Rugjer Josip Bošković

Rudjer Josip Bošković.

Rudjer Josip Bošković and/or. Boscovich (* 18. May 1711 in Dubrovnik, Croatia; † 12. February 1787 in Milan /Milano, Italy) was a Dubrovniker, a Jesuit, a mathematician and an innovative physicist, which were active also in the astronomy , nature philosophy and Dichtkunst as well as technician and Geodät.

Table of contents

variety at names and activities

in the technical literature is Bošković under the following names present:

  1. Ruđer (Roger) Bošković
  2. Ruđer Josip Bošković
  3. Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich
  4. Roger Joseph Boscovich , and/or. Roger Boscovich
  5. Josip Ruđer Bošković
  6. РуђерЈосипБошковић
  7. Rugjer (Rudjer) Josip Bošković (and/or. without accents written).
    (Lining up after Google: 37000, 1900, 1300, 1000, <100 left).

Bošković stands out among its contemporaries by the variety of its activities. It ranks among one of the last universal scholars of south Europe. He saw its actual homeland in Italy, where he spent the majority of his life. As scientist and an advisor he was active also in the church state, in Austria and France, as well as in the diplomatic service and as a poet.

Its name is until today with important progress in the geodesy, which balance calculation and nature philosophy link, as well as with the beginnings of atomic physics. Also as consultants with endangered buildings of monumental it made itself earned.
The six decades of its scientific activity distribute themselves on ten European countries and about 15 university towns.

from Dalmatien into the Lombardei

Josephs parents were Nikola Bošković, from the Örtchen Orahov DO in the Herzegowina, and Paula Bettera, a Dubrovnikerin Roman descent.

As a boy Ruđer/Ruggero visited the outstanding Jesuitengymnasium of its hometown Dubrovnik (ital. The rising up USA), where it was noticeable soon by its high gift in sciences and languages. Already with 14 years it was sent to the far study to Rome, where it occurred the Jesuitenorden later. At the Collegium Romanum it received founded training in natural sciences, philosophy and theology.

Already at the High School (1723) Bošković published first work from astronomy and geodesy. It lived the next three decades mainly in Rome, where it was geweiht 1740 to the priest. In the same year one appointed it as university professor for mathematics and philosophy to the Collegium Romanum.

scientist and diplomat in completely Europe

Bošković counted with Joseph Liesganig, Lemaine and other one too that scientifically active Jesuiten, which were concerned intensively with new currents of physics and the study of the earth body. It was fascinated of Newton's Gravitationstheorie and defended it against numerous attacks.

Between 1750 and 1753 he led the degree measurement from Rome on behalf the Pope to Rimini, where an about 200 kilometer of long Meridianbogen became to measure for the determination of the regional Erdradius put on and astro+geodetically. Boškovićs' of contacts to the land surveying of the great powers at that time Austria and France caused him to the search for methods of the compensation calculation, in order to derive from several - easily contradictory - degree measurements the parameters of the earth figure optimally.

1756 led it its first diplomatic journey into the centralItalian Lucca and to Vienna. Three years later it left Rome and traveled to Paris, one year later to London, Flanders and Germany. Other journeys led it to Poland and Warsaw, as well as into the osmanische capital Konstantinopel.

Bošković contact had contact to numerous

researchers and philosopher by its universal mode of thought, contact joy and specializedspreading interest situation to numerous considerable researchers and spirit sizes. Among them are to be particularly mentioned:

  • several regents and Popes, numerous Ministers and diplomat,
  • scientist such as Bradley, Clairaut, Franklin, Lalande, Laplace, Mairan, Michell and different philosophers
  • the geo scientists Bouguer, Liesganig, Lemaine, Maire, Maupertuis among other things
  • however also longer technical opposition, e.g. with d'Alembert.

astronomy and optics in Italy and France

1763 he began a Professur at the University of Pavia , changed however soon to Paris and taught later in Milan. At the nearby Kollegium of Brera it operated the establishment of an observatory and let it partially at own expense equip. To its special research topics belonged naturally the optics, furthermore sun physics and the determination of their rotation by means of observation of sunspots.

In the following years Bošković' diplomatic fate was again in demand, as itself (temporary) the abolition of the Jesuitenordens drew. After these confusions it became 1773 in of France navy the “director of the optics “. The king equipped it with a Salär of 8.000 Livres. Soon it was d'Alembert however - in the course of the Jesuitenverfolgung - of and other French scholars was met with hostility, so that he laid down his office and after Bassano turned, where he procured the expenditure of his works.

Finally it turned in 72. Lebensjahr to Milan back, where it died five years later in mental confusion.

from Boškovićs research in physics and astronomy

in upper Italy Bošković becomes the most important Wissenschaftern 18. Century counted, and Nikola Tesla applies as most outstanding physicists of the country in Croatia beside the Serb. Numerous researchers of the Southeast-European area referred to its pioneer work, under which its dynamic atomistic stands out.

It is a precisely formulated system, which develops on the Newton's mechanics. This work inspired Michael Faraday too its electrical field - theory. In an essay over nature philosophy and religion criticism it means in addition: After J. BOSCOVICH the” primae materiae is et elementa “its atomic theory” puncta penitus inextensa indivisibilia, A SE invicem aliquo intervallo disiuncta “ (Theor. philos. 1763, p. 41).

Also in other connection fascinated Bošković the mental conception of mass points - it introduced it as a component of mathematical models systematically into physics. Today the term is so common that one believes nearly, it must have always existed.

contributions to astronomy, geodesy, technology and lyric poetry

Bošković made also important contributions to the astronomy. Among them were a procedure for the computation of the orbit of a planet from three measured positions at the starlit sky, and the first geometrical procedure for the computation of the equator of a rotary heavenly body from three observations of its surface form. Also it determined the rotation elements of the sun from observations of sunspots.

For a similar setting of tasks during the degree measurement from 1750 to 1753, mentioned above, it developed a computing method for the compensation of the arising small contradictions, by minimizing the Absolutsumme of the residues (remaining remaining errors). With Carl Friedrich Gauss are to notes over Bošković' work for the “course regulation of the heavenly bodies " and for Lotabweichung, which were later for Asteroiden such as cerium and useful for the Hannover' land surveying.

Bošković and building physics

in several libraries of south Europe are to appraisal Rugjer Bošković' over the statics of large buildings. The two most well-known cases are the Peter cathedral (1742) and the Palatina (1763). To the latter empress Maria Theresia had asked as an envoy of Lucca at the Viennese the yard to because-end scholars to support the architect Nikolaus Pacassi with the rescue of the dome of the splendor hall threatened by the collapse.

Its admittingness as a civil engineer owes Bošković to one theoretically and practically well founded appraisals to the Peter cathedral in Rome from the year 1742. In this world-wide highest dome clear tears had shown themselves; their causes should be fathomed and suggestions on the recovery of the damage be compiled. For the theory of the procedures the “mathematical physicist” was particularly in demand. In minutes of the meeting of an academy is to be read in addition:
“We are perhaps obligated to excuse us with the many, which do not only prefer the practice of the theory, but first alone for attached and necessary consider, second against it perhaps even harmful. “In such a way it means in the introduction to an appraisal of the two Minoriten Le Seur and Jacquier, the Jesuiten Bošković and the professor for mathematics at the University of Padua, Poleni, from the year 1742 over the causes of causing concern tears in the dome of the Peter cathedral… Of Bošković a Gedenktafel reminds opposite the face of the new aula, the place of the today's commemorative event.

poems and Aurora Borealis

Bošković wrote particularly in latin, in addition, French and Italian. Its latin style is classical and partially. somewhat old-fashionably on. It written own poems, published in addition, such from acquaintance and commentated it scientifically.

First (1747) was a poem of its teacher Caroli Neceti over the Aurora Borealis - the north light. Bošković' conceptions of this effect of the ionosphere were similar to those from Mairan, but were still completely unknown their height. A feature from December 1737 white he 825 miles which is interestingly enough much higher than one still in 19. Century of the terrestrial atmosphere granted.
The second “scientific poem” (1755) came from Pater Benediktus Stay and acted of newer philosophy. Per modern Bošković' research topics were (e.g. Newton's theory of the gravitation), also the style of its writings became the freer.

meaning works

  • De expeditione ad dimetiendos duos meridiani gradus, Rome 1755
  • journal d'un voyage de Constantinople EN Pologne, Paris 1772
  • Theoria philosophiae naturalis redacta ad unicam legem virium in natura existentium, Venice 1763.

secondary literature

  • Puncta, particulae et phaenomena. The dalmatinische scholar Roger Joseph Boscovich and its nature philosophy. Laatzen: Military cock, 2005. ISBN 3-86525-015-7

Web on the left of

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| | * Literature of and over Rugjer Josip Bošković in the catalog of the DDB



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