Rudolf of Rheinfelden

Rudolf of Rheinfelden (also Rudolf of Swabia) (* around 1025; † 15. October 1080 in Merseburg) was in the holy Roman realm a Gegenkönig Heinrichs IV. He was the son of the count Kuno von Rheinfelden.


1057kidnapped Rudolf the eleven-year old daughter Mathilde to empress Agnes von Poitou from the monastery and forced so not only the consent to the grinding (1059), but also the transmission of the duchy Swabia and the administration Burgunds. Mathilde, the sister Heinrichs IV. died howeveralready shortly thereafter, to 12. May 1060.

Rudolf married afterwards in the year 1066 Adelheid († 1079), the daughter of the count Otto von Savoyen. There this a sister Berthas, which was Mrs. Heinrichs IV., became again Rudolf Heinrichs brother-in-law. The common daughter Agnes(† 1111) II. became with Berthold. from tough rings grinds.

Rudolf placed itself 1066 against the point of the prince conspiracy against Heinrich IV. and trachtete even after the crown. Publicly it supported however the king and fought in its wars against the Thüringer and Saxonia at itsSide. Thus it participated also in June 1075 in the point that Swabia in the battle with high castle .

Only as in February 1076 Pope Gregor VII. he had expressed, decided the spell over Heinrich to the open procedure. With the dukes by Bavaria and It caused Kärnten in October on a prince meeting to Trebur in the presence papal Legaten the seized resolution that Heinrich IV., if he within period of one year of the spell am not loose-spoken had stopped, being king.

This came however, although its opponents guarded the alpine passports, neverthelessto Italy and at the end of received January 1077 by the course after Canossa the desired abolition of the spell from the Pope, which did not hold however the German princes from it, to 15. To select March duke Rudolf in Forchheim to the German king, after the same on the Investitur thatBishops had done without and the king right to vote of the princes had recognized. To 26. March salbte it archbishop Siegfried I. from Mainz to the king, whom the Pope, who occupied Heinrich in November again with the spell, confirmed also.

Rudolf had to withdraw itself however before Heinrich to Saxonia,it in June 1077 to Ulm with the eight occupied. Both pulled on that against each other to field. Heinrich IV. the battle lost with Mellrichstadt to 7. August 1078, as well as to 27. January 1080 in the battle with Flarchheim nearby Mühlhausen. The Pope sentwhereupon Rudolf a crown too and issued its sins to its allied ones. After death Adelheids 1079 proclaimed allied Rudolfs its son Berthold from Rheinfelden to the new duke of Swabia. Heinrich IV. reacted to by lending the duchy at Friedrich of high baptism. In the followingYear lost Rudolf in the otherwise favorable battle with Hohenmölsen nearby Merseburg the right hand, at the same time deadly at the abdomen was wounded and died by day on it (to 15. October 1080) in Merseburg, where he became to bury its knocked off right hand in the cathedral and this very dayone keeps.

The fact that Rudolf of Rheinfelden the right hand - which oath hand - reduced was, interpreted the party men Heinrichs propagandistic as “God judgement”, which discredited and weakened the prince opposition against Heinrich additionally. In the following years Heinrich built its powerful position opposite princes and Pope importantlyout.

The bronze plate of its tomb in the Merseburger cathedral is the first picture of a German king and at the same time the oldest figürliche tomb of a layman from the high Middle Ages.


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