Rudolf I. (HRR)
Rudolf I. or Rudolf of having castle (* 1. May 1218 on lock Limburg, mash gau; † 15. July 1291 in Speyer) was a German prince from the house Having castle and Roman-German king, count von Habsburg, count von Kyburg, land count von Thurgau and count von Löwenstein. Rudolf had an illegitimate son Albrecht of giving mountain, which he transferred his title „count von Löwenstein “, before heto the king one selected.
Rudolf was the son of count Albrecht IV. of having castle and Hedwig of Kiburg. It had called a first marriage with Gertrud of high mountain, since 1273 Anna, to 16. February 1281 died. Thereupon marriedit Elizabeth von Burgund (gest.1323). Emperor Friedrich II. was alleged. Rudolfs godfather.
Rudolfs achievements were already recognized by its contemporaries. It terminated the Interregnum, defeated Ottokar, the king of Böhmen, and set the land peace and the yard iurisdiction in parts of the realm again through. In the context of its possibilities it strengthened the Königtum despite the outstanding position of the cure princes. In addition it put the basis for the power of its family. In addition it is considered as one to thatmost popular ruler figures of the German Middle Ages.
Table of contents
count von Habsburg (1240-1273)
Rudolf I. having castle is considered as a first important ruler of the house. After deathits father prevailed Rudolf starting from 1240 as a count over Ländereien in the Elsass and today's northeast Switzerland. As a count it used its good relations with pilotfar from and its martial fate and extended (among other things at expense of the Regensberger) fastits territory. Also owing to the inheritance of the county Kyburg in the year 1264 it became thereby the most powerful territorial gentleman in north Switzerland.
Königtums 1254 pilotfish
the king choice of 1273 after the end changed themselves kings and Gegenkönigein the realm off. The power vacuum, not completely correctly Interregnum mentioned, resulted from the unclear positions of power of these rulers, since there were further kings in the realm, even if none of these could become generally accepted, ended only on operation of Pope Gregor X. at the 1. October 1273 in Frankfurt/Main with the choice at this time of the 55jährigen Rudolf to the Roman-German king. Was crowned Rudolf of Engelbert II., the archbishop of Cologne, to 24. October in Aachen.
For its choice the circumstance was important that the Popes stressed the right, who kings of the holy Roman realm to confirm (license to practise medicine). After the death of the king smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Cornwall 1272, the Pope recognized its rival Alfons ofKastilien not as a king on. The way for a new election by the cure princes was thus free. Beside Rudolf I. became also the king of Böhmen Ottokar II., the French king Philipp III and the land count of Thuringia, Friedrich thatFreidige, as candidates mentioned.
Rudolf of having castle had to make a commitment to the cure princes that he would sell the realm property alienated since the Staufer period again to lead back and realm goods only with agreement (cure) of the princes. Further it should befrieden the realm andthe numerous feuds in the realm terminate.
fight against the king of Böhmen (1273-1277)
most important opponent Rudolfs was up to its death the king of Böhmen, Přemysl Ottokar II., not considered with the king choice.It places itselfas a most powerful territorial gentleman of the realm against the king and refused returning from it in possession taken realm goods to the realm. Rudolf proceeded first formally against Ottokar. It could be confirmed on the yard day to Nuremberg 1274 that alsothe böhmische king its Lehen received from the king must. The king of Böhmen refused however. On Augsburger the yard day (24. June 1275) all Reichslehen , the office for giving and the Austrian countries were denied to it and fell thusthe realm; in addition over Ottokar the realm eight one imposed.
Up to the summer 1276 Rudolf with the cure princes had closed and also with the Hungarian king an alliance. With its allied ones besieged it in October Vienna. To 21. The peace negotiations ended to November 1276. Ottokar did without its requirements in Switzerland and Austria and recognized Rudolf on as a king. The peace continued however not for a long time: in June 1278 again the war broke out between both. Manythe preceding allied one behaved now neutrally. Nevertheless Rudolf won the decisive battle with Dürnkrut to 26. August 1278, by using hidden reserve troops at the end. Ottokar died after the battle by the hand of personal enemies.
basesder Macht der Habsburger in Österreich (1276-1283)
Nachdem die Reichsgüter Ottokars an das Reich zurückgefallen waren, belehnte Rudolf mit Einverständnis der Kurfürsten 1282 seine Söhne Albrecht und Rudolf mit Österreich, Steiermark, Krain und der Windischen Markund erhobit into the realm prince conditions. 1276 he religious prince had already convinced to assign goods in the same catchment area to its sons. With the “Rhine fields house regulation “ (1. June 1283) determined Rudolf that these goods only by Albrechtand its inheriting to be controlled should; its brother Rudolf should receive a remuneration to reconciliation. The basis of the later rule of the having citizens was created thereby. The attempt to secure for Albrecht the throne follow-up failed because of it that it never succeeded to Rudolf, to Emperor to be crowned. With it Rudolf could have secured the Roman-German king crown still during its lifetimes Albrecht. But there were eight Popes, two firmly agreed upon coronation/culmination dates during Rudolfs reign altogether never came off. Only Heinrich VII.should succeed, itselfto let crown to the emperor.
overcoming inter+rain around: The Revindikationspolitik Rudolfs
Rudolf did not renew simply that Realm land peace of 1235, whereby it completely to pilotfish itself model oriented. It acted also in the west and the south of the realm with the territorial gentlemen particular locally and temporally limited land peace out (e.g. 1276 in Austria or 1281 the Bavarian,Frankish, and rheinischen land peace). Even in more distant realm areas it tried to succeed (he e.g. left 1289/90 in Thuringia. 66 robbery knight castles destroy). In March 1287 it appeared finally possible Rudolf to announce a general land peace.
To 9. August it let 1281 state on the yard day to Nuremberg formally that all after the joggle Friedrichs II. accomplished donations or orders over realm goods are futile, it are, the majority of the cure princes approved of the orders. It used Landvögte, thoseunauthorized acquired realm goods to find are to act and as representatives of the king. This Landvogteien was an important instrument to the Revindikation of the realm property. Rudolf let the entire realm property divide into such administrative units and gave to the Vögten extensive powers. Thus was also oneeffective administration of the realm property secured - something that existed in the European monarchies such as France or England long.
In kingnear (thus particularly in the southwest of the realm) territories it has to unite success to book. In king-far territories (like the north)tried it with the help of allying the cities to protect and realm goods back in possession to bring - here it could achieve however no considerable success. Its requirements on the burgundische Pfalzgrafschaft it could 1289 successfully intersperse, its successors could Burgund against France hold however not in the long term, which operated an aggressive policy of expansion in the west of the realm since the late Staufer period.
death and view
Rudolf deceased to 15. July 1291 in Speyer. Successor did not become only however to be survivor son Albrecht, but, particularly due to the fears of the cure princes, Albrecht, supported by its house power , too powerful, the count could becomeof Nassau Adolf.
Rudolfs grave is in the cathedral to Speyer. The coffin cover (see illustration at the beginning of the article) shows a lifenear image of the king, which was created briefly after its death. It is considered as an outstanding artisticAchievement of this time. The coffin cover was removed, as beginning 18. Century the graves were covered with new plates. It is issued today in the crypt of the cathedral.
- Albrecht I. (1248 - 1308), German king
- Hartmann (1263 - 1281)
- Guta of having castle (1271 - 1297) - 1285 marries with Wenzel II., King of Böhmen
- Rudolf II. (1271 - 1290), duke of Austria
- Klementia of having castle († 1293)
- Mathilde († 1304) - 1273 marries with Ludwig, duke of Bavaria
- welfare TIG († 1303) - 1279 marries also Otto IV., Mark count of Brandenburg
- Agnes († 1322) - Albrecht II. marries 1273 with duke. of Saxonia
- Katharina († 1282) - III. marries 1272 with Otto., King of Hungary
- Karl Friedrich Krieger: Rudolf of having castle, Darmstadt 2003.
- Oswald fair: Rudolf of having castle. The German Reich after the fall of the old dock ore around, Innsbruck 1903 (and reproductions). Alwaysstill fundamentally.
Web on the left of
Commons: Rudolf I. - Pictures, videos and/or audio files
- www.genealogie-mittelalter.de: Rudolf Ith, German king and count von Habsburg
- entry in the BBKL (Bautz)
- “Regesta Imperii” Rudolfs
Alfons of Kastilien
list of the Roman-German rulers successor
person data NAME Rudolf I. ALTERNATIVE NAME Rudolf of having castle SHORT DESCRIPTION Roman-German king and count von Habsburg DATE OF BIRTH 1. May 1218 PLACE OF BIRTH on lock Limburg, mash gau DYING DATE 15. July 1291 DYING PLACE Speyer