Rungholt

Lage des Kartenausschnitts
situation of the map cutout
Lage der Fundstätten Rungholts und Niedams im Nordfriesischen Wattenmeer
situation of the find places Rungholts and Niedams in the Nordfriesi Wattenmeer

the place Rungholt was one of seven Kirchspielen of the former island beach in the Nordfriesi Wattenmeer. It became in the second Marcellusflut (Grote Mansdränke) to 16. January 1362 destroys. The two together belonging settlements Grote Rungholt and Lütke Rungholt formed together the principal place of a large region, the Edomsharde. In direct neighbourhood to Rungholt lay besides the place Niedam likewise sunk. After the tideif some parts of the former Rungholt area were again settled, went down however regarding the storm tide of 1532 . Of the former Edomsharde are today only the islands north beach, Pellworm and the Hallig Nordstrandischmoor remaining; the remaining areas went in thatStorm tide lost of 1362 and are today Wattenmeer.

Rungholt lay on a Torflinsel and became particularly easy therefore the victim of the storm tide. From the storm tide also the neighbouring Norderhever , before a river, resulted as deeply entrenched large Priel.

Table of contents

the historical Rungholt

Das Gebiet der Halligen um 1650 auf einer Karte von Johannes Mejer
the area of the Halligen around 1650 on a map of Johannes Mejer

long time applied for Rungholt only as a legend from sunk times. No material voucher from the time of the place1362 ago Rungholts knows on the existence. That changed only, as which tides free-rinsed remnants of Warften, buildings and wells between 1921 and 1938 in the Watt north of south case. The artifacts were systematically seized and investigated andalso data on old maps could confirm. Thereby the map of Johannes Meyer is particularly important from the year 1636, which is to be based again on a map of 1240. Further indications are a will of 1345 with the mention of theNamed Rungholt and a commercial agreement with Hamburg buyers of the 1. May 1361. The date lies eight months before the Marcellus tide and gives with the fact security that the place still existed at the time of the tide disaster. The commercial agreement and finds ofrheinischen jugs it confirm the assumption that Rungholt was the main port of the Edomsharde. Both documents are today in Hamburg public records.

The Rungholt researcher Andreas shrubs made an estimation of the number of inhabitants due to the number and the distribution of well remainders. Thusit closed on a population of at least 1,500 to 2,000 inhabitants (see. Hagemeister 1980, 48). That is for a locality 14. Century in this area a remarkably large number.

the origin of the name

the name RungholtRung probably leads itself “from the friesischen prefix „(about: „wrongly “, „small “; same word trunk as the English „wrong “) and the master word „fetches “(„Gehöltz “). From it the meaning results „Niederholz “; this derivative is supported by the historical maps,Rungholt a small forest in hilly area show („Silva Rungholtina “), which in the area was very unusual. A comparable land form is nowadays in the dunes forwards sank to Peter Ording.

finds in the Watt

although Rungholt at that time foran invented city was held, also in the centuries before the identification various observations of settlement traces was delivered. One of the first references a writing of Matthias Boetius (died 1624) supplies, to that with from frequent finds of ways, ditches and metallicWrites boilers in the Watt area. Around 1880 Fischer discovered large wood remainders in the Watt in that place, in which the air-locks were found later; it regarded it however as a ship wreck. Besides were again and again plow-pure in old, gone down fieldsin the Watt as well as ceramic(s) and brick of remainders.

In the following years by the Meeresströmungen large quantities mud were away-rinsed. Thus the remnants Rungholts showed up again, were however very fast destroyed. Nevertheless, wells knew a multiplicity of Warftenand even a dyke foot cartography ore become, which obtain a good conception of the size of the city.

In the meantime all remainders were probably rinsed by Rungholt due to the currents in the Wattenmeer into the North Sea. Nevertheless all Wattwanderer is referred to it,that possible finds may be taken with home, but the office for monument protection announced in Schleswig and on their demands also for investigation to be given out to have. The purposeful search and excavation for leftovers are against it without permissionforbidden and can be occupied with high penalties.

Warften, wells and dykes

many buildings Rungholts stood on Warften, as they are also today still common at the North Sea Coast. The Rungholter Warften consisted of earth hills, alsoabout 20 layers grass deserts against wind and waves became secured. Remainders of 28 such Warften dipped clearly recognizably for the early 1920er years always and by Andreas's shrubs carefully cartography ore and were partially described. Thus one developedMap, which could be compared with the delivered maps Rungholts. It was possible to assign the Warften to individual places: since that time the situation of Lütke Rungholt, Grote Rungholt and Niedam is well-known.

On and between the Warften became besides the remaindersof approximately 100 wells found, which had been likewise established from grass deserts. The wells had generally an inside diameter of approximately a meter and supplied probably in each case two to three households. The estimation of the number of inhabitants in this area is based upthese finds and acceptance, which close on the number of not found wells of the area.

One the only found Warften does not know any remainders of wells up. It lay in a range, in that particularly many throwing remainders close together discoveredwere, which eight-throw-tightness-offer (in that nine Warften were found), northwest before the Hallig south case. This range was identified as Grote Rungholt. It had an expansion of 900 m in east west direction and 600 m in north south direction. The southernmost this Warften (afterto the Busch' counting threw 1), which lies in for instance the center of the east west expansion, is this wellless threw. Since the church was at that time the only building, which did not need own water supply, these threw generally been for the Rungholter Kirchwarft.This assumption is supported by the sifting of two oblong pit remainders in the soil, which could have been graves. Thus probably even the local centre is well-known.

On one of the two Warften, those to the place Niedam belonged and between 1932 and 1956to be observed could, discovered shrubs 1952 two parallel Sodenstreifen, which had probably formed the walls of a building. The walls were outside 5.30 m and inside 3.80 m from each other far away; the wall thickness corresponded to a Sodenlänge of 75 centimeters. If it itselfactually a grass desert house , was it concerned thus rather a hut. Grass deserts were at that time in this region the furthest common building material, since clay bricks were very rare due to the absence of loam and had from far on to be transported.

Remainders of a Stadtmauer were not found, probably however the castings of low dykes, which had confessed between the air-locks and the three places. The weight of the dyke had squeezed the moorigen soil together, so that a soil recess remained remaining, after thoseDykes away-rinsed were. These recesses were measured and from their width can judge one the height of the dyke at that time: about two meters, with some fluctuations in the dyke process. In some places even the remainders could be discovered by dyke repairs.This were pits, developed by Sodenentnahme in the former soil, and stakes to the safety device again material at dyke locations of fracture.

the old person and the younger air-lock

thereby the drainage of the meadows and fields by the dyke through to function could,the water had to be led by an air-lock. Remainders of two wood air-locks emerged for the first time around 1880 in the Watt, however only 1922 as buildings were recognized and by Andreas's shrubs investigated. They lay about 500 meters northwest from Lütke Rungholt. Shrubsand save one the bar between the old person and the younger air-lock could measure 1922 and 1929. Two further air-lock bars were lifted 1962.

Buschs measurements resulted in a size of the old persons air-lock of approximately 20.50 x 3.30 m inside diameter andfor the younger air-lock external dimensions of 25,50 x 5.36 m with a light driving through width of 4,40 M. For conditions at that time these air-locks were unusually large. Both air-locks were built from wood. With the older air-lock shrubs could even prove,that it had become leaky. It had been repaired with seal material and an additional soil had gotten and therefore had the younger air-lock to be established. Wood air-locks had in the time at that time a life expectancy of approximately 80 to 100 years. Thereforeone can assume that the younger air-lock was not built before 1280, the older therefore approximately around 1200. That was also the period of the first Eindeichung of the area, whereby air-locks became only necessary. Due to their small depth the air-locks can no extensive drainage effect had.

discussion around Duerrs localization

in the year 1994 was doubted the dating of the air-locks with large press echo, after the Ethnologe and hobby archaeologist Hans Peter Duerr had made further finds northwest the Busch' findsand it as the true location Rungholts designated. By a measurement with the radio carbon method the age of the air-lock bars applies however as confirmed; the finds Duerrs become today as likewise regarding the tide gone down, but afterwards again developed neighboring place the Frederingscapvel Rip interpreted.

the Rungholt of the legends

during the genuine Rungholt a rural commercial port at a well navigable Priel was and primarily from grass desert houses existed, the wealth Rungholts after his fall into ever more splendid descriptions was seized.This very day one tells oneself miracle things about the wealth, the size and the Gottlosigkeit of the city. Particularly the dramatic fall Rungholts offered material for a legend, which is shown here in accordance with the oldest version by Anton home realm:

One evening would havetherefore several farmers sat in a tavern Rungholts together and drunk. They would have invented the joke to make the pig of the landlord drunk and to call then the minister, so that it was to give the communion to the pig. As thatMinister came and the pig recognized, refused he naturally giving it the last benediction on which the farmers it flog to threaten wanted. The minister however could escape secretly, while the farmers discussed themselves, which they wanted to do with him.
Two of the farmers however could pursue the minister and intercept him on the road. The minister did not recognize it, and so it told them on their question, which disgrace in the Schänke it and the holy Sakrament (= thatCommunion wafers) should have been done. Thereupon the two farmers asked whether it would have the communion wafers with itself, and as the ministers affirmed, asked it it for the can with the communion wafers, which the minister gave them also good faith.The farmers however poured beer into the can, laughed and said to it: „If these communion wafers the body Jesu are, then it drinks now also with us! “. Afterwards they would have let the minister pull.
The minister went thereupon immediately inthe close church and prayed that this Frevel at it and God was gerächt. At the same night it became thereupon in the dream warned that it is to go immediately, because God wanted to spoil country and people. The minister left immediately thatBed and made itself on the way. It hardly was in security, when the storm tide came. Only it and two girls, that would have been on a distant Kirchweih, the only Rungholter survivor would have been.

In another version thatHistory is entweiht in place of the Oblaten the communion cup of the minister. The liturgical use of a cup arose however only 200 years after the fall Rungholts, i.e. with the reformation in this area. Therefore it is some more more than legendto regard as the first legend.

Among the legends around Rungholt it ranks also that in calm weather its bells under the water surface are to be heard and that the city emerges intact every seven years in the Johannisnacht from the earth. Vineta against it one wants to hear the bells in stormy weather.

The poet Detlev of Liliencron set during his stay in Husum in his song „Trutz, for bright Hans “(Heut I drove over Rungholt, the city went downbefore five hundred years) of the city a poetic monument. It exaggerated however the meaning of the place excessively. The today's admittingness of the place in completely Germany decreases/goes back mainly to its Ballade; zuvor war Rungholt nur eine lokale Legende. Throughthe finds by the way it became also clear that from Liliencron over Rungholt did not drive. Rather it was distant one from it lying sand bank, „the Rungholtsand “. A confirmation experiences this statement by Liliencrons diary notes. With the passage with a ferry ofHe heard Husum after Pellworm of the Rungholt legend, which he used then as motive for one of his seals.

2001

the film developed for media „the fall of Rungholt “from Victoria Schwartz and racing mash Hirthe. The Filmcollage tells thoseHistory Rungholts on the occasion of a Segeltörns of three persons, who make themselves on search of the traces of the gone down Rungholts.

That Hamburg composer Jakob Vinje became lively by the legend the Oratorium for choir, speaker and orchestra „Rungholt “. Beside the textsby Heinrich and Liliencron he used for it lyric poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke, Theodor Storm, Heinrich Heine and Theodor Fontane.

See also: Atlantis (Platon), Vineta, wave men, list of mythologischer places

literature

  • Rudolf Muuss, Rungholt. Ruins under the Friesenhallig. Westphal, Luebeck 1934, 80 S., 19 S. Ill.
  • Andreas's shrubs, new observations in the Rungholt Watt in the year 1935. Special edition out „the homeland “, No. 3, March 1936, Wachholtz, new cathedral
  • Jörn Hagemeister, Rungholt. Legend and reality, Publishing house H. Lührs and Dircks, sank Peter Ording 1980, 56 S., 15 fig., 1 map, 9 designs.ISBN 3-921416-10-8
  • Kari Köster, the last days of Rungholt - historical novel, cunning publishing house, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-471-79347-X
  • Hans harsh ore Henningsen, Rungholt- the way into the disaster. Ascent, bloom time and fall of an important medieval place in Nordfriesland. Volume I. Husum pressure and publishing house company 2002, 152 S., zahlr. z. T. color. Fig. ISBN 3-88042-853-0
  • Hans harsh ore Henningsen, Rungholt - the way into thoseDisaster. Volume II. Husum pressure and publishing house company 2000, 160 S., zahlr. z. T. color. Fig. , Heut
  • I drove ISBN 3-88042-934-0 Helga Ramge (Hrsg.) over Rungholt. The most beautiful Balladen from north and East Frisia. Husum pressure and publishing house company 2002, 111 S. ISBN 3-88042-787-9
  • Hans's Peter Duerr, Rungholt. The search for a sunk city, island publishing house, Frankfurt A.M. 2005, 768 S. ISBN 3-458-17274-2
  • Derek master, Rungholts honour. Historical detective story row, Blanvalet publishing house, Munich 2005, 536 S. ISBN 3-442-36310-1
  • Hans Harro Hansen, ofPlow to university medal. Life and working [Rungholtfor] Andreas's shrubs, Nordfriisk Institut, Bredstedt 2005

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Coordinates: 54° 28 ' N, 8° 43 ' O

 

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