% of the yearly amount of precipitation) as well as “itumba” between February to at the beginning of of June. Between March and May 40% of the annual precipitation fall. The climate,above all the precipitation exhibits however large irregularities. Abnormal dryingnesses, redundant rains and hail threaten the harvests again and again and provide for hunger emergencies.
Rwanda borders (in the clockwise direction) on Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and the Congo. The largest partthe border to the Congo lies in the Kivusee, which belongs to East Africa niches to the ditch break system and is very deep therefore. In the border area to the Congo and Uganda the Virunga volcanos high to 4,500 m lie, on which in middle height the mountain gorillas live.In the east expanded Akagera sumps form a natural border to the today's Tanzania.
Rwanda is coined/shaped by two supplies of Nile, the Akanyaru coming from Burundi and in Nyabarongo rising in the rwandischen Nyungwe forest. Nyabarongo flows first from south to north, around itselfto turn then nearby the volcanos again toward the south toward Kigali. Nyabarongo and Akanyaru continue to unite not far from Kigali to the Akagera, which crosses the country eastward and forms the national border there to Tanzania, around then into thatto flow Viktoria lake lain north.
Rwanda can be essentially divided into three large and several small landscapes. (South) the eastern lowers, the central high plateau and the Congo Nile water sheath forms three large landscapes.
In the center of Rwanda is the central high plateau. It liesbetween 1.500 and 2.000 m highly and extends between the Congo Nile water sheath and the southeast lower. It is of numerous watercourses cut and represented particularly in the rise to the Congo Nile water sheath the proverbial “country of the thousand hills”. Due to the goodSupplies of Oberflächenwasser and precipitation as well as moderate temperatures and quite fruitful soils are intensively agriculturally used it since long time. The original forest vegetation disappeared since long time.
The highest collections represent the Virunga volcanos in the north. It closesthe mountain country of Buberuka and the volcanic area in the northwest of Rwanda. It is characterized by damp-cool climate by partially extreme rainfalls. Volcanic ash and cinder soils are very fruitful and are intensively agriculturally used. Here is a centerthe cultivation of potato of Rwanda. However seep particularly in the lava level the water much fast and step only at their edge as sources.
Beside the Virunga volcanos the Congo Nile water sheath reaches itself, in the west along the Kivu lake of northafter south extends, in heights up to almost 3,000 m; in the middle part only up to 1.200 m and in the south up to 2.700 M. It is by schroffe ravines and sharpens summits characterized. The climate is by upward gradient rains inThe east damp, in the west by hair dryer hoist something reduces. In former times the mountains were covered by tropical elevator rain forest. This was extremely reduced due to the population growth. Until the end of the 90's it gave still rain forest remainder in Gishwati (north), Mukura (center) and Nyungwe (south).Gishwati and Mukura became for settlement v.a. of return-end to long-term refugees after 1994 almost completely destroyed. The Nyungwe forest however is still quite expanded. In all tropical high mountain wet forests small apes (Koloben and others) live, small Antilopen, in former times also forest elephants and numerous bird and small animal species.The plant variety is singular and large.
The bank strip of the Kivu lake is coined/shaped of deep bays and steep slopes. By foehn formation at the west slopes of the Congo Nile water sheath the precipitation is here smaller than on the eastern side of the mountains. The water of the Kivu lakeabout 23.5 is warm °C. The climate is coined/shaped by mild temperatures. On the fruitful soils in the south and the north intensive building of soils takes place since long time; however on the less fruitful soils at a value of Kibuye (center) traditionally cattle breeding outweighed.
The southwest of Rwanda (Impara and Imbo) exhibits partially very fruitful soils, which permit both in the hot deep situations and in the cool mountains intensive building of soils.
The eastern and southeast lower with altitudes between 1.000 and1,500 m extends west the expanded back pressure sumps of the Akageraflusses and numerous lakes. It is coined/shaped by drying-hot climate, porous soils and Lateritkrusten as well as Buschsavanne. Climate, soils and the strong spreading of the Tse Tse fly make this landscape for building of soils and cattle breedinglittle suitably. It comes again and again to expanded drying times, which lead in the settled parts to hunger emergencies. The Belgian administration furnished the Akagera national park to 1934 in the thinly settled area in the east as game reservation. South and west of it closedHunting grounds and Privatranchen on. These hunting grounds as well as parts of the Akagera Parkes after July 1994 for settling approved for return-end (so-called. Long-term) of refugees. In the southeast part, so-called nose serums had been obligation-resettled since end of the 50's first Tutsi from different regions,later Hutu e.g. came. from the north of the country in addition. The valleys of the region Mayaga along the Akanyaru river and its papyrus sumps were in former times the cattle herds of the Tutsi reserved as pasture reserves in continuous drying times. They became only in the course of the 20-centurysoil-structurally used.
only approx. 6% to 16% (depending upon source) of the population lives in cities.
The largest cities are (conditions 1. January 2005): Kigali of 745,261 inhabitants, Butare of 89,800 inhabitants, Gitarama of 87,613 inhabitants, Ruhengeri of 86,685 inhabitants and Gisenyi of 83,623 inhabitants. Except Kigali, which develops an increasingly urbanen character, the cities are however very rurally coined/shaped. They are usually seat of the local administration, from church centers (former missions) and serve as place of transshipment for local trade as well as traffic junctions.
Kigalithe capital is and possesses an international airport, several international hotels and is the center of the regular bus traffic into all directions.
Gisenyi is a town at the northern end of the Kiwusees, pictorial lain. It was already created in the German colonial age.There still houses are from this time. Also in the Belgian colonial age many colonial officials and settler in Gisenyi lived. It is directly because of the border to the Congo; the neighbour city on the other side of the border is Goma. Afterlarge streams of refugees pulled to the genocide by Gisenyi after Goma. From Gisenyi there is a regular boat traffic for freight (not persons) after Kibuye and Cyangugu. In Gisenyi is also the national brewery Bralirwa, those the largest portion of the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCTgained.
Ruhengeri lies in the north in the lava level to feet of the volcanos. From there from bereisen tourists the volcanos and visit accustomed groups of gorillas at humans.
Gitarama lies in the center of the country, between Kigali and Butare, nearby the important catholic missionand Diozösansitzes Kabgayi. Into Gitarama the so-called “Hutu revolution” the PARMEHUTU went out and there was end of the 50's the 1. Republic proclaimed.
Kibuye is a town at a very fissured coast at the Kivusee. An old mission station is on rock, which in-hands into the lake. The city is appropriate for something increased, however their houses have numerous Fischer usually down at the coast. Beautifully and at present (2005) closed holiday area put on and but a heruntergekommene with Bungalows should touristsattract. Before the genocide there were 250,000 Tutsi in the prefecture of Kibuye, only 8,000 survived the massacres.
Cyangugu at the south end of the Kivusees is directly because of the border to the Congo. It gave way also here during the genocide powerful streams of refugeesThe Congo.
Butare in the south of Rwanda is to a certain extent the culture city of the country. It was created in the Belgian colonial age and represented at this time the seat of the Belgian colonial administration for the double colony Rwanda Urundi. Also in Butare are buildings outthe Belgian colonial age. The national university becomes and. A. from Germany supports. Besides there is a small museum, which shows partially interesting exhibits from before-colonial time, more dartuner copied traditional grass houses, under it that of the “king” (Mwami).
Kibungo lies in the southeast of theCountry, at a road, which leads to the border crossing Rusumo after Tanzania.
Byumba lies in the north of the country.
- See also: List of the cities in Rwanda
Flora and fauna
the high mountains in Rwanda are by special ecological systems alsosingular animal and plant types coined/shaped, which come by the fog-industrial union-damp-cool tropical climate.
The center Rwanda is already used since long time intensively agriculturally.
In the drying-hot east are a national park with grass tree savannahs, Sumpfgebieten and lakes. The park accommodated to1994 numerous and large herds of Zebras, Impalas, Topis as well as water buffalos, as well as other Antilopen kinds in smaller herds, few elephants as well as from Tanzania flown giraffes. Lions were numerously, leopards likewise still present. In waters many Nilpferde and crocodiles lived. ThoseVogelfauna was very various. The animal existence, above all the lions and Antilopen was very strongly dezimiert by the war.
A characteristic are the few still existing mountain gorillas in the Virungavulkanen. The mountain gorillas threatened by becoming extinct become by preventive measures (among other thingsa ban on hunting) protected. Admits became it by the film gorillas in the fog, which shows the life of the US-Forscherin Dian Fossey with the gorillas in Rwanda.
already since the German, butparticularly since the Belgian Kolonisation after that 1. World war was missioniert like a Christian the country, which led to a dominance of the catholicism prevailing in Belgium, to which briefly before the genocide about two thirds of the population belonged. There the catholic missionfirst under the Hutu to celebrate, were after-said you knew large successes a special proximity to the Hutu, what led also during and after the genocide to the fact that particularly the catholic church failed with the rescue of Tutsi before the genocide. Protestanten were represented by different churches (Anglikaner, Presbyterianer, Adventisten, Methodists and Baptisten); to the Islam professed themselves well four per cent of the Ruander. Trailers of the Islamic faith do not seem to have taken part in the genocide.
The native suspecting and Ryangombe - cult stepspublicly in feature, however apart from the evenly quoted religions of a considerable part of the population further one does not practice. It professes itself however hardly someone publicly to it. It acts thereby likewise around a monotheistische religion with a creator God(Imana) and a large personality (Ryangombe), as Jesus, an intermediary and terrestrial representative of God (Imana) were similar to who. Because of the similarity of these two figures the Ruander was to be won easily for the Christian faith.
In the north of the country, as well as in Ugandaand the Congo, gives it still the Nyabingi cult, in whose center a woman is located.
During the genocide many humans in the areas of the churches looked for refuge, which they did not protect however against the destruction. Even bishops and other clergyman took partat the genocide.
The failure of the established Christian churches with the prevention of the genocide led the Baptisten, those to a strong prevention of these churches and to an upswing of the Islam and smaller Christian groups, as for instance today 5%the population constitute and their trailer shank since the genocide eightfold could. Also [[Charismati movement|charismatische groups], Adventisten and many new churches (re+born Christians and arousing churches) could multiply their trailer shank since the genocide. The number of the catholics has itself since the genocideover at least 10% reduce. In addition since 1994 there is a lutherische church in Rwanda, which return-end long-term refugees (Tutsi) through from Tanzania and Uganda were introduced.
with on the average approx. 314 inhabitants per square kilometer Rwanda is thatmost closely populated country of Africa. The population amounted to 2000 estimated 8.0 million, 2003 8.8 million and 2004 8.9 million (World Bank lt April 2006).
The population of over is of Rwanda main structure problem, since the country hardly has industry and no considerable resources. Thoseaverage life expectancy amounts to approx. 40 years.
The population growth amounts to approx. 2,1%. A woman brings on the average 5-6 children to the world. Only 31% of the women take up health services with the birth. 24% under 5-jährigen of the children are errorfed. ThoseNumber of deaths of the unter-5-jährigen of children amounts to approx. 18-20%.
The HIV Prävelenz at the total population is indicated as 5,1%; it is however higher into the sexual active population parts.
The first day at school of the girls could to 2004 those of the boys be adapted.
Age distribution (2004, estimated):0-14 years: 42.3% 15-64 years: 55% starting from 65 years: 2.7%
urbanisation: 6% to 16% (depending upon source); Tendency increasing. Alphabetisierung: approx. 65% (women somewhat less) inhabitant per physician: 24.697. Index of human development (HDI): 0,431; Rank 159 (of 175 countries)
composition of the population
in Rwanda lives a people with a common language, common customs and customs. Colonial powers, first Germans, then Belgians, to prevail decided by utilization of native socio-political structures and did not want to develop own administrative machinery. They supportedfirst the dominant elite (Tutsis) and tried to use it for their purposes. Colonial powers defined the social categories distinctive of “Hutu”, “Tutsi” and “Twa” as “trunks”, according to racistic criteria concerning the exterior and the alleged character, as well as according to thatRestaurant economics (Tutsi = cattle breeder; Hutu =Bauern; Twa = hunter/collecting tank inside, Töpfer). German researchers (race theoreticians), had 19 for the end. Century in the spirit of the ethnology „the hamitische hypothesis “(Hamitentheorie) invented and a variously mixed African society, their groups of peoples the language,Customs and traditions divided, into “trunks” sorted: Here hamitische race, there the autochthone majority placed underneath, negroiden the minority of the Tutsi immigrated allegedly from the Nile valley, a hochwüchsige, lightmembranous, blue-bloody, servilen, rural Hutu from the Bantufamilie. The Hamiten is the carriers of the cultural development of Africa been and are at all a superior “gentleman race”, so the Hamitentheorie of Speke. This “Ethnien” or “races” belongs to the historical myth of the colonial gentlemen and became an important ideological instrument of the colonial policy. Tutsi, as it weretoo „black white one “ennobled, was granted privilege in the colonial rule system; it took over readily a theory, which proved its superiority historically.
1934/35 were accomplished by the Belgian colonial power a census. The affiliation to Tutsi or Hutu became among other things on the basis the numberthe cattle, which someone possessed, defines. All families with more than 10 cattle were Tutsi, everything with less were Hutu. Who cattle did not have as Twa was classified. Colonial powers negotiated first preferentially with the richer Tutsi, to those thatKing house and the traditional elite belonged.
In the year 1939 the Belgian colonialists prescribed even the note of the ethnical affiliation (race) in the identity card. The postulated difference - the Völkerkundler Claude Meillassoux speaks of „imaginary Ethnographie “- became as it were the natural stateand the conception world of the Ruander poisoned as tribalistisches stereotyped.
The Tutsis received first exclusive entrance to the colonial schools with the goal that they should serve thereby the colonial administration. The population was engaged by the colonial policy to deliveries and hard labour, fortheir recovery Tutsi were responsible. All this led to discontent and envy. In addition came to increasing problems because Tutsi own thoughts expressed and not all defaults (Belgian) the colonial power to convert wanted. Thus the Belgian colonial administration and the catholic mission setincreasingly on “divide et impera “and the Hutu began to promote politically. When the Hutu 1959 power took over, they pervertierten ethnical segregation to a kind „black apartheid “. They accepted racistic ideas of the Europeans andbegan to treat the Tutsi as a foreigner in Rwanda, immigrated later.
Before the first massacres, driving out and the first escape wave of Tutsi in the year 1959 their portion on 12-13% became estimated. This portion is then up to the genocide by furtherEscape waves and driving out on approximately 9 10% removed. Also the portion of the Twa seems to have constantly sunk for the 1930er years. There was and does not give not a portion of humans with varying or mixed ethnical identity, which can be neglected,although the Ethnizität was officially registered.
The genocide brought at least three quarters, perhaps also over 90% in Rwanda of the residents to Tutsi death. By briefly the back migration of a large number of exile Tutsi, using thereafter, the Tutsi makes again substantiallymore than the 1 3% of the population which can be expected out. Newer numbers to the Ethnizität are hardly available.
„The hamitische hypothesis “enjoys until of today large popularity, supplies it nevertheless a simple explanation model for the Genozid.
native languageall Ruander is the Bantusprache Kinyarwanda. Further official office languages are the foreign languages French (since the Belgian colonial age) and (since center/at the end of of 1994) the English (particularly of from Tanzania and Uganda return-end to long-term refugees imported). In the commercial centres also that becomeslikewise to the Bantusprachen belonging Kiswahili spoken, which is learned in Rwanda only as foreign language.
music, dance and poetry in native language are important art forms in Rwanda. (Prosa, theatres and screen end of arts are pronounced traditionally less.)At arts and crafts partially very finely prepared Flechtarbeiten is typical. In recent time also works are spread by painters.
Rwanda was together with Burundi first (to 1916/18) part of German East Africa. 1916 occupied Belgian troops from the Belgian Congo the country. After the First World War Belgium receivedthe mandate for the administration of Rwanda Urundi, first of the Völkerbund, later the UN.
After independence to 1.7.1962 followed first first (1962-1973) and then a second Republic of (July 1973-1994). Above all the first republic was accompanied by massacres, driving out andFluchtbewegungen of Batutsi. A large number of them was prevented thereafter from the return after Rwanda and lived for many decades in the neighboring countries (Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania and DR the Congo, partially. also Kenya).
At the 1. October 1990 seized the “Rwandisch patriotic front”(RPF), in which exile Rwander made of Uganda were strongly represented, the country on, in order to force militarily the return from refugees to. She occupied parts of the north of the country (in Byumba and courage era). Internationally mediated negotiations led first an armistice in July1992. After the peace treaty of Arusha in January 1993, however more or less came it became to political blockades the conversion of the agreements of the peace treaty. Radical forces were not at co-operation with the opponent in transition structures (government, parliamentand army) ready. To 6. April 1994 was shot the airplane of the president at that time Juvenal Habyarimana with the approach flight in the capital Kigali. Of 7. April to June 1994 thereupon a genocide at Tutsi accomplished, accompanies from the liquidation ofthese simmering ducks Bahutu. The RPF took the fighting (now) against the regime organizing the genocide. It conquered the north, the east and southeast as well as the capital, thereafter also the central and northern west of the country to July. French troops occupiedtemporarily the southwest of the country (from the east Congo coming).
To 19.7.1994 Pasteur Bizimungu was appointed the president. A transitional phase followed also at the Arusha contract leaned interim governments, which lasted until 2003. Since 2003 Rwanda has a new condition, a selected parliamentand a selected president.
In November 1994 the United Nations furnished the international criminal court for Rwanda, with seat in Arusha, Tanzania.
To 2. August 1998 began itself the war in Zaire, the later democratic Republic of the Congo, at Rwanda(beside Uganda) on the side the insurgent involved and helped to fall the president of many years Mobuto and its government.
To 23. March 2000 stepped replaced Paul Kagame Pasteur Bizimungu in the office of the president.
30. July 2002 peace treaty with thatDR the Congo.
2003 Verabschiedung of a condition, Parlements and Präsidentenwahlen, which win Paul Kagame and its party.
Rwanda is a condition republic. The today's condition became 2003by people tuning discharges. The president is determined in general elections, the parliament consists of two chambers, the national assembly and the senate. The political parties meet in the sogenanten “tuning forum” (forum de concertation), where resolutions in the consent are seized.
The law mechanismsconsists of the highest Court of Justice (Cour Suprême), “la struck cour de la République”, the province Courts of Justice, the Courts of Justice of the districts and cities, as well as special mechanisms: Gacaca, military courts, etc.
the today's policy is strong from the aftereffects of the war (1990-1994) and genocide(1994), the economic problems and the uncertainty in the region coined/shaped.
After the military victory 1994 the “Rwandese patriotic front “(FPR) already established a coalition government similarly that 1992 formed by president Juvénal Habyarimana. Habyarimanas a party, ofHutus dominated “national movement for democracy and development” was forbidden, since after its death with an aircraft crash in April 1994 hard liners had transferred power. These are considerably in the planning of the genocide using directly on its death been involvedits. Political organizations were forbidden to 2003. Accordingly only the first postwar elections for parliament and office for president took place in August and September 2003.
acting president and thus head of state is since (22. April 2000) General Paul Kagame (FPR). The head of the government and its Ministers by the president are used. The office of the prime minister becomes since that 8. March 2000 perception by Berne pool of broadcasting corporations Makuza. The president is normally selected every 5 years directly by the people. The current office holderbecame however in a special procedure to 17. April 2000 of the delegates of the national assembly with 81 of 86 possible voices selected, then, 2003 however in general elections selected.
Minister of foreign affairs: Charles Murigande
from 1994 to 2003 possessedRwanda a transition parliament with only one chamber and 70 seats. It was created on 12 December 1994 by an agreement of several parties. The members were determined by the contracts by Arusha.
Since the elections 2003 the parliament exists in Rwandafrom two chambers: the Chamber OF Deputies with 80 seats and the senate with 26 seats.
The seats of the Chamber OF Deputies are assigned as follows: 53 delegates are selected directly by the people in secret choice; 24 women are selected:two for each province and the city Kigali; 2 members are selected by “national the Youth Council”; a member selected of the obstruction combination “Federation OF the Association OF the Disabled”.
The seats in the senate build themselves up as follows: 12 senators, one of each province and the city Kigali are indirectly selected; eight senators are used by the president; four senators certainly of the “forum OF Political organizations”; a senator selected from the numbers of the lecturers and researchers of national universitiesand universities and a senator from the series of the lecturers and researchers of private universities and universities.
General inclusive Binnenwirtschaft
note: Data vary depending upon sources, are often estimated and not exact! It is important to look on the tendencies and relative importance.
The basic conditions are unfavorable: and natural strained high population density, dominance of the Subsistenzlandwirtschaft with land scarcenessResources, weak service and industrieller sector, small, more fragmented and strongly adjusted market, regional cross-linking lacking of the markets, rather regional conflicts and war, large distances and high costs with the entrance to the world market (according to high costs).
The genocide of 1994 has Rwandaleave anyway already weak economical basis further damaged and the population, in particular the women lastingly to become impoverished. In the middle of 1994 and 1995 received the country as well as the refugee camps in the neighboring countries together to help in need in the value of more than 307.4 millions USD. 1996the transition of help in need to reconstruction and development co-operation began. The USA, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain, France, China, the World Bank and the UN development program as well as the European Entwicklungsfonds are the most important givers.
From 1994 to at the end of Rwanda received 1995 firstonly little external economic aid. 1996 to 97 began the government to rebuild to the industriellen sector by technical and financial assistance inclusive credit warranties, economic liberalisation and privatisation of national enterprises. 1998 furnished the government an investment center and set a new Investment codein order to enlist local and foreign investors.
Over 60% of the population on it again 20% live even under the border of absolute poverty under the poverty border. Of Rwanda ability private and private-economical capital to tighten is still very limited.
Meanwhile is however also considerable progressin the stabilization and revival of the economy on the level 1994 ago recognizably. The gross domestic product rose in the last years. The poverty increased however in the same period. The food production places only 80% of the need, so that it regularly regionallyand seasonally to hunger emergencies and it comes areas and subpopulations with chronic malnutrition gives.
The economy (production) grew for approx. 2000 strongly (2000: 6%; 2001: 7%, 2003: 1-3.5%, 2004: 4%, 2005: 5,5%). Agriculture places 40% to 41% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, industryapprox. 20% and service approx. 37-38%. Exports constitute 8.3 (2000 and 2003) to 9.6% (2004), imported goods 24-27% Union of Police.
Growth seems however particularly on a boom of construction activity particularly in the capital and national park (among other things Large hotel howthe Intercontinental, Kivu Sun and Akagera Game Lodge; Building of insurance and businessmen) as well as large-scale projects with road construction (2004: Kigali Kayonza; To decrease/go back Kigali Butare Akanyaru). The building sector rose 2003 around 15,6% and 2004 around 10%. Years with point growth (2000 and 2001) go alsoon receipts from exports by the marketing of Coltan among other things Minerals back, it is unclear with which how much from it from the neighbouring Congo originates, which legally and which is marketed illegaly over Rwanda. To the domestic market BRALIRWA, brewery and soft drink manufacturer set, under DutchLicense (Heinecker) since decades the principal part. Other important business concerns are: Cigarettes (Tabarwanda), portable radio enterprises and Internet (MTN), soaping and Kosmetik (Sulfo), textiles (Utexrwa, rather in the decrease understood by imported goods of cheap textiles) and building material (v.a. Cimerwa, cement production; in the crisis by highEnergy prices).
Agriculture places GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT to only about 40%. On the other hand 93% the RuanderInnen on the country and on it 90% in Subsistenzwirtschaft live. Agriculture suffers repeated from meterologischen irregularities and harvest losses. Large parts of agricultural production are not marketed. Services and industryare weakly trained.
The GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT per head amounts to approx. 200-250 USD per year. Rwanda is on place 159 development indexindex development index (HDI).
The upswing of the service sector (guest trade/tourism, transport and telecommunications) concern likewise above all the capital. The number of the tourists (visitorsthe national park) rises (2003: 16.538; 2004: 26.998) just as the number of the aircraft passengers on the airport of Kigali (2003: 116.638; 2004: 132.504).
The inflation was 2000 with approx. 3.3%, and rose 2003 on 8,7% as well as 2004 on 12,6%. Above allthe energy (river) and food prices rose 2004 and 2005 strongly.
In February 2006 the rate of exchange amounted to to the euro in approximately 750 Rwandi francs (RWF). There are numerous nationally registered change offices, particularly in the capital. A BetriebswirtIn in the administrationcan earn monthly in approximately 100,000 RWF (approx. 135 euro); a driver in the capital about 5,000 RWF. A taxi travel in the capital costs about 2,000 RWF, a half litre of milk 450 RWF, a 33cl bottle mineral water approx. 250 FRw.
Only few Ruander have firm, durable jobs with Lohneinkommen. The number of workers becomes on approx. 3,6 millions estimated. Numbers to unemployment are not present and have in a still strongly little-market-integrated economy with one after like largenon-monetary production department no force of expression. The largest trade union, CESTRAR, had been created as organ of the former government and became independent by political reforms 1991.
In the trade as in other East Africa niches countries since the colonial age asiatic stämmige families are (v.a. from Pakistan and) Strongly, partially also Greeks represent India. Since the entrance from Rwanda into the COMESA the competition pressure grew with in/export.
Rwanda has large lack of energy. There are hardly possibilities of winning locally energy. The dependence on neighbour statesis large. The power requirement grows at the same time by the growth of the cities and the economic upswing. Oil products are near-created over large distances and bad roads by the Indian ocean, particularly over Kenya and Uganda. The country produces river above all outWater power (97.7%). 2001 amounted to production at electricity 97 millions a KW/H, already 2002 166.7 millions a KW/H; consumption was 2002 however with 195 millions a KW/H; 40 millions a KW/H were imported. The need lies still much more highly. Only approx. 4% thatPopulation, v.a. in cities, have power connection. The current supply is completely insufficient, since the water levels of native lakes are too strongly fallen aufgrung of excessive use and/or climatic changes. The river is regularly switched off therefore. Around with the Congo and Burundijointly used large hydro-electric power plant in the southwest at the Rusizi river gives it between the countries involved to controversy, in addition also the water level of the Kívu lake, which represents the supply, sank. At present also since 2005/06 large Diesel generators are used, around which by Unterkapazitäten causedTo hold current disconnections of certain boroughs Kigalis and other places within limits.
The Kivu lake contains methane gas made of volcanic activity, which is used since 1983 for power production for the brewery BRALIRWA. Since 2005 negotiations run for establishment first a power station, that thatMethane gas in the Kivusee uses (planned: first 30 MW). The nature gas reserves become estimated on 28,32 Millarden cubic meters (1.1.2002).
The road system is developed and is continued to improve quite well. There are relatively good bitumen routes between the important cities (altogether 1,000 km). SomeRegions are however badly tied up; overdue the for many years bitumen route was nevertheless taken in the nose serums in the spring 2006 in attack. Side streets are not fastened and in different condition. The development of the road system takes place with support of multilateral backers (World Bank, European Union). Rwandahas no rail connection and had only insignificant inland ports at the Kivu lake. The most important road connections to the next high seas port (Mombasa/Kenya) and Daressalam/Tanzania (ever over 1.500 km) are in bad condition. In April 2006 plans nevertheless became the development of the Fernverbindung Uganda Rwandaadmits. The Binnenlage, small transportation volumes and weak competition make Rwanda one of the countries with the world-wide highest transport costs, which is still intensified by rising oil prices since 2004.
The soils are strongly stressed by intensive agriculture, tropical climate and Hanglagenand of erosion threatens. Large parts of the natural mountain forests were cleared already in before-colonial time, this trend since then constantly continued. The forest stand is indicated as 3.440 qkm (2004). The governments undertook times more, times less serious efforts towardProtection of the remainder forests. Also culture forests and utilizable forests are in bad condition. The population has a large need of utilizable wood for firing, for building etc. 95% of the households cook with wood and charcoal, the majority of it on energy-inefficient “three stones”. ThoseSpreading of improved furnaces is still small. The government passed a law some years ago, after striking of trees or branches is permitted to the same with permission only. Since then the prices of charcoal as well as bricks increased strongly.It is missing at alternatives to firewood and charcoal. The government plans, the creation more alternatively to grant environmentalcareful forms of energy high priority. Thus there are individual projects for the production of briquettes from not kompostierbaren organic wastes (in the capital), but this has economicalally quantitativelyno meaning.
The government has an outline plan discharged named “vision 2020”, which aims at an annual economic growth of 7%, the development of the private sector, a modernization of the agriculture and whereupon, Rwanda to a service center in the Africa of the large seas toomake.
The government followed the NEPAD initiative and divides their goals.
The African development bank has its center 2005 a Rwandese president, Donald Kaberuka.
of Rwanda economics is strongly agriculturally coined/shaped. Approximately 93% of the population work inthis range. A large part of the yields apply however for the self-sufficiency (90%). The land scarceness is large. Over 90% of the predominant family businesses manage a surface of less than a hectare. A law to the Landreform was discussed several years and 2005discharged. It is to make the durable acquisition possible of country and to create thus incentives for investments. So far all country was in national possession; Citizens had only sneezing utilizable rights.
Numbers for the production of the agrarian sector are to be enjoyed with caution, there only one partagricultural production one markets and the estimations in view of the high portion of Subsistenzproduktion by smallrural families to remain inaccurate to have. In addition the agricultural produce varies by climatic irregularities (v.a. Dry one) from year to year often strongly. Example: 2002 are the agricultural producearound 15% risen its, for 2003 a decrease had been registered around -4,1%, 2004 is it compared with 2003 to have remained constant. Strong price increases particularly for basic food load the population strongly.
Most important cultivation cultures for self-supply are the tuber fruitsManiok (Kassava), sweet potato (less: Kolokasien), different bean sorts, partial peas. Sojaanbau spreads ever more strongly. In the center of the country of it even Tofu is made. In the higher situations potatoes, wheat and peas are diminished. Bananas, to the wine production and asFeeding and fruit bananas to be used, are cultivated in large quantities, particularly in the deeper and middle situations, climaticcause less in higher situations. They are however culturally highly outstanding. At grain fruits Sorgho cultivated for beer and food mash production (v.a. inthe deep and middle situations), in addition corn; into lowering also increasingly more rice as well as wheat is cultivated (the latters in the high situations).
The farmer families order almost any usable marks ashore; it hardly more broke practiced. One cultivatesusually in Mischkultur and in crop rotations.
The cultivated areas of the farmer families are on the hill flanks. On the crests there are partly still small tree existence; often the soil is there bad. The valleys belong to the municipalities, them groups of farmers to the useleft; usually to the commercial use.
The Rwandese Bauernfamilíen lives traditionally in scattered housing estate in the midst of its fields; directly around the house the Bananenhain. After 1994 the government began to obligate humans to resettle itself into villages. This process progressed differently strongly anddisputed.
Cattle the highly estimated utilizable animals are traditional; above all the milk (for butter to the hygiene and sour milk as food) was used. Today there is a modern milk processing with a broad pallet at products. Many Kleinbauern do not have howeverto hold enough pastureland and fodder around a cow. Kleinstbauern hold therefore rather goats or only a few chickens. Hare breed and pig attitude are well-known in small extent.
Primary export goods are coffee and dte, the country suffer however underthe low prices of these goods in the industrialized countries. The quality of coffee and dte decreased in the 90's strongly; of coffee could be brought in the meantime however on a higher level than before the war.
Despite of Rwanda fruitfulSoil often cannot hold the food production with the population growth step. Thus food imported goods become necessary.
external trade and tourism
energy shortage, instability in the region, as well as large distances from the ports (Indian ocean), as well as partially (Tanzsania) bad transportation tying upto the neighboring countries, overshadow the export trade and industry of the country.
2003 and 2004 the value the export estimated 73 and/or 70 millions USD amounted to. Exports amount to according to World Bank 2000 and 2003 8.3% as well as 2004 9.6% Union of Police.
Important export partners were for exampleIndonesia (2002: 30%, 2003: 38%, 2004: 64%); Germany (2002: 14,6%; 2003: 4,45%; 2004: 2.7%) and China (2002: ?; 2003: 3,8%; 2004: 3,6%); Hong Kong 2002: 9%; South Africa 2002: 5,5%.
Most important export goods are still coffee and dte, in the smaller measurealso Pyrethrum (vegetable insecticide), as well as mineral ores (Coltan and tin oxide). Of 2003 on 2004 the value of exported goods of 62 millions amounted to USD to 98 millions USD.
Coffee production, - processing and - marketing was denationalized after 1994 (before it it was national monopoly); sothat there are in the meantime different coffee marks. The export of Kaffe knew itself of 2003 on 2004 around 82% verbessernM it 700 tons compared with 270 in 2003 was exported. This goes to country on the building from coffee washing plants generally speakingback.
Dte production is still in national hand, two Plantagen is however to be denationalized (lt new Time 8.4.2006). Altogether coffee and dte production are to be further intensified.
Since (Belgian) the colonial age ores became such as Cassiterit (tin), columbite Tantalit and Wolframit as well as smallQuantities diminished from gold and sapphires. Into the 80's ores had become however insignificant. With the Coltan boom end of the 90's in the east of the DR the Congo also rwandische mines were again opened. A large part of the eastCongolese minerals(also gold) again however brought over Rwanda on the world market. The export of tin oxide amounted to 2003 1,458 t, and 2004 3,553 t; from Coltan 2003 732 t and 2004 861 t amounted to.
In order to widen the export basis, those triesGovernment to promote the cultivation and the marketing of “alternative crops” like flowers or fruit. This stands however in competition for anyway insufficient self-supply at food for the population.
The import volume amounted to 2004 estimated 260 million USD. Imported goods make loudWorld Bank data 2000 24.6% and 2003/2004 approx. 47.4% Union of Police out.
Import partner: Kenya (2003 and 2004: approx. 24%; 2002: 21.8%), Germany (2002: 8,4%; 2003: 7,7%; 2004: 7.4%), Belgium (2002: 7,9%; 2003 and 2004: 6.6%), France (2003 and 2003: 5,1%); Israel 2002:4,3%; Uganda 2004: 6,3%.
Most important import goods are fuel, vehicles, building materials, consumer goods. The most important German delivery industries are mechanical engineering, electro-technology, precision mechanics/optics. In the meantime also chemical Vorerzeugnisse are exported to Rwanda. It is imported however also electricity (2002: 40 millions a KW/H).
The government setson regional integration of the economy, whereby the country is to exercise a bridge function between the anglophonen East Africa and the Central African neighbours Burundi and democratic Republic of the Congo. Among other things meant, Rwanda is to a center of the information technology of the region (IT) toomake. In this connection Rwanda as well as Burundi aims at the membership in the East Africa niches Economic Community (EAC). In the context of the common one east and South African market (COMESA) Rwanda committed itself to the adjustment of its tariffs.
Rwanda strives in addition strongly overforeign investments. According to World Bank data the volume of foreign direct investments (inflows, BoP net) amounted to 2000 7.7 millions USD, 2003 5.0 millions USD and 2004 8.0 millions USD.
Tourism plays no extensive role in Rwanda still. The country has no large nature parkslike Kenya and Tanzania still over sea beaches. It sets therefore realistic-proves not on mass tourism, but on few, financially strong tourists. Also rather evening-expensive-merry tourists on the way across Africa are (usually briefly) in Rwanda. Its characteristics for thatabove all the mountain gorillas represent international tourism, which live at the slopes of the volcanic chain (Virunga) in the north of the country. There are accustomed wild groups of gorillas, which of a limited number of tourists in its natural environment under certain at humansEditions to be visited can. Potential to a limited development of the tourism this exists with a cultural-historical in the development of pictorial places at the Kivu lake as well as the offers in the southern mountain rain forest (Nyungwe), the regeneration of the animal existence of the Savannenparks in the east, as well as the possibility,Program to supplement (dance and singing; Museums (Butare; Genocide memorial places) and the few erhaltenene houses from the early colonial age.
in and the 70's 60's grew the Rwandese economy, owing to a careful financial policy, paired with more generously more externalAssistance and favorable trading terms. The inflation was low. When however the coffee prices fell in the 80's strongly, it came to economic problems. From 1973 to 1980 growth rates amounted to annually zirka 6.5%, went then between 1980 and 1985 on 2,9%back and stagnated from 1986 to 1990. The crisis intensified itself 1990, when the first measures of a structural adjustment program of the International Monetary Fund were accomplished. The program was not fully converted, but two strong devaluations and the abolition of nationally fixed prices becameaccomplished. From the consequences suffered above all the formed elite, which was busy mostly national employees or in national enterprises.
During the war years 1990 to 1994 economical production decreased, in 1994 by 40%. Afterwards it began itselfto recover slowly again, with a growth of 9% in 1995, 13% in 1996. Tax incomes were denationalized improved, national enterprises, taken up export production and food again.
The national budget depends strongly on international financial allowances. 1999 received the country 372.9 millions USDEconomic aid. Emphasis of the international assistance is re-establishment and development of the infrastructure (roads, water, public mechanisms such as schools and public health services etc.) and the law. In June 1998 Rwanda signed an extended structural adjustment program with the International Monetary Fund.
Rwanda becomes from the World Bank as highly which was to blame for developing country classified. With this classification it qualifies itself for the participation in in the year 2000 the program for the remission of debts, decided by the industrialized countries, for the poorest countries of Africa. On 12.4. 2005 placed the IWF the reaching of thefor further remission of debts “completion POINTs” force firmly, Rwanda a set of conditions (among other things Program for reduction of poverty, various programs for promotions of economy development, structural reforms, privatisations etc.) had fulfilled (see also economics). A first remission of debts thereupon, second grants toJuly 2006 (S. East African Business Week, 10.4.2006).
2000 amounted to the external national indebtedness estimated 1.3 billion USD. (Sound World Bank 2000 1.5 millions USD DOD; 2003: 5,0 millions USD DOD; 2004: 8,0 millions USD DOD. Long-term debts amounted to according to World Bank 2000: 1,5Billion USD, 2003 1.4 billion USD and 2004 1.1 billion USD.) the portion of the debt the MC of exports, services and incomes amounted to 2000 11.2%, 2003 14% and 2004 24.1%.
The national budget had 2004 (?) a volume of approx. 368 millions USD(approx. 507.6 millions euro). It consisted of the current household (265 millions USD) and the development household (103 millions FRw).
The portion of the external giver financing rose further and amounted 2005 to 57%.
2005 (?) the expenditures amounted to inNational budget approx. 385 millions USD (including investments); the incomes 354.5 millions USD.
Official development assistance amounted to according to World Bank data in the year 2000 467.5 millions USD, 2003 333.4 millions USD and 2004 322.0 millions USD.
military expenditure amounts to according to data of the World Bank 3.7% Union of Police (2000), 2.9% Union of Police (2003) and 2.1% Union of Police (2004), 2.9% Union of Police (2003). High defense expenditure of theCountry in the past to tensions between the government and the international backers led.
since that 1. January 2006 is divided Rwanda into five provinces:
- Kigali (province) with capital Kigali
- north (province)
- east (province)
- South (province)
- west (province)
before was Rwanda arranged into the following twelve provinces: Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali, Kigali Rural, Ruhengeri, Umutara.
Web on the left of
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- Rwanda in the CIA - World Factbook
Equatorial Guinea |
Burkina Faso |
The Ivory Coast |
The Gambia |
Cape Verde |
The Congo (that. Rep.) |
The Congo (rep.) |
The Niger |
São Tomé and Príncipe |
Sierra Leone |
South Africa |
The Sudan |
Central African Republic of
other areas: Ceuta | Îles of éparses | Kanari islands | Larva Irish Republican Army | Mayotte | Melilla | Réunion | Pc. Helena | West seeing era
Equatorial Guinea |
Burkina Faso |
The Ivory Coast |
The Gambia |
Cape Verde |
The Congo, democratic republic |
The Congo, republic |
The Niger |
São Tomé and Príncipe |
Sierra Leone |
South Africa |
The Sudan |
Central African Republic of
other areas: West seeing era | temporarily impossible: Mauritania
coordinates: 1° 59 ' S, 29° 43 'O