Broadcast

TV tower Stuttgart

broadcast designates the transmission of information of any kind (for example pictures, clay/tone, text) over electromagnetic waves (see also: Radio net), whereby the information for the public is meant and will receive from everyone can.This includes information also coded, which can be decoded against payment. The term “broadcast” was coined/shaped by the radio pioneer Hans Bredow in November 1919. The word creation decreases/goes back to the original procedure of the wireless telegraphy .

To the broadcast belong in particularsound broadcasting (radio) and the television.

Colloquially usually sound broadcasting is meant (“broadcast and television”) with broadcast, which however is contentwise wrong. Broadcast covers sound broadcasting exactly the same as television, DAB, DRM or DVB-T, as well as television and radioover satellite (similar, DVB-S, addr, Worldspace). A special form is the Internet radio.

The designation broadcast does not mean that broadcasting stations always have antennas with round spray characteristic. Within all broadcast ranges - from the long wave to the very high frequency - becomefor the better supply of certain areas uses partial beams. This is specified for the appropriate locations in the framework by frequency co-ordinations (like it in international agreements, for example that Geneva wave plan are defined). Further there are transmitting plants, in particular in long waves- and medium-wave band, which work at certain times (usually during the day) with round spray and at night with beam.

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legal bases

in Germanythe broadcast is regulated by numerous laws (see also: Broadcast right). Since it falls into the range of the Landesgesetzgebung, its legal basis exists in the broadcast state contract. Implementing authority are the institutes for national medium of the individual Lands of the Federal Republic, those for the frequency assignmentand Lizenzierung are responsible. These legal bases were crucially coined/shaped and concretized by the broadcast judgements of the Federal Constitutional Court.

One speaks side with the broadcast also of a binary system, there on public institutes (WDR, SWR etc.) andon the other side private broadcast offerers parallel exist. In addition there is still the Nichtkommerziellen local radio, which is differently independently evaluated in the national medium laws.

Further broadcasting stations for the supply of the allied armed forces (AFN and BFBS ) send, Staten Wires(- SW). Both the AFN and the BFBS send only on English and can be received in many parts of Germany (AFN at night in completely Germany on the medium waves - frequency 873 kHz). Also some foreign services send from Germany. There is this Radio Free Europe/radio Liberty on short wave in Lampertheim and Biblis, the Voice OF America (VoA) in Ismaning with Munich and the voice of Russia in Wachenbrunn. Besides the französischsprachige transmitter Europe 1 sends its commercial program on that since 1955 Long waves - frequency 183 kHz von Felsberg Berus out with an output of 2.000 kilowatts to France. This transmitter is the oldest private broadcasting station in Germany and owes its emergence to the special statute of the Saarland in the 50's. A further transmitterthe gospel broadcast ( ERF) with seat is in Wetzlar. In case of the transmitters of the allied armed forces and from Germany send foreign services is limited the competence of the German authorities to purely technical affairs, like the dispatching of the transmitter frequency.

execution of the transmit mode

in many countries is organizational separate the execution of the studio and of the transmit mode, whereby in these cases usually the national communications authority transfers the transmit mode.

In Germany the situation places itself (also after case of the communications monopoly)so: The transmit mode of the national broadcasting corporations in the old Lands of the Federal Republic takes place as a rule from plants, which belong to the national broadcasting corporations, while it takes place in the new Lands of the Federal Republic as a rule from plants of the German Telekom AG. The programs of Second Channel of German Television, Deutschlandfunk and Germany radio culture country widely mostly over plants of the German Telekom AG are radiated. AFN and BFBS use partial plants of the German Telekom AG for the spreading of their programs, partly operate them also their own transmitters. Radio Free Europe/radio Libertyand the Voice OF America operates its plants in the own establishment, while the voice of Russia falls back to plants of the German Telekom AG. The private station Europe 1 operates its transmitter in Felsberg Berus in self-direction, during all other private broadcasting stations in Germany plantsthe German Telekom's use AG or the national broadcasting corporations for the spreading of their programs.

other use

broadcasting station must, in order not to disturb itself, which keeps them assigned transmitter frequency with high accuracy. They can be used therefore as calibration frequency. SomeHigh-power transmitters - in particular in the long-wave range - derive their transmitter frequency even from an atomic clock, in order a ultrakonstante carrier frequency too gotten, which makes these transmitters easily usable ultragenauen sources of calibration frequency. Besides broadcasting stations can be used also for the investigation of the ionosphere. Sothe geophysical observatory in Collm measures the wind velocity in the upper atmosphere with the help of the signal strength of long wave broadcasting stations.

see also


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