the term backpack tourism (English. Backpacking) developed in the German-speaking countries into the 1970er year and can be seen as a kind preliminary stage of the alternative tourism. By the Anthropologen and tourism scientist Eric Cohen became the backpack tourist 1972 also as Drifter (derived from the English. drift - float, to drive itself leave designated).
As a kind short version of the Weltenbummlers (also globetrotter called) young humans from the angloamerikanischen area traveled only with the most necessary luggage and usually without clear conception of the accommodation possibilities. These were only locally explored and should be as inexpensive as possible and off the other accommodations of the overall tourists, but however in closer contact for native population. The backpack tourism understood itself as alternative to the mass tourism. Meanwhile it is also among the alternative travelers in the asiatic area much likes.
A clear definition is not possible, since it comes in the most different forms and from the most different motives. Some have an exact goal, stay only at a place, others know only the first place of residence and can then be floated or it gives from the beginning a firm route planning. Some have a fixed return journey date, others know at the beginning of the journey not yet when it back to turn. In addition, with most the carried forward “holiday pay “hands it for the entire travel duration, gives many, which have only for a certain/uncertain while sufficient money (frequently in the form of Travellerschecks and recently credit cards). They try to earn itself then locally by acceptance of work the maintenance. Many strand also (because you on the way the money goes out and it find no work) and must then under the message of the homeland to back-travel. First mainly from the HIPPI movement of the 1970er today a clear allocation of the type, which undertakes these journeys, developed no longer assignable. Often longer backpack journeys in the transitional phase between youth find and to be arisen instead of.
As a sign of individuality begun, developed itself however also this alternative form of the tourism in the course of the years to a mass movement. In many of backpack tourists strongly this led frequented areas to accompaniments, as they arise also in the conventional tourism, which was actually originally rejected.
The designation baking packman comes from the English (baking luggage = backpack) and names the backpack tourist, who is only with a backpack on the way, usually much time and little planning in the luggage. Also gladly the Hostels used by backpack tourists is called, as abbreviation of the term baking packman Hostels , baking packman.
The Australian publishing house Lonely planet Publications was first, the travel guide particularly for backpack tourists published.
To table of contents
- Bangkok in Thailand with the famous Khao San Road, increasingly also Chiang May and the islands in the south (Koh Samui, Koh Phangan, Koh Tao)
- the Outback of Australia
- Goa in India
- New Zealand
- Beck, Ulrich: Risk company. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 1986.
- Cohen, Eric: Nomads from Affluence: Notes on the Phenomenon OF Drifter Tourism. In: Internationally journal OF Comparative Sociology 14 (1973), 89-103.
- Cohen, Eric: Toward A Sociology OF internationally Tourism. In: Social Research 39 (1972), 164-182.
- Giddens, Anthony: Consequences of the modern trend. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp 2001.
- Resound, to Stuart: Representation. Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: Legend 1997.
- Withered, Peter: On A shoestring. Constructions OF baking packman Identity. Bangkok: White Lotus 2003.
- Spreitzhofer, Günter: Tourism third world - focus Southeast Asia: Alternative tourism as engine for mass tourism and soziokulturellen change. European university writings row 4, volume 16, publishing house Peter Lang, Frankfurt 1995, 232 S., ISBN 3-631-47965-4
- Westerhausen, Klaus:Beyond the Beach - at Ethnography OF decaying Travellers in Asia  Bangkok: White Lotus 2002 
- Cohen defined the Drifter as “the type of tourist,  from withdrawn paths and the used ways of life of its homeland away dares itself. He [the Drifter, J.B.] avoids any connection to a routistic infrastructure and feels usual routistic experiences as false. It is inclined to pierce itself completely on own fist lives the local population and often accepts casual work, in order to get ahead. It tried to live as as humans who it visited [...] does not have firm travel or schedule and no clearly defined destinations. It dips almost completely into the guest culture " (Eric Cohen 1972, S. 168, translation: Jana binder).
- “Alternative tourism today is to a large extent ideology-free, majority privilege of the western (young persons) education elite, and ordered except conformal outward manifestations (backpack!) and disorganized travel form over few thing in common. Alternative tourism takes also in Southeast Asia the role of the pioneer for wide overall tourism (“secret tips”). Alternative tourism is often a measure-routistic feature, which boom-ends industries in the countries of origin by own and an adequate infrastructure in the Zielländern is favoured and steered. In addition also the relevant travel guide literature belongs. The escape before personal and private crisis situations, paired with society and civilization criticism, leads to the failure of the illusion of the people communication. Egozentri self confirmation and - identification coin/shape the alternative tourism. The third world becomes the play meadow of the self experience. Native ones are degradiert to the window blind. (Theoretically) the intensive contacts for population of restaurant are limited to a large extent to a English-speaking minority from the alternative tourism Business. Existing ones financial like social inequalities between your and Bereisten experience thus an additional aggravation. “ (Günter Spreitzhofer, Austrian geo count and journalist)
Web on the left of
- project: Drift - backpack tourism as reaction to latemodern requirements (of Jana binder)
- baking packman forum (English)
- Swiss of baking packman - independent baking packmen Hostels in Switzerland