Rudolf IV. (Austria)

Rudolf IV.

Rudolf IV., called the founder, (* 1. November 1339 in Vienna; † 27. July 1365 in Milan) was duke (and ore duke even appointed) of Austria 1358 - 1365.

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as an oldest son of Albrecht II. and the Johanna of Pfirt it belonged to the third generation of having citizen - dukes in Austria. He was thus the first duke, that in the country was born and it asits closer homeland regarded, which contributed to its popularity quite. It is considered as one of the most energetic and most engaged rulers of Austria in the late Middle Ages, it is called, it is to have appeared as a young man like a king.

It was married with Katharina of Böhmen, which itto a son-in-law of Karl IV. made. The competition to its father-in-law, who removed Prague to a shining cultural center, was a not insignificant motive in its thinking and acting.

As Karl the meaning of Prague, he wanted to lift the meaning of Vienna, which in many of his documentsalso one stresses.

One jumped thereby in the eye and all Austrian dukes for more than hundred years had already employed: Vienna was not a bishop seat. Responsibly still the bishop von Passau , a condition, was which was felt for a herzogliche Residenzstadt as awkward. Therethe Passauer of bishops however better relations with the Pope had, did not penetrate it with the project to establish its own diocese in Vienna not. Instead it seized to a kind Hochstapelei: it arranged in pc. Stephan the establishment of a metropolitan chapter (which the name after an archbishopto be assigned to would have), its members were red dressed (like cardinals). The Propst of this cathedral chapter received the title ore chancellor from Austria.

None bluff was however the development of the church to pc. Stephan, whose highly gothical nave under it was begun (new building of the Viennese Stephandomes,at its portal it perpetuated itself). This happened not least also as competition at the Prager Veitsdom.

Likewise in competition to the Karl university in Prague the establishment of the University of Vienna was meant, which is called today still Alma mould Rudolphina. It is one of the oldest German-language universities(the Prager is the oldest). The establishment took place 1365, but only 1385 (thus after Rudolfs death) could be created a theological faculty, which constituted a complete university in the eyes of the time only.

Many other measures served to lift the economy the city,for instance the control duty of the mayor over all purchase of land, in order to prevent a too large portion of the “dead hand” (the economically unproductive church possession). Also it succeeded to create it with the Viennese Pfennig a relatively stable Münzeinheit.

At the probably most well-known is a further bluff, the falsificationthe Privilegium Maius, which placed it in fact equal the cure princes, since Austria in the golden one bull had empty gone out. On this occasion invented ore duke title became starting from that 16. Century to a characteristic of the princes from the house having castle.

it closed 1363after the death animal oilers of the Wittelsbachers my hard III. with its nut/mother Margarethe of Tirol a hereditary contract, after which Tirol fell to the “rule to Austria”. By its contract with Margarethe (with the surname “muzzle exchange” was occupied later) it knew also Tirol to the having citizensbring.

It closed with his father-in-law emperor Karl IV. 1364 the Brünner hereditary contract (1364), which planned the mutual succession of having citizens and Luxemburgern.

Despite the high-flying (and perhaps a little size-mad) character of its plans, he has nevertheless its countries and above all itsResidenzstadt modernized and also at meaning enriches. Its in former times death set a sudden end: its brothers Albrecht III. and Leopold III., which should together have governed after the Rudolfini house regulation, zerstritten themselves already soon welfareless and divided their possession 1379.

At meaningfor the history of art to hardly overrate its, first (half) is haven-guessed/advised frontal-haven-guesses/advises the evening country. It was hung up some decades over its grave in the step Hans cathedral and is in the Erzbischöflichen cathedral and diocesan museum to be seen now. Apart from (invented) the ore duke crown, their perspective representation of the artistsnot yet completely in the grasp, is haven-guessed/advised it had a completely realistic. Even the face paralysis beginning of the duke is represented.


  • William tree: Rudolf IV. the founder. Its world and its time. Styria, Graz 1996, ISBN 3-222-12422-1

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