Romania

România
Romania
Flagge Rumäniens Wappen Rumäniens
(detail) (detail)
office language Romanian
capital Bucharest (rum.: Bucureşti)
system of government Republic of
national holiday 1. December
president Traian Băsescu
head of the government Călin Popescu Tăriceanu
surface 238,391 km ²
number of inhabitants 22.303.552 (estimated July 2005)
population density of 93.7 inhabitants per km ²
Geographical coordinates 46.25 north, 25.00 east
independence 9. May 1877
currency Leu
time belt UTC +2
national anthem of Deşteaptă width unit, române!; Trei culori
Kfz characteristic RO
Internet TLD .ro
preselection +40
Karte Europas, Rumänien hervorgehoben
Karte von Rumänien

the Republic of Romania (Romanian România) is a state in South-east Europe, that700 km from the Pannoni lowlandses to the black sea reaches. The name Romania was in latin of late ancient times a common abbreviation for the Roman realm.

Table of contents

geography

the topography of the country is very varied. In the center of Romania lies the Siebenbürgi high country, which is surrounded nearly completely by the elbow of the Karpaten. To the Südkarpaten that closes in the southwest of Romania Banater mountains on. West of it is the far Banater level, which leads up to the Pannoni basin. The south of the country is coined/shaped of the flat Walachei, which are flowed through of the Danube as border river and up to Bulgarian national territory are enough.In the east of Romania the Ausläufer of the Ostkarpaten leads up to the high country of the Moldau.

Romania borders (of the south in the clockwise direction) on Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, Ukraine and Moldavia. It consists of the regions Walachei, filter defiency guarantee (Transsilvanien) and Moldau as well as from parts of the earlier Banat, the Bukowina and the Dobrudscha.

Klimadiagramm Bukarest
Climatic diagram Bucharest

Romania predominantly moderated a continental climate with cold winters and warm summers. The precipitation amounts to within the range of the black sea coast on the average 400 mmper year, in the higher mountain areas of the Karpaten over 1,500 mm.

Bodenschätze: Oil (occurrences sink), natural gas, coal (v. A. Brown coal), salt, gold, water power

land use:Field 41%, permanent seed 3%, pasture 21%, forest 29%, remainder of 6% (estimated)

watered country: 28,800 km ² (estimated 1998)

forces of nature: Earthquakes, more strongly in the south and in the SW, geological structure and the climate make landslides possible.

population

Romanian church in traditional timber construction method

22.355 million inhabitant (estimated for July 2004)

ethnical groups

beside 89,5% Romanian, in former times from the neighbouring peoples also Walachen mentioned (Hungarian oláh (see. Hungarian olasz = Italian), slawisch vlah or vlak), minorities of Hungary ( 6%) and Roma (2.5%) live. The GermanMinority (filter citizen Saxonia, filter citizen Landler, Danube swabia) sank since 1940 of 5% to 0,3%, however the west half of the country by 250 - to 800-jährige an operational readiness level crucially coined/shaped. In the Bukowina is there a smallPolish minority. Slowaken live in the Banat and in the northwest filter defiency guarantee. Turks 0.67% ( in the Dobrudscha) make, Ukrainer 0.3% (in the Bukowina and Maramuresch) numerical, Russian 0.2% (particularly in the Danube delta), act arene (in the Dobrudscha 0.1% andOther 0.3% of the population out. (All data after the census 2002.)

The language portions correspond in for instance the ethnical allocation.

Office language is alone the Romanian (limba română). Besides Hungarian and German are recognized as official languages.

The portion of the Romaniansrises slowly. With approx. 6% largest minority are the Magyaren (Hungary). They place the majority in many localities of the Siebenbürgener of districts Harghita, Satu Mare, Zalău, Bihor , Mureş and Covasna, just as also in parts of the Banat. The Roma is economically weakest with high unemployment (S. down).

The German minorities (1940 still approximately 5%) took by discrimination (1944-1950) and three emigration waves (the latter began 1990) strongly off. A disputed chapter is “Head money “, which Germany paid for a long time - for hundredthousands emigrants - at Ceauşescu.

The strongest German-language groups are further the filter citizens Saxonia and the Danube swabia (Banat and northwest with Satu Mare) with ever about 30,000 humans. The latters become also Banater Swabia and Sathmarer Swabia mentioned.

The Banater - in three-landhit a corner with Serbia and Hungary - speaks usually since generations several (two to three) languages, why the official countings might lie too deeply. A fact is however the obsolescence,because it pulls rather the boys to Germany and Austria. Today most Germans live in the districts Timiş, Sibiu and Braşov, followed from three western districts and Satu Mare.

In the Banat also minorities of the Serbs settle and Croats, in the Dobrudscha (in the southeast borderland to Bulgaria) Greek, act arene and Turk, and into the Bukowina locally strong minorities of the Ukrainer and Russians.

age structure and tendencies (2004)

  • 0-14 years:16,2 %(male: 1.861.801, womanlike: 1.770.746)
  • 15-64 years: 69.4% (male: 7.712.612, womanlike: 7.761.900)
  • 65 and more years: 14.4% (male: 1.330.994, womanlike: 1.887.498)
  • Population growth (2004:) - 0.11% p. A.
  • Birth rate: 10.69 births of 1000 inhabitants
  • mortality rate: 11.69 deaths of 1000 inhabitants
  • immigration rate:- 0.13 immigrants 1000

substantial emigration and seasonal workers' migration

  • infant mortality (2004): 27.24 Todesfälle/1000 living born
  • life expectancy: Men 68 years, women 75 years.

belonged

to religion official 2002 87 per cent the population of the Romanian-orthodox church . Calvinisten, university-tare and Lutheraner are according to official statistics 6.8% (mainly Hungary), and catholics altogether 5.6% (mainly Hungary, as well as mol duration Csángós/Hungary in Moldova as well as few the remaining Danube swabia). Still about 195,000 Gläubige have the university Universities of church, under it about 160.000Romanian. The church Greek-catholic with Rome university ores has officially only few Gläubige, because the strong pressure arranged many on the part of the communists starting from 1945 to the “orthodox denomination” (see above, politics). Something similar was in the Ukraine the case, where howeversince some years numerous church buildings at university ores to be returned.

Remarkably for a long country governed by the communist party (kp) is however the portion of formal Atheisten and denomination lots, small with only 0.2%. Belong to the Islam0.3% of the population on.

Physische Karte (Rumänien ca. 800 x 550 km
Physical map (Romania approx. 800 x 550 km

history

major item: History of Romania

early history and Ethnogenese

the area today's Romania was some centuries v. Chr. of Dakern and Geteninhabited. First became 106 n. Chr. from Trajan into the Roman realm integrated and in the area of the today's filter defiency guarantee and the Banats the province Dacia (Dakien) resulted. Around the year 271 n. Chr showed the Romans the provinceup. In the time of the people migration became the area today's Romania of different trunks pulled through, before those could establish Hungary around the year 1000 in Pannonien and filter defiency guarantee a durable realm. In the cultural self understanding of the Romanians is the RomanianPeople come out from the mixture of the Daker with the Roman Kolonisten of the time emperor Trajans. This view is provable however not by historical certifications and becomes therefore from critics z. T. “völkischer myth” calls. That the Romanian people inFor filter defiency guarantees, in the Banat and in Oltenien, in addition, south the Danube in the area today's east Serbia and north Bulgaria developed and from the Roman colonial age is derived, generally one accepts. For the period between the departure of the Romans and thatThe high Middle Ages give it however no written or architectural certifications, which can support this thesis. Nevertheless the thing in common, which the Romanian with the Italian exhibits, puts a participation of italischer Kolonisten to the Romanian Ethnogenese close. After not a thesis which can be proventhe historian Franz Sulzer from that 18. Jh. the Ethnogenese of the Romanians in the area of the today's Macedonia and north Greece in the early and the high Middle Ages found instead of (where there is also today a small mazedorumänische minority). The topic Ethnogenese became in 19.and 20. Century frequently politically instrumentalisiert. Nationalistisch gesinnte Romanians and Hungary used it as an argumentation assistance, in order to deny itself mutually the requirements for possession on filter defiency guarantees. In each case the Romanian language is to be added clearly to the Roman language family, even if in the Romanian vocabularynumerous slawische and also some Greek to exhibit Turkish and Hungarian influences are.

Slawen large parts

of the today's Romanian settlement area settled emergence of the principalities since approximately 500. In 14. The two Principalities of Moldau and the Walachei developed for century. In 16. They turned out for century under Osmani sovereignty, could retain its Selbstständigkeit, ethnical and religious independent existence however. In 18. Century worsened the political situation of the Romanian principalities: The princes and ruler sexes often changed and were for the discretion thatosmanischen emperor delivered. Outstanding princes of Romanian history were Mircea the old person (Mircea cel Batrân, 1386-1418), Michael the courageous one (Mihai Viteazul, 1593-1601) in the Walachei and Alexander the good-natured one (Alexandru cel Bun, 1400-1432) andStephan the large one (Stefan cel Mare, 1457-1504) in the Moldau.

the influence the large realms

after the decrease of Turkish power in 19. Jh. both principalities lay in the area of conflict between Austria Hungary and Russia. Austriahad already in 18. Century far parts of the Danube area conquered by the high gate, settled the Banat with by the majority catholic Kolonisten, which were predominantly enlisted in South German countries (see the article Banater Swabia), and transferred 1690 the rule overFilter defiency guarantee (which already since the Middle Ages traditionally to Hungary belonged). The connection of filter defiency guarantee and the Banats to the Hungarian-German dominated culture area remained existing to 1920. The other areas today's Romania remained into the second half 19. Centuryunder dependence of the Osmani realm.1859 became Alexandru Ioan Cuza (Alexander Jouan I.) the prince of the Principalities of Walachei (tare Româneasca, wörtl. “Romanian country”) and Moldau (Moldova) selected and proclaimed to 24. December 1861 the sovereigns stateRomania. Because of its reforms it was forced 1866 by Grossbojaren and liberal to the resignation. The independence of Romania was reached in the Russian-Turkish war 1877-78, when the Romanians supported the Russians with their victory over the Osmani realm.

Germanson the king throne

the complete independence of the country obtained only Karl von Hohenzollern Sigmaringen (as a king Carol I. called) to 10. May 1877; the citizen of Berlin congress confirmed the Kingdom of, the Carol I. to 1878. from 1881 to 1914 governed. Tensions alsoRomania to the side of Austria and could the German Reich, but Carol I. drove Russia. the war participation at the side of Germany do not implement.

the First World War

under its nephew Ferdinand of Hohenzollern (Ferdinand I. 1916 - 1927) Romania of the Entente stepped with and from 1916 1918 into the 1. World war. The declaration of war of 27. Secret negotiations with Russia had preceded August 1916 at Austria Hungary. The Zarenreich accepted therein Romanian territorial claims on the Bukowina, filter defiency guarantee and the Banat.

1916 could conquer the Romanian troops temporarily the southeast of filter defiency guarantee, however by the German army was fast back-pushed. Within fewer weeks large parts of Romania (small and Grosswalachei) were occupied. In numerous cases there was a largeCo-operation and Kollaboration of far parts of the Romanian elite with the Besatzern. The king house, the government and some authorities had to withdraw themselves into the northeast province Moldau, where the Romanian army was again organized by French assistance. A local German offensivetoward Moldau in July 1917 one stopped.

intermediate wartime

in the peace treaty of Versailles 1919 and peace treaty of Trianon 1920 was converted the wilsonsche principle of the right of self-determination of the peoples. So also Romania knew its national territory with the areasincrease, where the Romanians between 49% and 90% of the resident population explained. Thus it received areas from Russia (Bessarabien) and Austria Hungary (filter defiency guarantee), as well as a strip of upper Hungary with the cities Arad, Oradea and Satu Mare, two thirds of the Banats and the Bukowina, in addition (at the beginning of at short notice of 1918 retired) the Dobrudscha of Bulgaria back. State surface and population doubled themselves, but Romania became within the new borders from a relatively uniform national state to a many people state. So1920 of each fourth (approximately 24 per cent) Romanian citizens non-Romanian nationality were, whereby those formed Hungary, German, Jew and Ukrainer the largest Minderheitengruppen. The wilsonschen principle of the right of self-determination of the peoples following, the new borders became according to the principle of the demographic (Romanian)Majority pulled, however without popular vote, without consideration for coherent marketing areas and for the expansion of the ethnical settlement areas. In many places a separation was also simply not possible. Thus already 1920 were put the basis for the later ethnical conflicts with the Hungary,the 1940 by the Viennese arbitral award again substantial to flash should. The German elite of filter defiency guarantee and the Banats spoke itself however by the majority for a connection at Romania out, there it on the part of the Romanian government late not kept promise upAutonomy and autonomy were given. Like other states of Europe also Romania was characterized in the intermediate wartime of political instability and unrest.1927 were forced Crown Prince Carol to the abdication and Mihai I. the government took over. Carol II. however 1930 returnedand governed until 1940. It followed first against the “small Entente”, starting from 1934 however for economic reasons also Hitler's third realm.

At the end of June 1940 forced the Soviet Union as a result of its Annexion of the Baltic States of Estonia, Lettlandand Lithuania also of Romania by an ultimatum the immediate transfer of the Nordbukowina as well as Bessarabiens. On it for their part Bulgaria and Hungary announced territorial claims directly: With Bulgaria Romania agreed relatively rapidly on the transfer of the Süddobrudscha, but ended the negotiationswith Hungary fast in a dead end. Since a war seemed besides inevitable and a renewed intervention of the Soviet Union direction of the Romanian oil fields threatened, Hitler dictated to 30. August 1940 the second Viennese arbitral award. By the Viennese arbitral award in August 1940under the “protection” of the third realm and Italy Romania the northern part of filter defiency guarantee had Hungary transfer, the southern Dobrudscha became again Bulgarian. With this arbitral award and the Soviet occupation of Bessarabien Romania lost 30% of its national territory and25% of the population of 1939.

In order to prevent the invasion of Hungary and the Soviet Union and thus the complete collapse of the Romanian commonwealth, king Carol II. saw itself. forced to accept all these cessions of territory; to a far governing was not howeverto think more. Thus it appointed war Minister ion Antonescu to 4. September 1940 to the new Prime Minister, thanked to 6. September 1940 off and went again into the exile. After the seizure of power explained Antonescu as well as its fascist ally from the “iron one Guard " (also as “Legion of the ore gel” admits Michael) Romania to the Nationallegionären state. Only after a failed Putsch of the Legionäre in January 1941 Antonescu could govern unimpaired from political allies. Its politics were starting from January 1941 in the reason a Legionärspolitik withoutLegionäre: in a totalitarian manner, repressive, anti-Semitic and ultranationalistisch.

Romania looked for despairs a protecting power, England rejected. Now Romania with Hitler closed an assistance pact and joined the “axle “. Structure and equipment of the Romanian armed forces were contractually regulated, and German troopswere allowed to engage as protecting power against the Soviet Union in Romania. Stalin protested energetically to intervene but without military.

the Second World War

in 2. World war stood for Romania on side of the German Reich, its troops took part 1941 in the campaignagainst the Soviet Union. Bessarabien was again integrated. Jews, Roma and member so mentioned “religious sparkling wines” had to suffer from pursuits of the regime allied with Hitler. The military-fascist regime of ion Antonescu organized the destruction of the Jews inown KZ-similar mechanisms, in Transnistrien, after due to anti-Semitic and racistic laws the entrance was completely prevented from Jews to certain occupations and public offices. During the Antonescu dictatorship the Antisemitismus had become practical the state ideology. The consequence of it was ofAntonescu arranged Holocaust - see in addition to the 2004 provided “report of the international commission for the study of the Romanian Holocaust” [1] and the dossier “the case accessible in German language Antonescu” [2]. Also in now the Hungarian occupied north filter defiency guarantee it came Pogromen and Deportationen. At the beginning of of 1944 prepared king Mihai I. together with Iuliu Maniu in secret negotiations with the Western powers and later the Soviet Union the waste of the German alliance and the fall Antonescus forwards. After to 20. August 1944 begunSummer offensive of the Red Army under the designation operation Jassy Kischinew in few days enormous progress made, changed Romania to 23. August 1944 the fronts. Within fewer weeks it was taken and occupied completely by the Red Army. For war-prominent Germanymeant the 23. August 1944 the total loss of the Romanian oil supply and made a rapid retreat of the armed forces of the entire Balkans necessary, in order to forestall cutting the troop units off in Greece and Yugoslavia by the enemy. Now Romania turned out - against thatHopes and earlier statements Stalins - complete under Soviet influence. The civil elite the old of the system and politically other-thinking one were pursued and murdered. The part of the German minority remained after the war in the country became to beginning of the 1950er yearsentrechtet and expropriated. Besides Soviet crew power kidnapped the largest part of the adults German population at the “age able to work” (Mrs. to 33, men until 45 years) on several years to the hard labour into the Soviet Union. The northern filter defiency guarantee again one integrated. Thatnorthern part of the by the majority Romanian settled Bessarabien remained against it durably under Soviet rule and forms today the independent State of Moldavia. The south part of Bessarabien (Budschak) came to the Ukraine.

post-war period and transition to communism

after1947 all civil parties was forbidden, had to 30. December 1947 also the king at that time Mihai I. resign. It lived thereafter in the exile in England and in Switzerland. Only after the turn it was allowed to again visit Romania, today livesit in a palace in Bucharest. Many of its earlier properties were returned to the royal family. The 1921 a created communist party of Romania (KPR) was before the Second World War a politically insignificant organization. 1948 found the obligation combination of the Social Democrats with that to thatKPR instead of, from that the Romanian labour party (RAP) hevorging. She took over power, their leader was Gheorghe Gheorghiu Dej, it waltete until 1965 like a second Stalin. Under him political opponents were arrested and tortured. State and economics becameby systematic expropriation and collectivization of the agriculture communist “arranged”. The expropriations began 1945. 1948 were expropriated by a decree of the kp of factory owners and Industrielle. The industrial range was put under state control. At 1950 one began to expropriate the farmers. The so-called “agrarian revolution” endedwith the Zwangskollektivisierung and establishment of national LPG's. This process ended only to end of the 60's.Tito 's break with Stalin in the year 1948 led to up to then a not known collective Deportation of whole villages and municipalities at thatwestern border to Yugoslavia. The German minority, in addition, Romanians, Serbs and Hungary were affected predominantly by it. They were obligation-resettled into the Bărăgan. The localities became surrounded at the night by the military and the police, courses stood at the stationready and humans had to leave its houses, their whole have and property. After cumbersome journeys in cattle railroad cars, of diseases troubled, the Deportierten arrived in the Bărăgan. On free field they were again unloaded. Each family got a plot assigned,on that they in earth holes a Unterschlupf before wind and extreme cold weather in the winter to provisional establish itself could. Only after 1965 they were allowed to again leave the obligation domicile in the Bărăgan.

After end of war communists and orthodox church cooperated around the Romanian membersto force university ores the church to go over to the Romanian-orthodox church - although religion was exposed in a communist state in principle to chicaneries. The catholic church, whose dignitary had been still pursued in the Stalinzeit, from now on, but gave one waited because ofthese obligations strong tensions, which had a lasting effect into the post office-communist 1990er.

In the poststalinistischen era of the 1960er years experienced Romania a certain consolidation and a phase of relative liberality. The communist regime arranged itself with the entmachteten civil camp and alsoits party-internal opponents. Political prisoners became to dismiss, the repression pressure decreased clearly. Also the Entrechtung and total expropriation of the German minority took an end. To the Hungarian minority in the settlement area of the Székler even an autonomous, bilingual autonomy was entitled. A careful oppositionto Moscow (z. B. no military participation in striking down the Prager of spring by the troops Warsaw Pact) and an opening direction the west determined the foreign policy otherwise firmly of the country integrated in the communist block. In this time beganthe exodus of the ethnical minorities. Ever more German emigrated to Germany , most Jews went to Israel and into the USA. Later turned also ever more Hungary the country durably the back.

Line of the country after 1945

afterthe resignation of the Romanian king Mihai I to 30. December 1947 was proclaimed the People's Republic of Romania.

Dr. Constantin I. Parhon led the transition presidency of 30. December 1947 up to 13. April 1948. Dr. Petru Groza becomes a chairman of the large national assembly(rum. Marea Adunare Nationalâ) (13. April - 12. June 1952). Ion Gheorge bricklayer replaces Dr. Petru Groza to 12. June 1952 and remained in the office of the chairman of the large national assembly up to 7. January 1958.Gheorghe Gheorghiu Dej takes over the presidencyin the Council of State (rum. Consiliul de Stat) to 21. March 1961. It keeps this office up to 19. March 1965. Chivu Stoica becomes a chairman of the Council of State to 24. March 1965.

To 21. August 1965 is proclaimed the socialist Republic of Romania. Chivu Stoica officiates as a president of the Council of State up to 9. December 1967. Ion Gheorghe bricklayer remains in this time Prime Minister. Nicolae Ceauşescu becomes to 9. December 1967 president of the Council of State. He dresses this office up to 28.03.1974. It leads thatOffice of a president and leaves itself to 28. March 1974 to the president of the socialist Republic of Romania select. He dresses this office together with the presidency of the communist party up to 22. December 1989.

http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rom%C3%A2nia

assumption of office Ceauşescus

In March 1965 Nicolae Ceauşescu transferred the office of the Secretary-General of the communist party. He was suggested for this office of G. Bricklayer. He could be selected only 1974 to the president. It planned to make Romania a great power. With foreignA perfectly oversized industrialization program was placed to credits on the legs, in order to heave the agriculturally coined/shaped country fast on western level. Laws for the promotion of child wealth and the prohibition of the abortion 1966 should increase the total population. Starting from five children becameMothers as “hero mothers” honoured. If they got ten or even more children, too (at least on the paper), too gotten a free jeep (AERO), free travel in the national railway stood for the women on all distances of the country and once inYear a free vacation at the black sea. The reality looked differently. Suspended ones, in addition, ill and handicapped children were brought into orphan homes. It led the catastrophic medical supply, the unsatisfactory sterilization of inoculation syringes likewise to the fact that Romania the highest AIDS illnesseswith children in the world to exhibit can. The bad conditions, like in the children's home Cighid, became only after the turn 1990 admit. The so-called. “Program for the systematization of the villages” (sistematizarea satelor) planned, about 8,000 of the smallest villagesto graden the country completely and to resettle their population in “Agro agroindustriellen centers” from primitive disk's buildings without drains. A goal was the “more efficient utilization of the existing agrarian surfaces”. Intended side effect was the destruction of the cultural variety and the regional peculiarities of the rural regions.

economic fall

the disproportionate and inefficient economic policy with innumerable bad investments let the country starting from the center of the 1970er years inexorably into the bankruptcy float. 1981 were not considered to Romania as any longer credit with dignity. For the repayment of the high foreign debts that leftRegime now everything export, which could be sold - at expense of the basic supply of the own population with food and elementary consumer goods. A striking raw material crisis (lack of coal, oil, river) intensified the situation additionally. Romania became nevertheless in April 1989 free from debt.At the same time the people was forced, its leader Ceauşescu in an extreme person cult to huldigen. This totalitarian system was alive held by the secret police Securitatea Statului " (public security) with monitoring and repression.

beginning of the revolution

after thatCase of wall and the turn 1989 in the former GDR and in other states of the Eastern Bloc broke out first in Timişoara, later also in Bucharest rebellions. Unrests in Timişoara were strengthened by the obligation transfer of the Hungarian priest Laszlo Tökes.This had expressed itself very regime-critically in September 1989 over the Hungarian television. First developed reminding guards before the house of the priest, who could not leave this. In this environment soon voices became after paging and liberty loud, howa run fire in the whole city spread. Soldiers became at the night to 15. and 16. To suppress December on the road skillfully around the demonstrations. On Sunday, that 17.12. , thousands citizens of the city Timişoara in the center that metCity and the calls to an end of the dictatorship and a free democratic country were not to be over-heard no more. On Monday, that 18.12. 1989, left Ceauşescu the country for a state journey into Iran. Still from there from givenit the instruction to attack the demonstrators. The national state of emergency was imposed: Demonstrations were forbidden, likewise leaving the house after darkness, it existed the possibility everyone, which did not subordinate itself to the instructions of the army and security forceses, under martial law before the court-martialto place and to perhaps impose the death penalty. This law opened the possibility to a later time of shooting Ceausescu under martial law. Continuous demonstrations for more liberty and democracy led to a to a large extent force-free revolution. To 21. December became onepublic demonstration in Bucharest (Bucureşti) before the central committee of the Romanian communist party “obligation-organized”, the crowd was not to be stopped however no more. Calls after liberty and democracy arranged Nicolae Ceausescu and its wife to leave the capital assistance of a helicopter in panic.The helicopter was forced to the landing and Ceausescu and its wife were arrested. To 22. December was explained to Romania over the national television station TVR as released. The conflict, which flashed up to the arrest Ceausescus between its trailers and opponents, was however characterized by force. Only its arrest stopped the blood bath begun. Dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu and his Mrs. Elena Ceauşescu were arrested on the escape, to 25. Decembers 1989 before a military court posed and after shortened proceedings shot under martial law.

Work on []

The “unfinished revolution”

in the post office-communist time could recover the country first only heavily from the consequences of dictatorship and mismanagement for many decades. In addition good-qualified workers emigrated into western states after the turn of far scientists and. With the governingSocialists long time the old power elite at the rudder could remain and brake uncomfortable reforms. A balanced party spectrum with a stable political center could not develop so far yet. Nevertheless Romania is today a stable democracy with all necessary liberal fundamental rights.Today the direct neighbourhood to the European Union and the prospect provide on a membership 2007 for a restaurant boom.

April was

concerned country-wide inundations a quarter of the population of Romania until August 2005 of heavy inundations in the months. [[Dabei]]at least 11 humans died. In several regions the harvest was completely destroyed. According to data of the Romanian ministry of the Interior 407 places were inundated and 4000 houses and 700 bridges were destroyed. The devastating consequences of the violent rainfalls are above allon inconsiderate clearing of the forests in the lower central mountain regions in 20. To lead back century.

politics

major item: Political system of Romania

Romania is since 2005 entry candidate to the European union. The negotiations are since that 25. April 2005 finally.As date for the entry the 1 became. January 2007 fixed, which could shift however with difficulties during the reform process on 2008.

In the course of the NATO extension to the East Romania became to 29. March 2004 member of NATO, so that those Romanian army now into the transatlantic Sicherheitstruktur is merged.

2004 and 2005 was Romania not-constant member in the UN security council, in July 2004 and in October 2005 led it the presidency. Among the most important tasks those rank in accordance with own statementsObligations in the fight against the international terrorism, the drug and slave trade, as well as against the further spread further of weapon of mass destruction. In the center also the poverty fight and the lasting development would be located as an integral component of world-wide stability.

After strong losses of the social-democraticA party with the local election June 2004 fell the reorganization of the Romanian government just into the final phase of the negotiations of accession of European Union, which were locked in December 2004.

From the parliamentary elections of 28. November 2004 came out a civil liberal minority government, those from the alliance D.A. (Justice and truth) (of 112 seats), the UDMR (a party of of the Hungarian minority) (of 22 seats) and the social liberals PURE (a Humanisti party of Romania, today Konsevative Partei/PC; 19 seats) exists. Of Bucharest of former mayors Traian Băsescu became in the ballot of 12. December also52% of the voices to the new president of Romania selected.

administrative arrangement

major item: List of the districts in Romania

Bezirksaufteilung
allocation of district
Wichtigste Städte
most important cities

is Romania at present into 41 districts (“judeţ”, Pl.: “judeţe”) and a capital (Bucharest = Bucureşti) partitions. ThisAdministrative arrangement became in 19. Century after the model of the French Départements made. After 1950 this arrangement changed 1968 into the Soviet model, one returned however to the present system. 1981 became the districts Ilfov and Ialomita into the districtsGiurgiu, Calarasi, Ialomita and Ilfov reorganizes. Until 1995 Ilfov an independent district did not depend, but on Bucharest. A new organization of the country into regions is discussed in the course of the preparation on an European Union membership, is however not 2007 ago to be expected.

infrastructure

the infrastructure of Romania is problematic. Up to the European traffic passage IV the large traffic axles of the continent the country do not queren; Investments into the Eisenbahnverkehr are necessary; the road condition is distressed. There are airports with Bucharest, Sibiu, Constanţa, Cluj Napoca, Timişoara and Iaşi. There are two motorways: Piteşti - Bucharest and Bucharest - Feteşti. In the building is besides the remaining section Feteşti to Constanţa and the motorway by filter defiency guarantee (Autostrada Transilvania). Furtherare planned: a motorway, which is to umfahren Bucharest, a further, which is to connect the capital with Iaşi and Moldavia, a motorway Bucharest Giurgiu and alternatively to the siebenbürgischen motorway the distance Piteşti Nadlac.

economics

defiance of the positive economical total development(Gros domestic product growth since 2001 on the average 5%) the Romanian economy requires further reforms. Bureaucracy, corruption, still small right security and tariff problems obstruct further the urgently needed supply of foreign capital.

A certain reform success shows up in the inflation rate, from 34Per cent (2001) over 22 and 15 to 9,2 per cent (2004) sank. For 2005 six to eight per cent are expected.

The indicators suggest a continuation of strong growth beyond 2004, but some experts are afraid an overheating of the economic situation.Export and private sector are crucial - the latter grew 2001-2002 from 49,4 to 68,7 per cent. The service sector was 2002 with 44,7% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, while the industrial sector of still 40 per cent decreased/went back anno 1989 on 29,1% in the year 2002- by restructuring and decrease particularly in the heavy industry. The agriculture sector constituted 2002 11.7% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. On the other hand 2004 with 22,6% record increases in the agriculture sector were to be registered.

privatisation and occupation

the privatisation of the national enterprisesone continues to continue. In July 2004 thereby a large step carried out itself as the Austrian power supplier OMV took over the stock majority at the Romanian oil and natural gas company PETROM (60,000 coworkers) (S. “Evenimentul Ziliei” v. 25.11.2005). A further shareholder is Dinu Patriciu.

If the unemployed person ratio amounted to in the year 2000 still 10.5%, were 2004 only 7%. For 2005 6.8% are prognosticated. Thus unemployment is rather low in the European comparison, the social security is however relatively bad.The state prescribes a legal minimum wage of 80 euro.

The city Timişoara is considered as one the “boom” - cities in Romania. The today's number of inhabitants amounts to still approx. 350.000, in 5 years a duplication is expected. In Timişoara e.g. stands. since end2005 the largest shopping centre of Europe and also one of the largest tire works of the Continental AG.

gross domestic product and export trade and industry

the Romanian GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT grew 2001 2003 despite difficult world economy situation by 4.9 per cent each (after FAZ April 2005 around 5,2%), 2004 even around 7 8%, which could overheat however the economic situation. With 22.3 billion euro with inflation sinking at the same time the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT lay even over optimistic expectations of the government. The industrial production rose (with low per cent level, see above) in firstHalf-year 2004 around 4,2% opposite that 1. Hj. 2003, the conversion in the retail trade grew even in two digits.

An important column of continuous growth is the export (2003: Commodity value of 15.6 billion €) and within-relating to market conditions the building industry. There were increasesalso at industry and in the service sector. Of 1.1. to 31. The exports grew May 2004 by 18,4% in relation to the previous year period. The most important export markets of Romania are Italy and Germany.

With the latter the balance is slightly negative, strengthens howeverslowly: the export to Germany constantly grew from 2000 to 2004 from 2,1 to 3,1 per cent, of those from Germany of 2,5 to 4,4 per cent. For 2005 is however 5 ½ and/or. 3 ½ per cent prognosticates (FAZ - supplement of 26. April 2005).

tourism

2003 gained the tourism 780 million dollar, 14% more than 2002. The number of the guests amounted to 5.6 million (of it 1.1 millions from the foreign country), which corresponded to an increase of 15,5%. For 2004 that countsTourism Ministry with at least 10% more foreign tourist.

For autumn 2004 was planned the kind of building for first by two routistic large-scale projects. After fossils - find develops in the district Hunedoara a dinosaur park. The commencement of construction of the second large-scale project - the Themenparkes Dracula - park with Sighişoara (Schässburg) - was prevented so far by a citizens' initiative and is to develop now in close proximity to Bucharest.

With that 1. July 2005 took place a currency reform. The course amounts to (conditions August 2005) 3.48 Lei = 1 euro.New cash notes and also coins were in circulation brought. In Romania a Vignettenpflicht insists for passenger car and truck on all roads since January 2005. The Vignetten are at the gas stations of ROMPETROL, possibly. also MOL and OMV available. ThatPrice of the Vignette depends on the exhaust classification of the vehicle.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

culture

National holiday is the 1. December. The state flag symbolizes the combination central filter defiency guarantees (yellow) with the Walachei (blue) and Moldau (red) to “Romania” (1920). Another interpretation reads: Mountains (red), black sea (blue), grain (yellow).

Further topics

literature

  • Steven W. Sowards: Modern history of the Balkans. The Balkans in the age of the nationalism. BoD 2004. ISBN 3-8334-0977-0

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Romania - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Romanian proverbs - quotations


coordinates: 44°-48° N, 20°-30° O

 

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